FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Privilege (canon law)

Privilege in canon law is the legal concept whereby someone is exempt from the ordinary operation of the law for some specific purpose. In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ...


Papal privileges resembled dispensations, since both involved exceptions to the ordinary operations of the law. But whereas “dispensations exempt[ed] some person or group from legal obligations binding on the rest of the population or class to which they belong,” (James A. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law 161 (Longman 1995); Decretum Gratiani, D 3 c. 3) “[p]rivileges bestowed a positive favour not generally enjoyed by most people.” “Thus licences to teach or to practise law or medicine, for example,”(Brundage at 60) were “legal privileges, since they confer[red] upon recipients the right to perform certain functions for pay, which the rest of the population [was] not [permitted to exercise.]” (James A. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law 161 (Longman 1995) at 160-161) Yet, such licenses might also involve what should properly be termed dispensation, if they waived canon law requirement that an individual hold a particular qualification to practice law or medicine, as, for example, a degree. Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. ... Dispensation is the act of an authority making an exception to laws, standards, or customs. ... Dispensation is the act of an authority making an exception to laws, standards, or customs. ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... Law (from the late Old English lagu of probable North Germanic origin) in politics and jurisprudence, is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate, proscribe or permit specified relationships among people and organizations, intended to provide methods for ensuring the impartial treatment of such people, and provide... Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining human health or restoring it through the treatment of disease and injury. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ...


The distinction between privilege and dispensation was not always clearly observed, and the term dispensation rather than privilege was used, even when the nature of the act made it clearly a privilege. Indeed, medieval canonists treated privileges and dispensations as distinct, though related, aspects of the law. Privileges and indults were both special favours. Some writers hold that the former are positive favours, while indults are negative (Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, Joseph Michael O’Hara & Francis Brennan, Canon Law 477-486 (2d ed., Newman Bookshop 1947)). The pope might confer a degree as a positive privilege in his capacity as a temporal sovereign, or he might do so by way of dispensation from the strict requirements of the canon law. In both cases his authority to do so was found in the canon law. The pope’s powers as a temporal sovereign are recognised in the Roman Catholic Code of Canon Law 1983. In practice matters of education are dealt with though the hierarchy of the Church, rather than through that of Vatican City State, the residual part of the Papal States. Dispensation is the act of an authority making an exception to laws, standards, or customs. ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Catholic Church, which considers him the Successor of St. ... Look up Sovereign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The adjective sovereign is used to refer to a state of sovereignty. ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... The State of the City of the Vatican or the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae, Italian Stato della Città del Vaticano) is the smallest independent state in the world (both in area and in population), a landlocked enclave surrounded by the city of Rome in Italy. ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) was one of the major historical states of Italy before the boot-shaped peninsula was unified under the Piedmontese crown of Savoy (later a republic). ...


In some instances petitioners sought an academic degree because without one they could not hold a particular office. Canons of certain cathedrals and Westminster Abbey were still required to be degree-holders until recent times. The Dean of Westminster Abbey was required to be a doctor or bachelor of divinity as recently as the late twentieth century (W.R. Pullen, "The Constitution of the Collegiate Church’ in the Revd. Edward Carpenter; A House of Kings 455 (London Baker 1966)). In these cases, conferring the status of a graduate is the granting of a privilege, in that the recipient has received a positive favour not generally enjoyed by most people, but it also acted as a dispensation with the requirements of the canon law. Still, however they were justified, in canon law, the conferral of degrees or degree status gave substantial and substantive rights and privileges, and were not merely empty honours. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... A canon (from the Latin canonicus and Greek κανωνικωσ relating to a rule) is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to a rule (canon). ... A Cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, which serves as the central church of a bishopric. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to as Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral, in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... In religious terminology, a dean is a title accorded to persons holding cartain positions of authority within a religious heirarchy. ... A Bachelor of Divinity (BD or BDiv) is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a courses taken in the study of divinity or related disciplines, such as theology or, rarely, religious studies. ...


In the event of degree status being conferred, the recipient was not deemed to hold the degree in question, but would enjoy any privileges which might be attached to such a degree—including qualification for office. Conferring the degree itself would of course would mean that the recipient enjoyed the style and not merely the privileges of a degree. They might also, for example, be thereafter admitted or incorporated to the same degree ad eundum at Oxford or Cambridge—though few seem to have been so distinguished. It was however often difficult to be certain whether the degree itself, or merely its status and privileges, which was being conferred. Given the ostensible purpose of the papal dispensatory jurisdiction, it would perhaps be more logical to view all of these “degrees” as strictly degree-status, and not substantive degrees. But the medieval—if not indeed modern—concept of the degree is of a grade or status. One achieves the status of master or doctor, which is conferred by one’s university (or in rare cases, by the pope). It is not an award, but the recognition of a certain degree of learning. It is perhaps significant that in the records of the (post-Reformation) Court of Faculties, the early “Lambeth degrees” are described in terms of dispensation to enjoy the privilege of DCL or whatever the degree might be (20 September 1537, Thomas Tasshe, BCL, dispensation to enjoy the privilege, etc. of a DCL, £4 (F I/Vv, fo. 175v); David Chamber, Faculty Office Registers, 1534-1549: A Calendar of the First Two Registers of the Archbishop of Canterbury’s Faculty Office 121 (Clarendon Press 1966)). An ad eundem degree is a courtesy degree awarded by one university or college to an alumnus of another. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge (often called Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... In law, jurisdiction from the Latin jus, juris meaning law and dicere meaning to speak, is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted body or to a person to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master, and doctor) in a variety of subjects. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Under English ecclesiastical law, the Court of Faculties is the tribunal of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and is attached to the office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Lambeth degrees are awarded by the Archbishop of Canterbury, under the authority of the Ecclesiastical Licences Act 1533 (25 Hen VIII c 21) (Eng). ... DCL may be: Darc-contest-logbook Data Center Linux Data Control Language Dialog Control Language DIGITAL Command Language Distributed Control Lab Doctor of Civil Law Double-checked locking Double Choco Latte Disney Cruise Line Also, an abbreviation for Deep Creek Lake, Maryland. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ...


The exercise of the authority to confer such a privilege was often a positive step by the pope to emphasise his spiritual, if not temporal, authority. During the fifteenth century, attempts were made in England to restrict the exercise of papal power in opposition to the Statute of Provisors 1351 (25 Edw. 3, c. 22 (Eng.)). To evade the disabilities imposed by that Act on non-graduates, it became usual towards the end of the century for those clerics not educated at English universities to obtain dispensations from Rome, including, in a few cases, degrees (Rt. Revd. William Stubbs, "Lambeth Degrees" 1 Gentleman’s Magazine & Historical Rev. 633 (May 1864)). These were positive favours not generally enjoyed by most people, and that they were dispensing with the requirements of the canon law was a secondary consideration. They were also exercised for the good of the individual as well as the good of the church. The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Catholic Church, which considers him the Successor of St. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my [birth]right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked... A cleric is: A member of the clergy of a religion, especially one that has trained or ordained priests, preachers, or other religious professionals; or A member of a character class in Dungeons & Dragons and similar fantasy role-playing games. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m