FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Privacy" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Privacy

Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differs between cultures and individuals, but shares basic common themes. Privacy is sometimes related to anonymity, the wish to remain unnoticed in the public realm. When something is private to a person, it usually means there is something within them that is considered inherently special or personally sensitive. The degree to which private information is exposed therefore depends on how the public will receive this information, which differs between places and over time. Privacy can be seen as an aspect of security — one in which trade-offs between the interests of one group and another can become particularly clear. “Anonymous” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ...


The right against unsanctioned invasion of privacy by the government, corporations or individuals is part of many countries' privacy laws, and in some cases, constitutions. Almost all countries have laws which in some way limit privacy; an example of this would be law concerning taxation, which normally require the sharing of information about personal income or earnings. In some countries individual privacy may conflict with freedom of speech laws and some laws may require public disclosure of information which would be considered private in other countries and cultures. Invasion of privacy is a legal term essentially defined as a violation of the right to be left alone. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... This article is about the general concept. ...


Privacy may be voluntarily sacrificed, normally in exchange for perceived benefits and very often with specific dangers and losses, although this is a very strategic view of human relationships. Academics who are economists, evolutionary theorists, and research psychologists describe revealing privacy as a 'voluntary sacrifice', where sweepstakes or competitions are involved. In the business world, a person may give personal details (often for advertising purposes) in order to enter a gamble of winning a prize. Information which is voluntarily shared and is later stolen or misused can lead to identity theft. Advert redirects here. ... Identity theft is a term first appearing in U.S. literature in the 1990s, leading to the drafting of the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act. ...

Contents

Privacy and security trade-offs

It is disputed whether privacy and security is in conflict, requiring trade-offs between the two, or if privacy can enhance security. For the collection of taxes it is in the interests of government if one's earnings and income are well known. On the other hand, that same information may be used to select someone or his family as a good target for kidnapping. In these narrow terms, one group's interest is to keep the information private. One of the goals of computer security is confidentiality. Identity theft, for example, is a security problem that is created from a lack of privacy or failure of confidentiality. For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ... A Tradeoff usually refers to losing one quality or aspect of something in return for gaining another quality or aspect. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... This article describes how security can be achieved through design and engineering. ... Confidentiality has been defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access and is one of the cornerstones of Information security. ... Identity theft is a term first appearing in U.S. literature in the 1990s, leading to the drafting of the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act. ...


Privacy can be defined as security from the point of view of one stakeholder. This even makes sense in multi-stakeholder transactions or interactions as every stakeholder still has his own security closest at heart even if the security interests of others are taken into account. There are no inherent need to assume a trade off as the use of anonymous proofs such as blinded certificates can be used to certify both positive (e.g. citizenship) and negative (e.g. non on a fugitive list) assertions about the identity in question, conditional revocation of pseudonymity (in case of abuse of pseudonymity) and a range of other mechanisms can be used as catalysts to eliminate the trade-ofs and even improve security of several stakeholders simultaneously.


An example of a positive synergy between privacy and the security of others is in combating [[identity theft}}. If you cannot use credentials in another context, then you cannot abuse this knowledge to commit identity theft elsewhere. If you do no accept credentials used elsewhere, they you isolate risks of identity theft to keys that are in actual control of the individual. As such Identity theft can be seen as a consequece of too much identification or too little privacy.


Privacy can also have free speech ramifications. In some countries privacy has been used as a tool to suppress free speech. One person's speech can sometimes be considered a violation of another's person's privacy. In various cases the US Supreme Court has ruled that the First Amendment trumps privacy. In Bartnicki v. Vopper, 532 U.S. 514 (2001) Docket Number: 99-1687, US Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that someone cannot be held liable in court for publishing or broadcasting intercepted contents of information, as long as that information is of public concern. Conversely, the Constitutional right to privacy is built in part on the First Amendment. The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ...


Census data is another area where such trade-offs become apparent. Accurate data are useful for planning future services (whether commercial or public sector); on the other hand, almost all census data are released only in a way which does not allow identification of specific individuals. Based on US Code Title 13, the Census Bureau is prohibited by law to share its information or data on individuals who respond to a Census, or survey to anyone. Often this is done by anonymizing the data, and/or aggregating data from smaller geographic regions into larger ones. Such areas can be Zip codes, school district boundaries, or simply several blocks grouped into larger areas known as Census Tracts. This aggregated data from Census tracts may include answers from respondents from large geographic tracts of land to eliminate the possibility of identification of individuals, or smaller groups of people. The result of doing this does not directly reduce the accuracy of data, however by aggregating the data to include many individals' data in larger geographic zones, the granularity of data is lost. This aggregation of data over larger geographic areas prevents an individual's identification, income, or other personally identifiable data to become public knowledge. It protects the privacy of individuals, but allows planners, and state, local, and federal government officials to adequately make determinations on how funds need to be distributed based on the "general" population of the tract, or area. Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...


On the other hand some trade-offs may be regarded as false by some observers. Identity card systems, which may reduce privacy, are often presented as a method of increasing security. However, Bruce Schneier and others have argued that these systems may reduce security. German identity document sample An identity document is a piece of documentation designed to prove the identity of the person carrying it. ... Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ...


Reasons for not maintaining privacy

It has been reasoned that privacy discourages information sharing between individuals which in turn can lead to mistrust and intolerance amongst people and perpetuate false information. If information can be shared widely, then facts can generally be verified through many different sources and there are less chances of inaccuracies. It has also been reasoned that privacy can perpetuate stigma and intolerance. The reasoning behind this is that restrictions on information about people can inhibit and discourage collection and finding of data that is required for an accurate analysis and discussion on the causes and root of the stigma and intolerance. Philosophers often ask how people can learn to accept each other if they cannot know about each other.


Issues have also been raised that privacy can encourage criminal activity as it makes it easier for criminals to hide their unlawful activities.


More pragmatically, privacy sometimes is not maintained because there is a benefit provided by disclosure. For example, a potential employer is given a résumé/CV in order to evaluate someone's appropriateness for employment. Or, contact information, e-mail addresses most often, are provided in exchange for access to some useful information, like a "white paper". A white paper is an authoritative report. ...


Court Cases

Canada

In Erwin Eastmond v. Canadian Pacific Railway & Privacy Commissioner of Canada (June 11, 2004) The Court found that CP could collect Eastmond's personal information without his knowledge or consent because it benefited from the exemption in paragraph 7(1)(b) of PIPEDA, which provides that personal information can be collected without consent if "it is reasonable to expect that the collection with the knowledge or consent of the individual would compromise the availability or the accuracy of the information and the collection is reasonable for purposes related to investigating a breach of an agreement". is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... PIPEDA (the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act) is a Canadian law governing how private sector organizaitons collect, use and disclose personal information in the course of commercial business. ...


United States

In a unanimous ruling justices at the Supreme Court of New Hampshire ruled: "A generalized concern for personal privacy is insufficient to meet the state's burden of demonstrating the existence of a sufficiently compelling reason to prevent public access." The state Supreme Court ruled that financial information people disclose in divorce cases is not entitled to sweeping privacy protections. The court said the right of access to court proceedings and records predates both the state and federal constitutions. The decision relied heavily on the New Hampshire Constitution, which says power comes from the people. "To that end, the public's right of access to governmental proceedings and records shall not be unreasonably restricted," the Constitution says. The Associated Press v. New Hampshire.


In Davis v. Freedom of Information Commission, 259 Conn. 45 (2001) The Connecticut Supreme Court ruled that the DPPA does not apply to other government agencies who receive personal information from the State DMV in the course of their normal government functions. Therefore, records compiled by the office of the tax assessor, which were based on state motor vehicle records, were publicly accessible.


Excerpt of a ruling by Judge Kenneth Johnson, Indianapolis, Indiana, "The great public interest in the reporting, investigation and prosecution of child abuse trumps even the patient's interest in privileged communication with her physicians because, in the end, both the patient and the state are benefited by the disclosure," Johnson wrote.


In Las Vegas Review v. Board of County Commissioners, August 18, 2000., Nevada's highest court ruled that Records showing the telephone numbers of incoming and outgoing calls on publicly owned cellular telephones are not confidential or private. is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


Privacy in the workplace

European workplace privacy

The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data limits and regulates the collection of personal information on individuals, including workers. Firms that monitor employees' use of e-mail, the internet or phones as part of their business practice, and do not tell employees or have not obtained employee consent to do so, can in most cases be sued under Article 8 the European Convention on Human Rights which provides for the right to respect for his private and family life. On the other hand, although EU law is clear that e-mail interception is illegal, the law is not totally clear as to whether companies may prohibit employees from sending private e-mails.[1] The full title of this directive is Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data. ...


U.S. workplace privacy

In the United States, the situation is quite different. In 2005 for example, a survey of more than 500 U.S. companies found that over half had disciplined and about one in four employers had terminated (fired) an employee for "inappropriate" use of the internet, such as sending an inappropriate e-mail message to a client or supervisor, neglecting work while chatting with friends, or viewing pornography during work hours.[1] // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ...


The tools that are used for this surveillance are often caching proxy servers that are also used for web-monitoring. In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application program) which services the requests of its clients by forwarding requests to other servers. ...


Privacy laws

Main article: Civil liberties

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in article 12, states: Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ...

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Countries such as France protect privacy explicitly in their constitution (France's Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen), while the Supreme Court of the United States has found that the U.S. constitution contains "penumbras" that implicitly grant a right to privacy against government intrusion, for example in Griswold v. Connecticut (1965). Other countries without constitutional privacy protections have laws protecting privacy, such as the United Kingdom's Data Protection Act 1998 or Australia's Privacy Act 1988. The European Union requires all member states to legislate to ensure that citizens have a right to privacy, through directives such as Directive 95/46. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... Holding A Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The Data Protection Act 1984 is a British Act of Parliament that provides a legal basis for the privacy and protection of data of UK citizens and businesses. ... The Privacy Act 1988 is an Australian law regarding privacy of personal information enacted in 1988. ... The full title of this directive is Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data. ...


If the privacy of an individual is breached, the individual may bring a lawsuit asking for monetary damages. However, in the United Kingdom, some recent cases involving celebrities such as David Beckham, have resulted in defeat as the information has been determined in the courts to be in the public interest.[2] In the United States, the right of freedom of speech granted in the First Amendment have limited the effects of lawsuits for breach of privacy. David Beckham David Robert Joseph Beckham OBE (born May 2, 1975) is an English footballer born in Leytonstone, London. ... Public interest is a term used to denote political movements and organizations that are in the public interest—supporting general public and civic causes, in opposition of private and corporate ones (particularistic goals). ... This article is about the general concept. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ...


Organisations such as Privacy International, a London-based non-governmental organisation formed in 1990, exist as a watchdog on surveillance and privacy invasions by governments and corporations. On the flip side organizations such as ARTICLE 19 a UK based non-governmental organization exist as a watchdog on governments using privacy as a tool for censorship and restrictions on free speech. Privacy International (PI) has been instrumental in establishing the modern international privacy movement. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


In the United States, Federal law regulating communications carriers prohibits the disclosure of customer phone records.[3] Breaches of this law in the private sector were found to be common, with sales of call detail information becoming the subject of Congressional inquiry. More recently, it has been revealed that the United States National Security Agency has been warehousing the call detail information of billions of individual phone calls for pattern analysis. Whether this was done in violation of law or through powers granted by Congress as part of the broader "War on Terrorism" is the subject of debate.


Bodies and organizations

The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is the common name for an American organization consisting of two separate entities. ... EFF Logo The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States with the stated purpose of being dedicated to preserving free speech rights such as those protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in the context of... Electronic Privacy Information Center or EPIC is a public interest research group in Washington D.C.. It was established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging civil liberties issues and to protect privacy, the First Amendment, and constitutional values. ... Privacy International (PI) has been instrumental in establishing the modern international privacy movement. ... IAPP logo The International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP), headquartered in York, Maine, is a global association of privacy and security professionals. ...

See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Privacy

The right of publicity evolved out of the right of privacy in the U.S., and is still often referred to as a subset of privacy rights. ... The term informational self-determination was first used in the context of a German constitutional ruling relating to personal information collected during the 1983 census. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... Data privacy refers to the evolving relationship between technology and the legal right to, or public expectation of privacy in the collection and sharing of data. ... // Definition Data retention is the storage of telephony and internet traffic and transaction data by governments and commercial organisations. ... Financial Privacy is a blanket term for a multitude of issues: Financial Institutions ensuring that their customers information remains private to those outside the institution. ... The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, also known as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act, Pub. ... An EPC RFID tag used for Wal-Mart Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. ... Caller ID spoofing is the practice of causing the telephone network to display a number on the recipients caller ID display which is not that of the actual originating station; the term is commonly used to describe situations in which the motivation is considered nefarious by the speaker. ... The Transparent Society (1998, ISBN 0-7382-0144-8, ISBN 020132802X) is a non-fiction book by the science-fiction author David Brin in which he forecasts the erosion of privacy, as it is overtaken by low-cost surveillance, communication and database technology. ... For the book by Chuck Palahniuk titled Non-fiction, see Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... Glen David Brin, Ph. ... A closed-circuit television camera. ... Printer identification encoding is a technology used by many manufacturers of printers, in which the model, serial number and other identifying information about the printer is printed on every page produced. ... Secure communication describes means by which people can share information with varying degrees of certainty that third parties cannot know what was said. ... Hepting vs. ... EFF Logo The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States with the stated purpose of being dedicated to preserving free speech rights such as those protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in the context of... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... An overview of how VoIP works A typical analog telephone adapter for connecting an ordinary phone to a VoIP network Ciscos implementation of VoIP - IP Phone Voice over Internet Protocol, also called VoIP (pronounced voyp), IP Telephony, Internet telephony, Broadband telephony, Broadband Phone and Voice over Broadband is the... Big Brother Award (If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face— forever. ... Vehicular Communication Systems are systems that allow motorists to communicate freely and safely with others while driving. ... Holding A Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

References

  1. ^ Sylvia Mercado Kierkegaard (2005) Reading Your Keystroke: Whose Mail Is It? Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Publisher: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, Volume 3592 / 2005, Chapter: p. 256
  2. ^ Does Beckham judgement change rules?, from BBC News (retrieved 27 April 2005).
  3. ^ U.S. Code Title 47, Chapter 5, Subchapter II, Part I, Section 222

Sylvia Mercado Kierkegaard is one of the world’s leading authorities in computer law. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Dennis Bailey, Open Society Paradox: Why The Twenty-first Century Calls For More Openness--not Less, Brasseys Inc (November, 2004), hardcover, 224 pages, ISBN 1-57488-916-8
  • Judith Wagner DeCew, 1997, In Pursuit of Privacy: Law, Ethics, and the Rise of Technology, Ithaca: Cornell University Press
  • Whitefield Diffie and Susan Landau, 2007, Privacy on the Line: The Politics of Wiretapping and Encryption, The MIT Press, ISBN 978-0-262-04240-6
  • Ruth Gavison, "Privacy and the Limits of the Law," in Michael J. Gorr and Sterling Harwood, eds., Crime and Punishment: Philosophic Explorations (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 2000, formerly Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1996), paperback, 552 pages, pp. 46-68.
  • Raymond Geuss, 2003, "Public Goods, Private Goods," Princeton: Princeton University Press
  • Sven Ove Hansson and Elin Palm, eds., The Ethics of Workplace Privacy (SALTSA Reports, Work and Society Series nr 50), (Brussels: P.I.E.-Peter Lang), 2005, paperback, 186 pages, ISBN 90-5201-293-8.
  • Robert O Harrow, No Place To Hide: Behind The Scenes Of Our Emerging Surveillance Society, Free Press or Simon and Schuster (January, 2005), hardcover, 304 pages, ISBN 0-7432-5480-5
  • Adam D. Moore, 2003, “Privacy: Its Meaning and Value” American Philosophical Quarterly 40: 215-227
  • William Parent, 1983, “Privacy, Morality and the Law”, Philosophy and Public Affairs 12: 269-88
  • K. A. Taipale, "Technology, Security and Privacy: The Fear of Frankenstein, the Mythology of Privacy, and the Lessons of King Ludd," 7 Yale J. L. & Tech. 123 ; 9 Intl. J. Comm. L. & Pol'y 8 (Dec. 2004) (arguing for incorporating privacy protecting features in the construction of information systems through value sensitive design).
  • Judith Jarvis Thomson, "The Right to Privacy," in Michael J. Gorr and Sterling Harwood, eds., Crime and Punishment: Philosophic Explorations (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 2000, formerly Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1995), 552 pages, pp. 34-46.
  • Perry Metzger (1993) A Parable. http://cypherpunks.venona.com/date/1993/04/msg00559.html
  • David H. Holtzman, Privacy Lost: How Technology Is Endangering Your Privacy, Jossey-Bass (September, 2006), hardcover, 278 pages, ISBN 0-7879-8511-2
  • A. Westin, 1967, Privacy and Freedom, New York: Atheneum
  • Adams, Helen. "Privacy in the 21st Century". Libraries Unlimited, 2005.

MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Ruth Gavison (Born: Jerusalem, March 28, 1945) is an Israeli Law professor at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. ...

External links

Look up Privacy in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Data Protection in the European Union, from the Directorate-General for Justice, Freedom and Security
  • Genetic privacy and the law
  • The condition of privacy in Italy
  • European data protection and privacy law
  • EU-IST news - IT security and privacy regulation - what is happening in Europe?
  • Congress Erodes Privacy by Rep. Ron Paul, Ph.D.
  • The Eternal Value of Privacy by Bruce Schneier from Wired magazine
  • GlobalPOV Privacy and technology blog
  • Proposal for a Privacy Protection Guideline on Secret Personal Data Gathering and Transborder Flows of Such Data in the Fight against Terrorism and Serious Crime by Marcel Stuessi
  • Opt-Out of Personally Identifiable Information Sharing Sample letter from a non-profit consumer group to opt-out of information sharing by financial institutions under the Financial Services Modernization Act.
  • MySecureCyberspace: a resource for home users created by Carnegie Mellon CyLab
  • Security4web: Learn how to secure your credit card transactions and protect your personal information on the Internet

  Results from FactBites:
 
right to privacy - definition of right to privacy in Encyclopedia (434 words)
The right to privacy is a purported human right and an element of various legal traditions which may restrain both government and private party action.
This right to privacy has been the justification for decisions involving a wide range of civil liberties cases, including Pierce v.
It is often claimed, particularly by those in the eye of the media, that their right to privacy is violated when information about their private lives is reported in the press.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m