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Encyclopedia > Private bill

A private bill is the term used for legislation that originates from a particular member of a legislature or parliament or from a member of the public. Private bills developed in the United Kingdom as a means of obtaining redress from a specific wrong or obtaining a benefit that was not otherwise available through statute or the common law. Legislation refers to the process of enacting statutory laws, or to the set of statutory laws in a state. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... An aerial view of Parliament of India at New Delhi. ... A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


There are many examples of such private legislation in democratic countries. In Canada prior to the passage of the Divorce Act in 1968 it was only possible to obtain a legislative divorce. This required an application to the Canadian Senate which reviewed and investigated petitions for divorce. The final report of the committee handling the case would then be voted upon by the Senate and subsequently made into a Canadian law. In the United Kingdom Parliament, private bills were used in the nineteenth century to create corporations, grant monopolies and give individuals rights in excess of the public law. Their use has become more limited in the twentieth century as statutory law and statutory instruments have enabled many previous situations to be dealt with through other legislative mechanisms. Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse, which can be contrasted with an annulment which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... The Senate (French: Sénat) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, which also includes the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... A corporation is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name AS (anonymous society) or something similar, depending on language (see below). ... Public law is the area of the law governing the relationship between individuals (citizens, companies) and the state. ... Statutory law is written law (as opposed to oral or customary law) set down by a legislature or other governing authority such as the executive branch of government in response to a perceived need to clarify the functioning of government, improve civil order, answer a public need, to codify existing... Statutory Instruments (SIs), also referred to as delegated or secondary legislation, are parts of United Kingdom law separate from Acts of Parliament which do not require full Parliamentary approval before becoming law. ...


In the United States, private bills were common between 1817 and 1971. Now federal agencies are able to deal with most of the issues that were previously dealt with under private bills as these agencies have been granted sufficient discretion by Congress to deal with exceptions to the general legislative scheme of various laws. The kinds of private bills that are still introduced include grants of citizenship to individuals who are otherwise ineligible for normal visa processing; alleviation of tax liability; armed services decorations and veteran benefits. A congress is a gathering of people, especially a gathering for a political purpose. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now usually a state) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... Visa or VISA has several meanings: Look up visa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Visa (document) — a document required to enter a specific country. ... A tax is a compulsory charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. ...


Private bills in the United States have been in the news recently. On March 21, 2005, Congress passed a private bill to provide relief to the parents of Terri Schiavo, by allowing them a hearing in federal district court as to whether their daughter, a woman in a persistent vegetative state since 1990, should have her feeding tube removed. The federal courts, up to and including the Supreme Court of the United States, left the decisions of the Florida state courts undisturbed. March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Terri Schiavo before her 1990 collapse. ... A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a condition of patients with severe brain damage in whom coma has progressed to a state of wakefulness without detectable awareness. ... This article is about the year. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States of America. ... State nickname: Sunshine State Official languages English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 17. ...


See also

A hybrid bill is a public bill which affects the private interests of a particular person or organization. ... A bill of attainder (also known as an act or writ of attainder) was an act of legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime, and punishing them, without benefit of a trial. ... The Palm Sunday Compromise, a private bill more properly known as the Act for the relief of the parents of Theresa Marie Schiavo, is the colloquial name for a Congressional law passed on March 21, 2005 to allow the case of Terri Schiavo to be moved into a federal court. ... Terri Schiavo before her 1990 collapse. ...

External links

  • Private bills in the US House of Representatives
  • Private Bill Fact Sheet UK House of Commons (PDF file)
  • Privates Acts of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom
  • List of Private Laws in Canada

  Results from FactBites:
 
Private Member's Bill - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (606 words)
A Private Member's Bill is a proposed law introduced by a member of parliament, whether from the government or the opposition side, to that legislature or parliament.
Private member's bills can sometimes become the cause for much anxiety and shenannigans as outside individuals or organisations seek to influence members who are able to table bills.
If both houses finally agree, the bill goes on to the final stage, Royal Assent, and listed in Hansard (the official record of the proceedings of parliament) after which it is entered on the statute books as an Act of Parliament and becomes law.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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