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Encyclopedia > Privateer

A privateer was a private warship authorized by a country's government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping. Strictly, a privateer was only entitled to attack enemy vessels during wartime. However, states often encouraged attacks on opposing powers while at peace, or on neutral vessels during time of war, blurring the line between privateering and piracy. Privateer may refer to Privateer, a pirate operating on behalf of a government Privateer (motorsport), a motorsport term PB4Y Privateer, a naval version of the B-24 Liberator bomber Wing Commander: Privateer and its expansion pack Privateer: Righteous Fire, a video game Privateers (The West Wing), an episode of The... A letter of marque and reprisal was an official warrant or commission from a national government authorizing the designated agent to search, seize, or destroy specified assets or personnel belonging to a party which had committed some offense under the laws of nations against the assets or citizens of the... This article is about maritime piracy. ...


Privateers were an accepted part of naval warfare from the 16th to the 19th centuries, authorised by all significant naval powers. The costs of commissioning privateers was borne by investors hoping to gain a significant return from prize money earned from enemy merchants. Generally, prize money is a monetary prize that is given to the winner of a competition. ...

Contents

The role of privateers

A privateer was a private warship authorised by a national government. At the time, many merchant vessels were armed with cannons, and naval officers and ratings expected to benefit from prize money if they captured an enemy ship. The privateer was distinguished by the legal framework it operated in—authorised to attack enemy shipping and be treated as prisoners of war if captured. If war was not declared, or if the privateer preyed on neutral shipping, the privateer might well be treated as a pirate by the enemy. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


A privateer was an early sort of commerce raider, interrupting enemy trade. Privateers were of great benefit to a smaller naval power, or one facing an enemy dependent on trade: they disrupted commerce and hence enemy tax revenue, and forced the enemy to deploy warships to protect merchant trade. Privateering was a way of mobilizing armed ships and sailors without spending public money or commissioning naval officers. Commerce raiding or guerre de course is a naval strategy of attacking an opponents commercial shipping rather than contending for control of the seas with its naval forces. ...


Law, discipline, and the edge of piracy

Being privately owned and run, privateers did not take orders from the naval command. Often privateers were required to limit their activity to an agreed area or the ships of an agreed nation by their letter of marque. Often the owners or captain would be required to post a bond against breaching these conditions, or they might be liable to pay damages to an injured party. The French, in the Napoleonic Wars, destroyed letters of marque belonging to returning captains. In the United Kingdom, letters of marque were revoked for offences like piracy, or firing on a warship's boat. For the Patrick OBrian novel, see The Letter of Marque. ...


Conditions on board privateers varied widely. Some crews were treated as harshly as naval crews of the time, while others followed the comparatively relaxed rules of merchant ships. Some crews were made up of professional merchant seamen, others of pirates, debtors and convicts.


Some privateers ended up becoming pirates, not just in the eyes of their enemies but also of their own nations. William Kidd, for instance, began as a legitimate British privateer but was later hanged for piracy. For the musician, orchestrator, and composer, see William Kidd (composer). ...


The ships

Any type of vessel could become a privateer. The largest were of the same size and power as small frigates, while the smallest might be a 4-gun schooner. Some were built as warships: an old or unwanted warship might be sold off to privateer, and a privateer might, if captured by a warship, be commissioned into regular service. Others were essentially merchantmen; some vessels were long-range merchants making their regular trade routes but armed and ready to take advantage of any prize that might come their way. For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... Two-masted fishing schooner A schooner (IPA: ) is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. ...


Privateers generally cruised independently, but it was not unknown for them to form squadrons, or to co-operate with the regular navy. A number of privateers were part of the English fleet that opposed the 1588 Spanish Armada. In fact, the early English attempts to settle North America, under the mandate granted to Sir Walter Raleigh, failed in part because no English ships were permitted to leave England's shores during the lead up to the Armada, as all merchant vessels were considered as having a potential part to play in England's naval defence (but this prevented the timely dispatch of relief to the New World settlement). The United States used mixed squadrons of frigates and privateers in the War of Independence. Following the French Revolution, French privateers became a menace to British and American shipping in the western Atlantic and the Caribbean, resulting in the Quasi-War, a brief conflict between France and the United States, fought largely at sea, and to the Royal Navy's procuring Bermuda sloops to combat the French privateers. [1] Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ... Lost Colony redirects here. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1801. ... 1831 painting of a three-masted Bermuda sloop of the Royal Navy, entering a West Indies port. ...


History of privateering

England and the United Kingdom

England, and later the United Kingdom, used privateers to great effect and suffered much from other nations' privateering. Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy...


Privateering on the Spanish Main

In the late 16th century, British ships cruised in the Caribbean and off the coast of Spain, trying to intercept treasure fleets from the Spanish Main. The English government felt this was justified by the Spanish Armada seizing the ships of Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins, who were trying to sell West African slaves to Spanish colonies, where that activity was illegal. A treasure fleet is being loaded with riches. ... The Spanish Man was a name given to the Caribbean coast of the Spanish Empire in mainland Central and South America. ... Sir Francis Drake, c. ... Sir John Hawkins (1532 - November 12, 1595) was an English navigator. ...


At this early stage the idea of a regular navy (the Royal Navy, as distinct from the Merchant Navy) was not present, so there is little to distinguish this activity from regular naval warfare. The privateering certainly had the support of Elizabeth I, who on occasion lent ships to or bought shares in expeditions. Attacking Spanish ships was part of a policy of aggressive competition with Spain, and helped provoke the first Anglo-Spanish War. Capturing a Spanish treasure ship would enrich the Crown as well as striking a practical blow against Spanish domination of America and a spiritual blow against Catholicism. the well known privateer Magnus Heinason served the dutch against the Spanish. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... For the steam locomotives, see SR Merchant Navy Class. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts the battle of Gravelines. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a... Magnus Heinason (1545) - (18 Jan 1589), was a Faroese and a son of Heine havrèkke a norse preist that emigrated to the islands, naval hero, trader and privateer. ...


While bringing home a great deal of money, these attacks hardly dented the flow of gold and silver from Mexico to Spain. More treasure reached Spain in the period 1585-1603 than at any other time in history.


Elizabeth was succeeded by the first Stuart monarchs, James I and Charles I, who did not permit privateering. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ...


The Anglo-Dutch Wars

In the first Anglo-Dutch War, English privateers attacked the trade on which the United Provinces entirely depended, capturing over 1,000 Dutch merchant ships, more than double the number of the English merchant fleet at the start of the war. During the subsequent war with Spain, Spanish privateers, including many based in Dunkirk, captured 1,500 English merchants, restoring Dutch international trade. British trade, whether coastal, Atlantic or Mediterranean, was also attacked by Dutch privateers and others in the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch wars. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Anglo-Spanish War, caused by commercial rivalry, was fought between the Spanish between 1654 and 1660. ... For other uses of Dunkirk or Dunkerque, see Dunkirk (disambiguation). ...


The eighteenth century

During the Nine Years War, the French adopted a policy of strongly encouraging privateers, including the famous Jean Bart, to attack English and Dutch shipping. England lost roughly 4,000 merchant ships during the war. In the following War of Spanish Succession, privateer attacks continued, Britain losing 3,250 merchantmen and with Dunkirk privateers alone seizing 959 prizes. The scale of losses meant that Parliament passed an updated Cruisers and Convoys Act in 1708 allocating regular warships to the defence to trade. The Nine Years War (also known as the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Grand Alliance, the Orleans War, the War of the Palatinian Succession, and the War of the English Succession) was a major war fought in Europe and America from 1688 to 1697, between... Jean Bart (October 21, 1651 - April 27, 1702) was a French naval commander of the 17th century. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ...


In the subsequent conflict, the War of Austrian Succession, the Royal Navy was able to concentrate more on defending British ships. Britain lost 3,238 merchantmen, a smaller fraction of her merchant marine than the enemy losses of 3,434. While French losses were proportionally severe, the smaller, but better protected Spanish trade suffered less and it was Spanish privateers who enjoyed much of the allied plunder of British trade on both sides of the Atlantic. The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748). ...


Famous British privateers

Probably the most famous British Privateer was Sir Francis Drake, particularly so in that he had such close contact with the sovereign. He was responsible for much damage to Spanish shipping, as well as attacks on Spanish settlements in the Americas in the 16th century. He also was instrumental in turning back the Spanish Armada from its attack on England. This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ...


Captain Christopher Newport led more attacks on Spanish shipping and settlements than any other English privateer. As a young man, Newport sailed with Sir Francis Drake in the daring attack on the Spanish fleet at Cadiz and participated in England’s defeat of the Spanish Armada. During the war with Spain, Newport seized fortunes of Spanish and Portuguese treasure in fierce sea battles in the West Indies as a privateer for Queen Elizabeth I. In 1590, after leading his men aboard an enemy ship off the coast of Cuba, his right arm was "strooken off", and Newport was referred to thereafter as, “Christopher Newport of the one hand.” In 1592, Newport captured the Portuguese, Madre de Deus "Mother of God." She was valued at £500,000, the most valuable prize captured during the Elizabethan privateering era. Christopher Newport (c. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


Sir Henry Morgan was one of the most famous of all Privateers. Operating out of Jamaica, he carried on an audacious war against Spanish interests in the region, often using cunning tactics. His operation was prone to excessive cruelty of those he captured, including torture to gain information about booty, and in one case using priests as human shields. Despite reproaches for some of his excesses, he was generally protected by Sir Thomas Modyford, the governor of Jamaica. He is probably most famous for the enormous amount of booty he took, as well as landing his privateers ashore and attacking land fortifications, including the sack of the city of Panama with only 1,400 crew. Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ... Colonel Sir Thomas Modyford, first Baronet (c. ...


Other British Privateers of note include Fortunatus Wright, Edward Collier, Sir John Hawkins, Sir Michael Geare and Sir Christopher Myngs. Notable British colonial privateers in Nova Scotia include Alexander Godfrey of the brig The Rover (privateering ship) and Joseph Barss of the schooner Liverpool Packet. The latter schooner captured over 50 American vessels during the War of 1812. Fortunatus Wright was an eighteenth-century English privateer. ... Edward Collier was an English buccaneer who served as Sir Henry Morgans second-in-command thoughout much of his expeditions against Spain during the mid-17th century. ... For other persons named John Hawkins, see John Hawkins (disambiguation). ... Sir Christopher Myngs (1625 - 1666), British admiral and pirate, came of a Norfolk family. ... Alexander Godfrey was born in Chatham, Massachusetts in 1768. ... The Rover was a privateering ship out of Liverpool, Nova Scotia. ... Joseph Barss (21 February 1776 in Liverpool, Nova Scotia – August 3, 1824 near Kentville, Nova Scotia) was a sea captain of the schooner Liverpool Packet, and was one of the most successful privateers on the North American Atlantic coast leading into the War of 1812. ... The Liverpool Packet was a privateer schooner from Liverpool, Nova Scotia which captured 50 American vessels in the War of 1812. ...


Bermudian privateering

Bermuda Gazette of 12 November, 1796, calling for privateering against Spain and its allies, and with advertisements for crew for two privateer vessels.

The English (now British) colony of Bermuda, settled accidentally in 1609, turned from a failed agricultural economy to the sea after the 1684 dissolution of the Somers Isles Company. With a total landmass of 21 square miles, and lacking any natural resources, other than the Bermuda cedar, the colonists applied themselves fully to the maritime trades, developing the speedy Bermuda sloop, which was well suited both to commerce and to commerce raiding. Bermudian merchant vessels turned to privateering at every opportunity, during the 18th Century, preying on the shipping of Spain, France and other nations during a series of wars. They typically left Bermuda with very large crews. This advantage in manpower was vital in seizing larger vessels, which themselves often lacked enough crewmembers to put up a strong defence. The extra crew men were also useful as prize crews for returning captured vessels. Despite close links to the American colonies (and the material aid provided the continental rebels in the form of a hundred barrels of stolen gunpowder), Bermudian privateers turned as aggressively on American shipping during the American War of Independence. An American naval captain, ordered to take his ship out of Boston Harbour to eliminate a pair of Bermudian privateering vessels, which had been picking off vessels missed by the Royal Navy, returned frustrated, saying the Bermudians sailed their ships two feet for every one of ours. The only attack on Bermuda during the war was carried out by two sloops captained by a pair of Bermudian-born brothers (they damaged a fort and spiked its guns before retreating). It greatly surprised the Americans to discover that the crews of Bermudian privateers included Black slaves, as, with limited manpower, Bermuda had legislated that a part of all Bermudian crews must be made up of Blacks. In fact, when the Bermudian privateer Regulator was captured, virtually all of her crew were found to be Black slaves. Authorities in Boston offered these men their freedom, but all 70 elected to be treated as Prisoners of War. Sent to New York on the sloop Duxbury, they seized the vessel and sailed it back to Bermuda. [2] The American War of 1812 was to be the encore of Bermudian privateering, which had died out after the 1790s, due partly to the build up of the naval base in Bermuda, which reduced the Admiralty's reliance on privateers in the western Atlantic, and partly to successful American legal suits, and claims for damages pressed against British privateers, a large portion of which were aimed squarely at the Bermudians. During the course of the American War of 1812, Bermudian privateers were to capture 298 ships (the total captures by all British naval and privateering vessels between the Great Lakes and the West Indies was 1,593 vessels). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 423 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (576 × 817 pixel, file size: 233 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The front page of the Bermuda Gazette, 12 November, 1796, which includes an exhortation by Henry Tucker, one of a line of notable Bermudians of that... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 423 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (576 × 817 pixel, file size: 233 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The front page of the Bermuda Gazette, 12 November, 1796, which includes an exhortation by Henry Tucker, one of a line of notable Bermudians of that... The Somers Isles Company was formed in 1615 to operate the English colony of the Somers Isles, alias the Islands of Bermuda, as a commercial venture. ... Binomial name Juniperus bermudiana L. The Bermuda cedar (Juniperus bermudiana) is a species of juniper tree native to the British overseas territory of Bermuda. ... 1831 painting of a three-masted Bermuda sloop of the Royal Navy, entering a West Indies port. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Storehouse Building, HMD Bermuda, Ireland Island, Bermuda. ...


The United States

The United States Constitution authorized the U.S. Congress to grant letters of marque and reprisal; the Confederate Constitution likewise authorized use of privateers. Robert Morris, the first American millionaire, partly became wealthy by privateering, and George Washington owned part of at least one privateer ship. The American government issued privateering licenses to merchant captains during the Revolutionary War due to the relatively small number of commissioned American naval vessels. The American privateers are thought to have seized up to 300 British ships. One of the more successful of these ships was the Prince de Neufchatel, once capturing nine British prizes in swift succession in the English Channel. Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The Confederate States Constitution The Constitution of the Confederate States of America was the supreme law of the Confederate States of America, as adopted on March 11, 1861 and in effect through the conclusion of the American Civil War. ... Robert Morris Robert Morris, Jr. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... The Prince de Neufchatel was a fast sailing United States schooner rigged privateer built in New York by Noah and Adam Brown in approximately 1812. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ...


During the War of 1812, the British attacked Essex, Connecticut, and burned the ships in the harbor, due to the construction of a number of privateers. Essex is a town in Middlesex County, Connecticut, United States. ...


The USA was not one of the initial signatories of 1856 Declaration of Paris, which outlawed privateering. However, the USA did offer to adopt its terms during the American Civil War, when the Confederates commissioned privateers from many nations. Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion...


The end of privateering

By the mid-19th Century, unregulated marine warfare fell out of fashion, perhaps due to the ever-increasing importance of maritime trade to neutral nations and perhaps due to the dominance of the sea (for the time being) by the British.


There were a number of unilateral and bilateral declarations limiting piracy between 1785 and 1823. However, the breakthrough came in 1856 when the Declaration of Paris signed by all major European powers stated "Privateering is and remains abolished". The USA did not sign because a stronger amendment, preventing all private property from capture at sea, was not accepted. In the 19th century many nations passed laws forbidding their nationals from accepting commissions as privateers for other nations. The Declaration of Paris from April 16, 1856 was issued to abolish privateering. ...


The last major power to flirt with privateering was Prussia in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War, when Prussia announced the creation of a 'volunteer navy' of ships privately owned and manned, eligible for prize money. The only difference between this and privateering was that these volunteer ships were under the discipline of the regular navy. For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000...


Famous privateers

The Victual Brothers resp. ... Gödeke Michels (d. ... Störtebeker memorial in Hamburg. ... Wismar is a small port and Hanseatic League town in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, about 45 km due east of Lübeck, and 30 km due north of Schwerin. ... Didrik Pining (ca. ... Paúel Benecke (or Pawel or Paul or Pavel) was a 15th century Danzig (GdaÅ„sk) privateer, sometimes referred to as a pirate. ... Göke (1495) was the flagship of Kemal Reis Kemal Reis (circa 1451-1511) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. ... Timoji (also referred to as Timoja or Timayya) was a Hindu privateer who served the Vijayanagara Empire and the Portuguese during the first decade of the 16th century. ... Oruç Reis captures a galley Aruj or Oruc Reis (Turkish: Oruç Reis) (c. ... Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin PaÅŸa or Hızır Hayreddin PaÅŸa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. ... Turgut Reis Turgut Reis (1485-1565) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli. ... Murat Reis Mosque in Rhodes Murat Reis the Older (Turkish: ) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. ... Magnus Heinason (1545) - (18 Jan 1589), was a Faroese and a son of Heine havrèkke a norse preist that emigrated to the islands, naval hero, trader and privateer. ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... Admiral Sir George Somers (1554-1610) was a British naval hero. ... Piet Heyn, 1577-1629 Piet Pieterszoon Hein (also written as Heyn) (November 25, 1577 – June 18, 1629) was a Dutch naval officer and folk hero during the Eighty Years War between the Netherlands and Spain. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ... Alexander Dalzeel (c. ... William Dampier, pirate, navigator and explorer William Dampier (baptised 5 September 1651 – died March 1715) was an English buccaneer, sea captain, author and scientific observer. ... James Erisey was born at Erisey House near Mullion, in the parish of Grade in Cornwall. ... Kanhoji Angre or Conajee Angria or Sarkhel Angre (? – 1729) was the first notable chief of the Maratha Navy in 18th century India. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... Statue in St Malo René Trouin, Sieur du Gué, usually called Réné Duguay-Trouin, (Saint Malo, 10 June 1673 -- 1736) was a famous French privateer, Lieutenant-Général des armées navales du roi (admiral) and Commander in the Order of Saint-Louis. ... George Colby was a British privateer during the French and Indian War. ... Jonathan Haraden (11 November 1744 – 23 November 1803) was a privateer during the American Revolution. ... The Louisa was a ship of Philadelphia, United States during 1800. ... The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1801. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: shameless vanity If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Statue of Robert Surcouf in Saint-Malo. ... Hippolyte de Bouchard, or Hipólito Bouchard (January 15, 1780, or 1783[2]– January 4, 1843), was a French and Argentine sailor and corsair who fought for Argentina, Chile, and Peru. ... Captain Ephraim Sturdivant (February 14, 1782-August 30/31, 1868) was a veteran of the War of 1812, namer of Cumberland, Maine, first person to bring merino sheep to Maine, a ship captain, and the first treasurer of Cumberland. ... William Henry Bully Hayes (c. ...

Privateers in fiction

  • Elicid Barrett of the Stan Rogers song "Barrett's Privateers".
  • Science fiction writer Poul Anderson, in his book The Star Fox, depicts a future where Letters of Marque are revived and space privateers fight across the light years.
  • Horatio Hornblower, the British Royal Navy officer created by C. S. Forester, had numerous encounters with privateers over the 11-novel span of his career.
  • Patrick O'Brien's "The Letter of Marque" is one of the infamous Jack Aubrey novels set in the context of Nelson's navy during the Napoleonic Wars. O'Brien's novels are renowned for their historical and technical accuracy of life at sea.
  • Privateers are a unit in the computer game Civilization 3, and are also present in the expansion pack Beyond the Sword for Civilization 4
  • The Shichibukai from the manga and anime series One Piece are loosely based on privateers.

Stanley Allison Rogers (November 29, 1949 – June 2, 1983) was a Canadian folk musician and songwriter. ... Fogartys Cove, the album on which Barretts Privateers was released. ... Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926–July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author of the genres Golden Age. ... For the Patrick OBrian novel, see The Letter of Marque. ... Horatio Hornblower is a fictional character, an officer in the British Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, originally the protagonist of a series of novels by C. S. Forester, and later the subject of films and television programs. ... The cover of the 1974 paperback edition of one of Foresters non-fiction titles: Hunting The Bismarck Cecil Scott Forester was the pen name of Cecil Louis Troughton Smith (August 27, 1899 – April 2, 1966), an English novelist who rose to fame with tales of adventure with military themes. ... Sid Meiers Civilization III is a turn-based strategy computer game by Firaxis Games, the sequel to Sid Meiers Civilization II. Also called Civ 3 or Civ III for short, the game is the third generation of the original Civilization. ... Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword is the second official expansion pack of the critically-acclaimed turn-based strategy video game Civilization IV. [1]. The expansion focuses on adding content to the in-game time periods following the invention of gunpowder, and includes more general content such as 12 new scenarios... Civilization IV is a turn-based strategy computer game currently being developed by Sid Meier and his studio Firaxis Games. ... The Shichibukai (七武海 Shichibukai, literally Seven Military Seas), called the Seven Warlords of the Sea in the English anime and manga, are a set of fictional characters in the anime and manga series One Piece. ... Serialized in Weekly Shonen Jump Shonen Jump Original run August 4, 1997 – (ongoing) Volumes 47 volumes with 478 chapters TV anime Director Konosuke Uda Munehisa Sakai Studio Toei Animation Network Fuji TV GMA 7 Original run October 20, 1999 – (ongoing) Episodes Japanese: 330 of 334 (current) English: 110 of 113...

See also

For the Patrick OBrian novel, see The Letter of Marque. ... In warfare, a reprisal is a limited and deliberate violation of the laws of war to punish an enemy for breaking the laws of war. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Commerce raiding or guerre de course is a naval strategy of attacking an opponents commercial shipping rather than contending for control of the seas with its naval forces. ... For the musician, orchestrator, and composer, see William Kidd (composer). ...

Further reading

  • A. Bryant Nichols Jr., Captain Christopher Newport: Admiral of Virginia, Sea Venture, 2007

External links


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