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Encyclopedia > Private school
For the film of this title, see Private School (film).

Private schools, or independent schools, are schools not administered by local, state, or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than with public (state) funds. In the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth countries the use of the term is generally restricted to primary and secondary educational levels: it is almost never used of universities or other tertiary institutions. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Private School is a 1983 comedy film, directed by Noel Back. ... An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and perhaps the investment yield of an endowment. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see Student (disambiguation). ... Tuition means instruction, teaching or a fee charged for educational instruction especially at a formal institution of learning. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ...


Private education in North America covers the whole gamut of educational activity. Private schools range from pre-school to tertiary level institutions. Annual tuitions at K-12 schools range from nothing at tuition-free schools to more than $40,000 at several boarding schools. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


The secondary level includes schools offering grades 7 through 12 and grade 13. This category includes preparatory schools or "prep schools", boarding schools and day schools. Tuition at private secondary schools varies from school to school and depends on many factors, including the location of the school, the willingness of parents to pay, peer tuitions, and the endowment. High tuition, schools claim, is used to pay higher salaries for the best teachers, and also used to provide enriched learning environments including a low student to teacher ratio, small class sizes and services such as libraries, science laboratories, and computers. Some private schools are boarding schools. Some military schools are privately owned or operated as well. A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (usually abbreviated to preparatory school, college prep school, or prep school) is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education. ... A financial endowment is a transfer of money or property donated to an institution, with the stipulation that it be invested, and the principal remain intact. ... Alternative meanings: Library (computer science), Library (biology) Modern-style library In its traditional sense, a library is a collection of books and periodicals. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about the machine. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... There are three types of military academies: High school level institutions (up to age 19), university level institutions, and those only serving to prepare officer cadets for commissioning into the armed services of a state ( such as RMA Sandhurst ). United States usage The term Military School primarily refers to (middle...


Religiously affiliated or denominational schools form a distinct category of private schools. Some such schools teach religious lessons together with the usual academic subjects to instill their particular faith's beliefs and traditions in the students who attend. For example, The Epstein School in Atlanta, Georgia teaches conservative Judaism to its students. Others use the denomination as more of a general label to describe on what the founders based their belief, while still maintaining a fine distinction between academics and religion. They include parochial schools, a term which is often used to denote Catholic Christian schools. Other religious groups represented in the K-12 private education sector include Protestants, Jews, Muslims, and the Orthodox Christians. Religious education teaches the doctrines of a religion. ... The Epstein School is a Solomon Schechter school in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... A parochial school is a type of private school which engages in religious education in addition to conventional education. ...


Many educational alternatives, such as independent schools, are also privately financed. Private schools often avoid some state regulations. Great Neck Village School, an alternative high school in Great Neck, New York, USA Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, describes an education that is modified or particularized for those having singular needs, such as maladjusted people and gifted children. ... An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and perhaps the investment yield of an endowment. ...


Special assistance schools aim to improve the lives of their students by providing services tailored to very specific needs of individual students. Such schools include tutoring schools and schools to assist the learning of handicapped children. In British, Australian, New Zealand, and some Canadian universities, a tutor is often but not always a postgraduate student or a lecturer assigned to conduct a seminar for undergraduate students, often known as a tutorial. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

England and Wales

Generally preferring to be called independent schools because of their freedom to operate outside of government regulation, private schools are favoured by a minority of parents because of their reputation for high academic standards, which are often perceived to be higher than those found in the state sector, a more acceptable social milieu and wider opportunities in fields such as sport, drama and music. Many Independent schools are single-sex (though this is becoming less common). An independent school in the United Kingdom is a school that relies for all or most of its funding on non-governmental sources. ...


Independent primary schools are called preparatory schools, preparing pupils not for admission to a university as in the United States, but to an independent secondary school, which admit pupils taking into account their academic achievement as measured by the Common Entrance Exam. Such independent secondary schools are often called public schools, though this term is primarily used of the older and more prestigious schools, like Rugby School, Winchester, Eton, Roedean School and Harrow. Many of these schools are boarding schools. The reason that private schools are called public schools in England is historical. These older schools were formed when there was little or no school system; they were called public schools then, because at that time schooling was really only available for the elite by private tutoring. By comparison, these early schools were considered public, open to all who could pay the fees as opposed to private tuition. The name has stuck since, but only in England. See also Independent school (United Kingdom)#Terminology for further elaboration on this topic. The name is almost a contradiction as they are private profit-making organisations, not public, government-funded organisations. They are also considered to be charities which is surprising to many. A preparatory school, or prep school in the United Kingdom, and previously in the British Empire and so the Commonwealth in current English usage, is an independent school designed to prepare a student for fee-paying, secondary independent school (public school). ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... A public school, in current English, Welsh and Northern Ireland usage, is a (usually) prestigious independent school, for children usually between the ages of 11 or 13 and 18, which charges fees and is not financed by the state. ... A view of Rugby School from The Close, the playing field where according to legend Rugby was invented Rugby School, located in the town of Rugby, Warwickshire, is one of the oldest public schools in England and is one of the major co-educational boarding schools in the country. ... Winchester College is a well-known boys independent school, and an example of an English public school, in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, England. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and... Roedean School Roedean School is an independent girls school on the outskirts of Brighton, United Kingdom. ... Harrow School, (originally: The Free Grammar School of John Lyon; generally: Harrow), is an independent school for boys (aged 13-18), and is located in Harrow on the Hill in the London Borough of Harrow. ... An independent school in the United Kingdom is a school that relies for all or most of its funding on non-governmental sources. ...


Due to their ancient foundation, many private schools have a religious character, although this does not generally aim at pupils' religious indoctrination and does not preclude pupils of other faiths attending if they wish. Religion is not as important an aspect in the majority of parents' decision to send their child to an independent school as it is in the United States, due to the requirement of state schools to timetable periods of Christian worship.


In the 1970s the two-tier system was removed from state-run Secondary education in most of England and Wales, in which all students were required to sit the 11+ exam at that age. The more able students would then be offered a place at a local grammar school, as opposed to a secondary modern school. These were replaced by all ability comprehensive schools. However after comprehensivisation, some grammar schools were able to become independent (often the ones with an established heritage). A grammar school is a school that may, depending on regional usage as exemplified below, provide either secondary education or, a much less common usage, primary education (also known as elementary). Grammar schools trace their origins back to medieval Europe, as schools in which university preparatory subjects, such as Latin... Secondary modern schools are a type of school in British educational systems, part of the Tripartite System. ... A Comprehensive school is a type of school providing secondary level education in England or Wales. ...


Although many of independent schools in England and Wales aim at the highest academic standards, a small number have been established to provide support for those experiencing difficulties in mainstream education. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


India

In much of India, the schooling offered by the state governments would technically come under the category of Public schools. They are Federal or State funded and have zero or very minimal fees.


The other category of schools are those run and partly funded by private individuals, private organizations and religious groups, especially by the Christian missionaries. They are usually not completely privately run, being 'aided' by the government. The standard and the quality of education is quite high.Technically these would be categorized as private schools, but many of them have the name Public School appended to them, e.g., the Delhi Public School . Most of the middle class families send their children to such schools, which might be in their own city or far off (like Boarding schools). The medium of education is English, but as a compulsory subject, Hindi and/or the state's official language is also taught. Some college and school data are available in StudentIndia.com also [http://www.studentindia.com/stud/Boarding_school_in_India/List_of%20_bording_residential_school_in_India.jsp Boarding school. Preschool education is mostly limited to organized neighbourhood nursery schools. Recently some chains like Shemrock have opened branches nationwide. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ...


These situations are more or less the same in the other countries of the Indian subcontinent (South Asia) like Nepal, Pakistan, etc.


Australia

See also: Education in Australia

Private schools are one of two types of school in Australia, the other being government schools (state schools). Whilst private schools are sometimes considered 'public' schools (as in the Associated Public Schools of Victoria), the term 'public school' is usually synonymous with a government school. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Associated Public Schools of Victoria (APS) are a group of eleven prestigious independent secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. ...


Private schools in Australia may be favoured for many reasons: prestige, and the social status of the 'old school tie'; better quality physical infrastructure and more facilities (eg. playing fields, swimming pool, etc.), higher-paid teachers; and/or the belief that private schools offer a higher quality of education. Some schools offer the removal of the purported distractions of co-education; the presence of boarding facilities; or stricter discipline. Public schools are more affordable and have less strict clothing codes. In the United Kingdom, an old boy network refers directly to social and business associations among former pupils of top independent secondary schools (known as public schools) and, to a lesser degree, to university students (notably Oxbridge), and indirectly to preservation of social elites over time without regard to merit. ...


Private schools in Australia are still government funded, although they are also more expensive than government schools.


Private schools may have a greater focus on sports and other associations than public schools. The GPS schools in New South Wales and Queensland were established to promote certain sports perceived to be elite within these schools. The GPS, Great Public Schools, or Athletic Association of the Great Public Schools of New South Wales (AAGPS) is an association of mostly private boys schools in New South Wales, Australia that share common interests, ethics, educational philosophy and contest sporting events among themselves. ... The Great Public Schools Association of Queensland Inc. ...


Unlike most public schools, most Australian private school students are subject to strict dress codes - for example, a blazer for boys. It has been suggested that Sportcoat be merged into this article or section. ...


There are two main categories of private schools in Australia: Catholic schools and Independent schools.[1]

Catholic Schools

Catholic schools form the second largest sector after government schools, with around 21% of secondary enrolments. Most Australian catholic schools belong to a system like government schools, are typically co-educational, and attempt to provide Catholic education evenly across the states. These schools are also known as 'systemic'. Systemic Catholic schools are funded mainly by state and federal government and have low fees. Coeducation is the integrated education of men and women. ...


There are also a substantial number of independent Catholic schools, often single-sex, usually run by established religious orders, such as the Sisters of Mercy or the Christian Brothers. Independent Catholic school fees vary, ranging from low to high. However, fee's are typically lower than that of Independent schools, and fee concessions for Catholic families facing financial difficulty are quite common. A single-sex school is a school that only accepts boys or girls exclusively. ... The Religious Order of the Sisters of Mercy (RSM) is an order of Catholic women founded by Catherine McAuley in Dublin, Ireland in 1831. ... Note: This page needs to be cleaned up to be brought into conformance with the Manual of Style. ...


Catholic schools, both systemic and independent, proclaim strong religious motivations and most often the majority of their staff and students will be Catholics.[1]

Independent Schools

Independent schools make up the last sector and are the most popular form of schooling for boarding students. Independent schools are non-government institutions that are generally not part of a system. A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ...


Although most are non-aligned, some of the best known independent schools also belong to the large, long-established religious foundations (Anglican, Uniting Church, Presbyterian) but in most cases they do not insist on their students’ religious allegiance. These schools are typically viewed as 'elite schools'. Many of the ‘grammar schools’ also fall in this category. They are usually expensive schools that tend to be up-market and traditional in style. Arms of the Anglican Church of Australia The Anglican Church of Australia, a member church of the Anglican Communion, was previously officially known as the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania (renamed in 1981). ... Logo of the UCA The Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) was formed on June 22, 1977 when the Methodist Church of Australasia, Presbyterian Church of Australia and Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union document. ... The Presbyterian Church of Australia is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Australia. ...


On the other hand, many independent schools are quite new, often small, and not necessarily traditional at all.[1]


Germany

In Germany, Article 7 Paragraph 4 of the Grundgesetz (the constitution of Germany) is guaranteeing the right to establish private schools. This article belongs to the first part of the German basic law, which defines the civil and human rights. A right, which is guaranteed in this part of the Grundgesetz, can only be suspended in state of emergency if the respective article literally states this possibility. That is not the case with this article. It is also not possible to abolish these rights. This unusual protection of private schools was implemented to protect these schools from a second Gleichschaltung or similar events in the future. The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ... This is a list of articles about the fundamental constitutional laws, known as Basic Laws, of various jurisdictions. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ...


There are two types of private schools in Germany, Ersatzschulen (literally: substitute schools) and Ergänzungsschulen (literally: auxiliary schools). There are also private Hochschulen (private colleges and universities) in Germany, but similar to the UK, the term private school is almost never used of universities or other tertiary institutions.


Ersatzschulen are ordinary primary or secondary schools, which are run by private individuals, private organizations or religious groups. These schools offering the same types of diplomas like public schools. Ersatzschulen lack the freedom to operate completely outside of government regulation. Teachers at Ersatzschulen must have at least the same education and at least the same wages like teachers at public schools, an Ersatzschule must have at least the same academic standards like a public school and Article 7 Paragraph 4 of the Grundgesetz also forbids segregation of pupils according to the means of their parents (the so called Sondierungsverbot). Therefore most Ersatzschulen have very low tuition fees, compared to most other western european countries. However, it is not possible to finance these schools with such low tuition fees, that's why all German Ersatzschulen are additionally financed with public funds. A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


Ergänzungsschulen are secondary or post-secondary (non-tertiary) schools, which are run by private individuals, private organizations or rarely religious groups, and offering a type of education which is not available at public schools. Most of these schools are vocational schools. However, these vocational schools are no part of the German dual education system. Ergänzungsschulen have the freedom to operate outside of government regulation and are funded in whole by charging their students tuition fees. A vocational school, providing vocational education and also as referred to as a trade school or career college, and school is operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... A dual education system is practised in several countries, notably Germany, Austria and Switzerland, but also Denmark, the Netherlands and France. ...

See also: Education in Germany

Responsibility for educational oversight in Germany has to lie primarily with the states while the federal government only has a minor role. ...

South Africa

Some of the oldest schools in South Africa are private church schools that were established by missionaries in the early nineteenth century. The private sector has grown ever since. After the abolition of apartheid, the laws governing private education in South Africa changed significantly. The South African Schools Act of 1996 recognises two categories of schools: "public" (state-controlled) and "independent" (which includes traditional private schools and schools which are privately-governed.) A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ...


Schools previously called semi-private or model C schools are not private schools, as they are ultimately state-controlled.

See also: Education in South Africa

South African primary school children South African high school students, 2005. ...

United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

Article 29 - "Article 29 (of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child) limits the right of parents and others to educate children in private school by requiring that all such schools support both the charter and principles of the United Nations and a list of specific values and ideals. By contrast, Supreme Court case law has provided that a combination of parental rights and religious liberties provide a broader right of parents and private schools to control the values and curriculum of private education free from State interference."[2] The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is an international convention setting out the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Case law (precedential law) is the body of judge-made law and legal decisions that interprets prior case law, statutes and other legal authority -- including doctrinal writings by legal scholars such as the Corpus Juris Secundum, Halsburys Laws of England or the doctinal writings found in the Recueil Dalloz...


References

  1. ^ a b c The National Education Directory Australia: Private Schools in Australia (accessed:07-08-2007)
  2. ^ David M. Smolin, Overcoming Religious Objections to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 29, 104 at [1] - See Susan H. Bitensky, Educating the Child for a Productive Life, in CHILDREN’S RIGHTS IN AMERICA 181 (Cynthia Price Cohen & Howard A. Davidson eds., 1990) (referring to “fundamentalist” curriculum used in some private religious schools which evidences hostility toward the United Nations). Relevant cases include Runyon v. McCrary, 427 U.S. 160 (1976); Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S. 205 (1972); Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 U.S. 510 (1925); Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390 (1923).

Some independent schools charge up to 15,000 dollars/year in tuition. David M. Smolin David Mark Smolin is a professor of law at Cumberland School of Law in Birmingham, Alabama. ... Runyon v. ... Holding The Wisconsin Compulsory School Attendance Law violated the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment because required attendance past the eighth grade interfered with the right of Amish parents to direct the religious upbringing of their children. ... Pierce v. ... Holding The Court held that a 1919 Nebraska law prohibiting the teaching of modern foreign languages to grade school children unconstitutionally violated the Due Process clause of the 14th Amendment. ...


See also

In education, the phrase alternative school usually refers to a school based on a non-traditional, new, or non-standard educational philosophy. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... Catholic schools are education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Charter schools are publicly funded elementary or secondary schools in the United States which have been freed from some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools, in exchange for some type of accountability for producing certain results, which are set forth in each charter school... An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and perhaps the investment yield of an endowment. ... An independent school in the United Kingdom is a school relying, for all of its funding, upon private sources, so almost invariably charging school fees. ... For other uses, see Ivy League (disambiguation). ... A private university is a university that is run without the control of any government entity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A special school (bijzonder onderwijs), in the education system of The Netherlands, is a separate category from a public or private school. ...

Bibliography

  • Hein, David (4 January 2004). What has happened to Episcopal schools? The Living Church, 228, no. 1, 21-22.

External links

National and International Private School Associations

  • Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI)
  • Canadian Association of Independent Schools (CAIS)
  • European Council of International Schools (ECIS)
  • Independent Schools Association of Southern Africa (ISASA)
  • National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) (United States)
  • Private School Review (United States)
  • Global Directory of Independent Schools
  • UK Private Schools Guide
  • UK Independent Schools Council

Private School Statistics

  • Canadian Educational Standards Institute (CESI)
  • National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) (United States)

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