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Encyclopedia > Privatization in Iran

According to the Fourth Five-Year Economic Development Plan (2005-2010), the Privatization Organization of Iran affiliated to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance is in charge of setting prices and ceding shares to the general public and on the stock market. A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ...


In 2007, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei requested that government officials speed up implementation of the policies outlined in the amendment of Article 44, and move towards economic privatization. Khamenei also suggested that ownership rights should be protected in courts set up by the Justice Ministry; the hope was that this new protection would give an additional measure of security and encourage private investment.[1][2][3] 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای) (born July 15, 1939) is the Iran. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The current privatization effort calls for an initial public offering (IPO) of five percent of the firms being privatized. Once the five percent is public, it will establish a market price which further offerings can be based on.[4] According to a study conducted by the IMF in 18 countries, privatization adds 2 percent to the government’s GDP per annum. [5] This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An initial public offering (IPO) is the first sale of a corporations common shares to investors on a public stock exchange. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

The Iranian Constitution

Iran Portal

According to the Article 44 of the Iranian Constitution, the economy of Iran is to consist of three sectors: state, cooperative, and private; and is to be based on systematic and sound planning. Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The economy of Iran has been improving steadily over the past two decades but a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%. According to experts, annual economic growth above five per... For cooperative as used in biochemistry, see cooperative binding. ... This box:      A planned economy is an economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services. ...

  • The state sector is to include all large-scale industries, foreign trade, major minerals, banking, insurance, power generation, dams and large-scale irrigation networks, radio and television, post, telegraph and telephone services, aviation, shipping, roads, railroads and the like; all these will be publicly owned and administered by the State.
  • The cooperative sector is to include cooperative companies (Bonyad) and enterprises concerned with production and distribution, in urban and rural areas, in accordance with Islamic criteria.
  • The private sector consists of those activities concerned with construction, agriculture, animal husbandry, industry, trade, and services that supplement the economic activities of the state and cooperative sectors.

A strict interpretation of the above has never been enforced in the Islamic Republic and the private sector has been able to play a much larger role than is outlined in the Constitution. In recent years, the role of the private sector has been further on the increase. Furthermore, an amendment of the article in 2004 has allowed 80 percent of state assets to be privatized (ref: Note C, article 44 of Constitution).[6] Bonyads are Iranian charitable trusts that control over 40% of Irans GDP. Initially set up during the time of the Shah, they were used to funnel money into the Shahs personal coffers. ... In recent years, Irans construction market has been thriving due to an increase in national and international investment to the extent that it is now the largest in the Middle East region. ...


Background

Immediately following Iranian Revolution in 1979 and the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war over 80% of Iran's economy came under the control of the government. This created numerous problems for Iran as previously internationally competitive companies, such as Iran Air or Iran Khodro, degraded into basic domestic companies that could barely function without massive government subsidies. 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution After Islamic Conquest  Modern (SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic) Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4... Iran Air is the flag carrier airline of Iran, based in Tehran. ... It has been suggested that Iran National be merged into this article or section. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ...


After the Iran-Iraq war in 1988, the Iranian government declared its intention to privatize most state industries in an effort to stimulate the ailing economy. The sale of state-owned factories and companies proceeded slowly, however (mostly because of the opposition in Majlis), and most industries remained state-owned in the early 21st century (70% of the economy as of 2006). The majority of heavy industry —including steel, petrochemicals, copper, automobiles, and machine tools— was in the public sector, while most light industry was privately owned. Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4... The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ...


In 2004, under the presidency of Mohammad Khatami a number of efforts were made to eliminate the role of the government: The Tehran Stock Exchange was re-launched allowing a mechanism by which to sell shares of government companies, elements of the constitution (article 44) which decreed that core-infrastructure should remain state run was eliminated,[7] and private banks were launched. shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... Tehran Stock Exchange (July 2004) // History The idea of having a well-organized stock market and to speed up the process of industrialization of the country dates back to 1930s when Bank Melli Iran started a study about the subject. ...


Despite plans to sell billions worth of state assets to the private sector, uptake was very slow. A common criticism of the privitisation effort by investors was the only local Iranian organisations that are capable of buying the large share blocks are themselves government owned. Also analysts have blamed international fears about the Iranian nuclear programme and an absence of transparency and information reporting for the lack of enthusiasm for state assets. In 2005, Iran tried to sell $2.5bn of government assets but only managed to offload less than 30 per cent.[8] Privatization (alternately denationalization or disinvestment) is the transfer of property or responsibility from the public sector (government) to the private sector (business). ... This article is about Irans nuclear power programme. ... See: transparency (optics) alpha compositing GIF#Transparency transparency (overhead projector) market transparency transparency (telecommunication) transparency (computing) For X11 pseudo-transparency, see pseudo-transparency. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Central Bank of Iran indicate that 70 percent of the Iranians own homes [9], with huge amounts of idle money entering the housing market. However, if the stock market grows stronger, it will undoubtedly attract idle capital.[10] Bank Markazi, Tehran, Iran Bank Markazi Iran or Bank Markazi Jomhouri Islami Iran (Persian: بانک مرکزی جمهوری اسلامی ايران) is the Central bank of Iran. ... Real estate economics is the application of economic techniques to real estate markets. ...


In July 2006, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei decreed a renewed effort to privatise the economy and said in his order that “ceding 80 per cent of the shares of large companies will serve to bring about economic development, social justice and the elimination of poverty”. The decree is also an effort to revive Iran’s stalled privatization programme and kick-start the country’s many uncompetitive industries, which are heavily protected by subsidies.[11] For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای) (born July 15, 1939) is the Iran. ... Economic development is a sustainable increase in living standards that implies increased per capita income, better education and health as well as environmental protection. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ...


"Justice shares" plan

See also: Bonyad

The government has approved a plan to offer shares to low-income families, starting with the poorest. Under the “Justice Shares“ plan, millions of Iranian families will receive shares in state-owned firms, the value of which will be reimbursed in 20 years from the dividends generated by those shares. The holding period for those shares is a minimum of 2 years. The project is in line with President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad’s election promise to improve the condition of Iran’s poor. Ahmadinejad in July 2005 promised to distribute shares to Iranian families, adding that these shares would be from state-run companies that must be privatized.[12] Bonyads are Iranian charitable trusts that control over 40% of Irans GDP. Initially set up during the time of the Shah, they were used to funnel money into the Shahs personal coffers. ... Restricted stock is an equity instrument that is not fully transferable until certain conditions have ben met. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Those covered by charity services rendered by the Imam Khomeini Relief Committee and the State Welfare Organizations as well as the jobless war veterans are prioritized in the first phase of the justice shares initiative. In the second phase, rural population and tribesmen will receive the shares.


Directives on identifying those eligible to receive justice shares (in the second phase) have been issued and the shares will be distributed (among the rural residents and the tribesmen) after receiving their national code number. Up to 6.5 million rural residents who qualify for the shares have been identified and that 1.2 million more people are yet to complete their documents. The Government is promoting the shareholding culture in Iran. The total number of shareholders has reached 700,000 people and this figure is expected to reach 24-25 million. In December 2006, the Government informed that some 4.6 million low-income Iranians had received Justice shares worth $2.5 billion as part of the privatization scheme. Each person received around $550 in shares with a maximum of 5 payments for each family.[13] For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Iranian expatriates role

See also: Iranian citizens abroad

Privatization drive will gain momentum once Iranian expatriates begin to invest in their motherland. Iranian nationals residing abroad hold significant assets, stressing that many invested their capital in other countries following the 1979 Islamic Revolution and the 1980-1988 war. Statistics at hand suggest that close to $10 billion (of goods) were re-exported into Iran last year. Multinational companies, particularly Iranian firms, are involved in export of goods into the country from Dubai. There are differing estimates of the expatriates’ total capital (1.3 trillion dollars [14]), but what is clear is that it is so huge that it will be enough to buy shares of all state companies. In Dubai alone, Iranian expatriates are estimated to have invested up to $200 billion.[15] If 10 percent of this capital arrives, things will change drastically in Iran.[16] Iranian Diaspora Population map. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4... A multinational corporation (MNC) or multinational enterprise (MNE) or transnational corporation (TNC) or multinational organization (MNO) is a corporation/enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... Coordinates: Emirate Dubai Government  - Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Area [1]  - Metro 4,114 km² (1,588. ... Iranian Diaspora Population map. ...


Foreign investment

See also: Foreign Direct Investment in Iran and Tehran Stock Exchange

Foreign investors can bid in Iranian privatisation tenders, but need permission from the Economy Ministry on a case-by-case basis.[17] A subsidiary of Iran's largest bank, Melli Investment Bank with branches in Dubai, UAE, plans to launch a fund of up to $300 million to invest in Tehran's Stock Exchange, providing an alternative venue for foreigners to have an exposure to the Iranian economy. The market, with a capitalisation of $37 billion, is trading at a fraction of the earnings multiples enjoyed by Iran's neighbours, while average earnings continue to grow at about 25 per cent a year. The fund will be composed of blue chip companies like Iran Khodro and will be based in the Cayman Island but will be managed from Iran.[18] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Tehran Stock Exchange (July 2004) // History The idea of having a well-organized stock market and to speed up the process of industrialization of the country dates back to 1930s when Bank Melli Iran started a study about the subject. ... Bank Melli Iran (BMI)also called the National Bank of Iran is an Iranian Bank. ... Coordinates: Emirate Dubai Government  - Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Area [1]  - Metro 4,114 km² (1,588. ... Institutional fund management is fund management conducted by large financial firms such as banks, insurance companies and major investment organisations (e. ... Irans economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures. ... A blue chip stock is the stock of a well-established company having stable earnings and no extensive liabilities. ... It has been suggested that Iran National be merged into this article or section. ...


Top 100 Iranian companies

See also: List of Major Iranian Companies

Based on financial statements for March 2005-06, the ’100 top Iranian corporations’ were ranked and announced in a conference in early 2007. According to the economic expert in charge of the rankings, the main index considered was the sales of companies because “Sales figure indicates the growth of a corporation“. This page lists all the major Iranian companies operating inside and outside of Iran. ...


According to the same survey, while 67 percent of the firms have experienced a decline in profit margin, car manufacturers, cement factories, investment institutions and banks have had an increase in the same index. The Iranian year March 2005-06 was a good year for these industries.


Meanwhile, the Persian daily Ettelaat named the top five corporations as follows: Industrial Development and Renovation Organization ranking first with an asset of 112,658 billion rials followed by Iran Khodro Industrial Group with an asset of 65,971 billion rials, Iran Mining Industries Development and Renovation Organization with 52,184 billion rials, Saipa car factory with 40,528 billion rials and National Iranian Petrochemical Company with 32,024 billion rials. They were followed by SAPCO, Bank Melli Iran, Bank Saderat Iran, Mobarakeh Steel Co. and Bank Mellat taking the sixth to tenth positions. Industrial development and Renovation Organization of Iran (IDRO) was established in 1967 to develop the industry sector and to accelerate the industrialization process of the country. ... It has been suggested that Iran National be merged into this article or section. ... SaiPa is a Finnish ice hockey team playing in SM-liiga based at Kisapuisto (capacity 4847), Lappeenranta. ... The National Iranian Petrochemical Company (NIPC), a subsidiary to the Iranian Petroleum Ministry, is owned by the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Bank Melli Iran (BMI)also called the National Bank of Iran is an Iranian Bank. ... Bank Saderat Iran is an Iranian Bank. ... Mobarakeh Steel is one of the largest industrial complex in Iran and has been established and commissioned after the revolution and entered into operational stage in early 1993. ... Bank Mellat is an Iranian bank. ...


The assets of the top 100 Iranian corporations add up to $86 billion which is less than that of a corporation such as Microsoft.[19] But this does not account for goodwill (accounting) that should increase the real assets value to more than a trillion dollar. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... In accounting, goodwill is an accounting term used to reflect the portion of the market value of a business entity not directly attributable to its assets and liabilities; it normally arises only in case of an acquisition. ... In finance, valuation is the process of estimating the market value of a financial asset or liability. ...


Companies listed for privatization

Of 1,000 companies awaiting the cabinet’s approval, 240 companies have gotten the green light to be privatized by March 2008. [20]


Banks

Most smaller state banks will be open to flotation, but excluded key banks including the Central Bank of Iran, Bank Melli Iran, Sepah Bank of Iran, Bank of Industry and Mines, Bank of Agriculture, Housing Bank (Bank Maskan) and the Export Development Bank of Iran. Bank Markazi, Tehran, Iran Bank Markazi Iran or Bank Markazi Jomhouri Islami Iran (Persian: بانک مرکزی جمهوری اسلامی ايران) is the Central bank of Iran. ... Bank Melli Iran (BMI)also called the National Bank of Iran is an Iranian Bank. ... Bank Sepah is an Iranian Bank. ...


Utilities

Mapna Company. Sahand, Bistoun, Shazand, Shahid Montazeri, Tous, Shahid Rajaei and Neishabour power stations are among the profit-making plants, work on privatizing them will be finalized by late March 2007.[21] MAPNA Profile Iran Power Plant Projects Management Co. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Mines & Materials

See also: Mining in Iran

National Iranian Copper Industries Co.(NICICO), Mobarakeh Steel Co. Company, Khuzestan Steel Company, Isfahan Steel Mills, Iralco and Iranian Aluminium Company, Ehdas Sanat Company (ESC) are all candidates for privatization.[22] The Privatization Organization of Iran has announced that Iranian Aluminium Co. and Bushehr Cement Co. will be privatized in June 2007.[23] Iran’s mining industry is under-developed. ... Mobarakeh Steel is one of the largest industrial complex in Iran and has been established and commissioned after the revolution and entered into operational stage in early 1993. ... Iranian Aluminium Company (IrAlCo) is an Iranian aluminium manufacturing company. ...


Transport

See also: Transport in Iran

As planned, all airline companies except for Civil Aviation Organisation as well as Ports and Shipping Organisation should be ceded to the people. This covers flag carrier Iran Air and its affiliate Iran Aseman Airlines. The fast-growing Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines has also been lobbying for more independence.[24] Major routes and railways of Iran Iran has an extensive paved road system linking most of its towns and all of its cities. ... Iran Air is the flag carrier airline of Iran, based in Tehran. ... Iran Aseman Airlines is an airline based in Tehran, Iran. ... The maritime fleet of the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL Group) comprises of 115 ocean-going vessels with the total capacity of 3. ...


Telecommunication

See also: Communications in Iran

In 2006, the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology announced that it will float the shares of affiliated companies such as Mobile Telecommunications Company in the stock market.[25] The government runs the broadcast media, which includes three national radio stations and two national television networks, as well as dozens of local radio and television stations. ...


Under the general policies of Article 44, telecom companies are categorized in four groups as follows:

  • Group One: Among the 30 provincial telecom networks, the fixed telecom networks pertain to those of Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Hamedan, Ahvaz, Khorasan Razavi, Khuzestan and East Azarbaijan. The first group concerns fixed line telecom networks, including those in the public sector with 30 subsidiary telecom networks in provinces. The non-governmental sector includes companies such as Iraphone, Novin, Zahi Kish, Kouh-e Nour, Montazeran Adlgostar and Pouya Ertebat with each having hundreds of thousands of subscribers.
  • Group Two: The second group concerns mobile telephone networks. In the public sector, they include the Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI). In the non-governmental sector, they include telecommunications companies such as Omran Kish, Isfahan, Rafsanjan Complex and Irancell. Privatization Organization has forecast that shares of Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI) will be floated in the stock market by late September 2007.[26]
  • Group Three: There is only one public network in the data network sector, namely Data and Telecommunications Company of Iran which is considered a basic telecom network in terms of mobile networks and Shomal IT Company. In the non-governmental sector, there are over 100 companies with a shared data network.
  • Group Four: The subsidiary telecom network named Subsidiary Telecommunications Company is another basic telecom network. They are completely owned by the state and not targeted for privatization.

In March 2007, TCI and its provincial affiliated companies received the Government's permission to be privatized. TCI's Infrastructure Telecom Company will be detached from it and it would continue its activities as a part of the ICT Ministry.[27] Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI) was established in 1971 with a new organizational structure as the main responsible administration for the entire telecommunication affairs, and Iran Telecommunication Industries (ITI) was also founded in the same year to manufacture the required equipment for the national long-distance network. ... MTN Irancell is a Iran-based national mobile telecommunications company, operating in Iran. ... Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI) was established in 1971 with a new organizational structure as the main responsible administration for the entire telecommunication affairs, and Iran Telecommunication Industries (ITI) was also founded in the same year to manufacture the required equipment for the national long-distance network. ... Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI) was established in 1971 with a new organizational structure as the main responsible administration for the entire telecommunication affairs, and Iran Telecommunication Industries (ITI) was also founded in the same year to manufacture the required equipment for the national long-distance network. ...


Oil, Gas & Petrochemicals

See also: Ministry of Petroleum of Iran
  • The Supreme Leader said the downstream oil and gas sectors would be privatised but excluded the upstream oil and gas industry, the National Iranian Oil Company, the state companies involved in exploration and the production of crude oil and gas. Some shares will be dual-listed on regional foreign stock exchanges to attract expatriate investors. A list of 21 companies to be privatized will be released by mid-2007.[28] [29]
  • Iran’s National Petrochemical Company (NPC) plans also to privatize 17 companies by the end of 2007.[30]. 40% of those shares will go to "Justice Shares" for underprivileged citizens in Iran. 20% will be allocated to NPC. 35% will be put on sale on the Tehran Stock Exchange and the remaining 5% will go the Petrochemical Industry personnel. The 20 percent allocated to the NPC is meant to support petrochemical industry projects but may be offered to the private sector in the future.[31]

The Iranian constitution prohibits the granting of petroleum rights on a concessionary basis or direct equity stake. ... The National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), under the direction of the Ministry of Petroleum of Iran, is an oil and natural gas producer and distributor headquartered in Tehran. ... Iranian Diaspora Population map. ... The National Iranian Petrochemical Company (NIPC), a subsidiary to the Iranian Petroleum Ministry, is owned by the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ http://www.iranmania.com/News/ArticleView/Default.asp?NewsCode=46162&NewsKind=Current%20Affairs
  5. ^ [4]
  6. ^ [5]
  7. ^ [6]
  8. ^ [7]
  9. ^ [8]
  10. ^ http://iran-daily.com/1385/2740/html/economy.htm
  11. ^ [9]
  12. ^ http://iran-daily.com/1384/2456/html/national.htm
  13. ^ [10]
  14. ^ http://www.iran-daily.com/1385/2781/html/economy.htm
  15. ^ [11]
  16. ^ [12]
  17. ^ http://www.ft.com/cms/s/18c6aeee-0ab0-11db-b595-0000779e2340.html
  18. ^ Financial Times: Iran fund opens bourse to foreign investors
  19. ^ http://iran-daily.com/1385/2792/html/economy.htm
  20. ^ http://mehrnews.com/en/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=505313
  21. ^ [13]
  22. ^ http://iran-daily.com/1386/2836/html/economy.htm
  23. ^ http://mehrnews.com/en/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=499222
  24. ^ http://www.ft.com/cms/s/18c6aeee-0ab0-11db-b595-0000779e2340.html
  25. ^ Iran-Daily: Privatization of Telecom Companies
  26. ^ http://www.iran-daily.com/1386/2859/html/economy.htm#s232485
  27. ^ [14]
  28. ^ http://iran-daily.com/1386/2836/html/economy.htm
  29. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/07/jun/1187.html
  30. ^ http://mehrnews.com/en/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=496430
  31. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/07/jun/1152.html

See also

This page lists all the major Iranian companies operating inside and outside of Iran. ... Tehran Stock Exchange (July 2004) // History The idea of having a well-organized stock market and to speed up the process of industrialization of the country dates back to 1930s when Bank Melli Iran started a study about the subject. ... Roughly one-fourth of Irans labour force is engaged in manufacturing and construction. ... A Map of the nations in the list. ... The economy of Iran has been improving steadily over the past two decades but a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%. According to experts, annual economic growth above five per...

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