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Encyclopedia > Prithviraj Raso

The Prithviraj Raso or Prithvirajaraso is a balladic epic about the life of Prithviraj III Chauhan, a Rajput king who ruled Ajmer and Delhi between 1165 and 1192. Statue of Prithvi Raj Chauhan at Ajmer Prithviraj Chauhan (c. ... Chauhan or Chahaman(a) is a clan that ruled parts of Northern India in the Middle Ages. ... Rajput (from the Sanskrit tatpurusha compound , son of a king) is a Caste among Hindus in India, Pakistan and Nepal. ... Ajmer   , or Ajmere, is a city in Ajmer District in Indias Rajasthan state. ... Delhi   (Hindi: , Urdu: , Punjabi: ), sometimes refered to as Dilli, is the second-largest metropolis in India after Mumbai with a population of 13 million. ...

Contents

Perceptual context

The Prithviraj Raso was composed by Chand Bardai, Prithviraj's court poet, who accompanied the king in all his battles. Chand Bardai belonged to the community known as Charans, whose traditional occupation is to compose poems and ballads in praise of their patrons, based loosely on historical incident; they were poets and scribes who accompanied the armies of their patrons and encouraged and exhorted the warriors to bravery in battle by reciting the great deeds of their illustrious clan forebears. Chand Bardai was the court poet of the Indian king Prithviraj III Chauhan, who ruled Ajmer and Delhi from 1165 to 1192. ... Chāraņ (plural Charans; Hindi:) is a name of a caste living in Gujarat and Rajasthan states of India. ... Poets are authors of poems. ... Illustration of a 15th century scribe This is about scribe, the profession. ...


Over time, the Prithviraj Raso has been embellished with the interpolations and additions of many other authors. Only a small portion of the existing texts is likely to have been part of the original text. Several versions of the Prithivraj Raso are available, but scholars agree that a small 1300 stanza manuscript in Bikaner is closest to the original text. The longest available version is the Udaipur manuscript, which is an epic comprising of 16,306 stanzas. The language of the texts available today largely appears to be post-15th century. Bikaner is a city in the northwest of the state of Rajasthan in western India. ...


The Prithviraj Raso is a source of information on the social and clan structure of the Kshattriya communities of northern India. According to the Sanskrit a Kshatriya is the caste of princes and warriors, conquerors, one of four varna. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ...


The story related in the epic

According to the ballad, Prithviraj was a romantic, chivalrous and an extremely fearless king who, after ceaseless military campaigns, extended his original kingdom of Sambhar (Shakambara) in present-day Rajasthan, to cover Rajasthan, Gujarat and eastern Punjab. He ruled from his twin capitals of Delhi and Ajmer. His fast rise aroused the envy of the then powerful ruler of Kannauj, Jaichand Gahadwala, and caused ill-feeling between the two. Sambar may refer to: Sambar, a kind of deer Sambar, a lentil-based dish common in South India This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Gujarāt (GujarātÄ«: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Kannauj (Hindi कन्नौज), sometimes improperly spelt Kanauj, is an ancient city lying in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Jai Chandra was Prithvirajs father in law, who sided Prithviraj in his second battle against Muhammad Ghori. ...


Swayamvar of Sanyogita

The story of Prithviraj's exploits spread far and wide and became the subject of much discussion among the nobility. Sanyogita,daughter of Jaichand, fell secretly in love with Prithviraj and began a secret correspondence with him. Her father got wind of this and resolved to have her safely wed at an early date. He arranged a Swayamwara, a ceremony where a maiden selects her husband from a number of suitors who assemble at the invitation of her guardian. Jaichand invited many princes of acceptable rank and heritage, but deliberately failed to invite Prithviraj. To add insult to injury, Jaichand had a statue of Prithviraj made and placed at the door of the venue, thus parodying Prithviraj as a doorman. Prithviraj came to hear of this. He made his plans and confided the same to his lover, Sanyogita. Prithviraj III (c. ... Sanyogita, daughter of Raja Jaichand of Kannauj, was the wife of Indian king Prithviraj Chauhan. ... Prithviraj III (c. ... Prithviraj III (c. ... Prithviraj III (c. ... Prithviraj III (c. ... Prithviraj III (c. ... Sanyogita, daughter of Raja Jaichand of Kannauj, was the wife of Indian king Prithviraj Chauhan. ...


On the day of the ceremony, Sanyogita emerged from an inner chamber, entered the venue of the swayamwara, walked straight down the hall past the assembled suitors, bypassing them all. She reached the door and garlanded the statue of Prithviraj. The assemblage were stunned at this brash act, but more was to follow: Prithviraj, who had been hiding behind the statue in the garb of a doorman, emerged, put Sanyogita upon his steed, and made a fast getaway. Jaichand and his army gave earnest chase, to no avail. This incident resulted in a string of battles between the two kingdoms and both of them suffered heavily. The Chauhan-Gahadvala feud led to the weakening of both Rajput kingdoms. Sanyogita, daughter of Raja Jaichand of Kannauj, was the wife of Indian king Prithviraj Chauhan. ... Prithviraj III (c. ... Sanyogita, daughter of Raja Jaichand of Kannauj, was the wife of Indian king Prithviraj Chauhan. ... Chauhan or Chahaman(a) is a clan that ruled parts of Northern India in the Middle Ages. ... The Gahadvala are a Hindu Rajput dynasty who ruled the kingdom of Kannauj from the 11th century to the early 13th century. ... Rajput (from the Sanskrit tatpurusha compound , son of a king) is a Caste among Hindus in India, Pakistan and Nepal. ...


Muhammad of Ghor

While this drama was being enacted, an obscure warlord named Muhammad, hailing from Ghor in present-day Afghanistan, grew increasingly powerful. He captured Ghazni and subsequently defeated the Ghaznavid governor of Punjab. Muhammad Ghori's domain now touched upon that of Prithviraj Chouhan. A clash was inevitable. Ghowr province (sometimes spelled Ghor) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , Ğaznī) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... Muhammad of Ghor or Muhammad Ghori (originally named Muizz-ad-din) (1162 - 1206) was a Persian conqueror and sultan between 1171 and 1206. ...


First Battle of Tarain (1191 CE): Muhammad Ghori invaded Prithviraj's domains and laid siege to the fortress of Bhatinda in Punjab, which was at the frontier between the two kingdoms. Prithviraj's appeal for help from his father-in-law was scornfully rejected by the haughty Jaichandra. Undaunted, Prithviraj marched on Bhatinda and gave battle to the invaders at a place called Tarain (also called Taraori) near the town of Thanesar. The First Battle of Tarain, also known as the First Battle of Taraori, was fought in 1191 at the town of Tarain (Taraori), near Thanesar in present-day Haryana, approximately 150 kilometres north of Delhi. ... Muhammad of Ghor or Muhammad Ghori (originally named Muizz-ad-din) (1162 - 1206) was a Persian conqueror and sultan between 1171 and 1206. ... Bhatinda is a city in southern Punjab, India. ... Thanesar is an old and historic town on the banks of the Ghaggar river in North India, located approximately 160 km northwest of Delhi. ...


In face of the Rajput onslaught, the invading Muslim army broke ranks and fled, leaving their leader, Muhammad Ghori, a prisoner in Prithviraj's hands. Muhammad Ghori was brought in chains to Pithoragarh, Prithviraj's capital. He begged his captor for mercy and release. Prithviraj's ministers advised against pardoning the aggressor. However, the chivalrous and valiant Prithviraj thought otherwise and respectfully released the vanquished Ghori.


Second Battle of Tarain (1192 CE): The very next year, Ghori repaid Prithviraj's gesture by again invading Prithviraj's kingdom with a stronger army. Again, the two armies met at Tarain. The Hindus followed a traditional practice of battling only between sunrise and sunset.This practise was based upon great epics and ethics in their civilized society.The Ramayana and the Mahabharata support this practise. Ghori attacked the surprised Rajput army before daybreak and thus emerged victorious. The defeated Prithviraj was pursued up to his capital. At the point when annihilation became certain, Sanyogita committed Jauhar by self-immolation rather than face the prospect of personal dishonour at the hands of a barbaric invader. Prithviraj was taken in chains to Ghor in present-day Afghanistan. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... Jauhar and Saka were originally the voluntary death of the royal womenfolk of Rajputs and Rajput men. ...


Captivity, revenge and death

As a prisoner in Ghor, Prithviraj was brought in chains before Muhammad. He haughtily looked Ghori straight into the eye. Ghori ordered him to lower his eyes, whereupon a defiant Prithviraj scornfully reminded him of how he had treated Ghori when the latter was a prisoner. He declared that the eyelids of a Rajput are lowered only in death. On hearing this, Ghori flew into a rage and ordered that Prithviraj's eyes be burnt with red hot iron rods. This heinous deed was committed. The blind Prithviraj was then regularly brought to the presence of the barbaric warlord to be taunted by Ghori and his courtiers.


Prithviraj's former courtier Chand Bardai, who was later to compose the Prithviraj Raso, a ballad-biography of Pritiviraj, came to Ghor to be near Prithviraj in his misery. Chand Bardai came in disguise and secured himself a place in Muhammad's court by purveying his skills as a composer of poems. On the one hand, he earned Muhammad's regard; on the other, he took every opportunity to meet with Prithviraj and urge him to avenge Ghori's betrayal and daily insults.


Killing of Muhammad Ghori: The two got an opportunity when Ghori announced an archery competition. Chand Bardai told Ghori that Prithviraj was so skilled an archer, that he could take aim based only on sound, and did not even need to look at his target. Ghori disdained to believe this; the courtiers guffawed and taunted Chand Bardai, asking how a blind man could possibly shoot arrows. In the spirit of their usual barbaric mockery, they brought the blind and hapless Prithviraj out to the field. Pressing a bow and arrows into his hand, they taunted him to take aim.


Chand Bardai told Ghori that this taunting would avail nothing, for Prithviraj would never do as some sundry courtiers bade him do. He said that Prithviraj, as an anointed king, would not accept orders from anyone other than another king. His ego thus massaged, and in the spirit of the occasion, Muhammad Ghori agreed to personally give Prithviraj the order to shoot. Some iron plates were hung and Prithiviraj was asked to aim at them. A man was to strike the plate with a hammer and Prithviraj was supposed to hit that plate.



Thus, Chand Bardai provided Prithviraj with an aural indication of where Ghori was seated. He gave Prithviraj one further indication of the same, by composing a couplet on the spot and reciting the same in Prithviraj's hearing. The couplet, composed in a language understood only by Prithviraj went thus:

"Char bans, chaubis gaj, angul ashta praman,
Ta upar sultan hai, Chuke mat Chauhan."

(Four measures ahead of you and twenty four yards away as measured with eight finger measurement, is seated the Sultan. Do not miss him now, Chauhan).

Ghori then ordered Prithviraj to shoot. Prithviraj thus came to know the location of Ghori and started shooting at the plates. When he hit the target courtiers said "vah" "vah" and Ghori said "Shabash", recognising Ghori's voice and turning in the direction from where he heard Ghori speak, Prithviraj took aim based only on the voice and on Chand Bardai's couplet, he sent an arrow racing to Ghori's throat. Ghori was thus stuck dead by Prithviraj.


Naturally, after this deed, Prithviraj and Chandbardai stabbed each other, to avoid further humiliation at the hands of courtiers of Ghori. But the brave Rajput had avenged the betrayals and humiliations suffered by him. Thus ended the story of the brave and chivalrous Prithviraj Chauhan, the last Hindu ruler of Delhi. Rajput (from the Sanskrit tatpurusha compound , son of a king) is a Caste among Hindus in India, Pakistan and Nepal. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Delhi   (Hindi: , Urdu: , Punjabi: ), sometimes refered to as Dilli, is the second-largest metropolis in India after Mumbai with a population of 13 million. ...


See also

Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... Hindi literature (Hindi: हिंदी साहित्य) Hindi poetry is divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti (devotional - Kabir, Raskhan); Shringar (beauty - Keshav, Bihari); Veer-Gatha (extolling brave warriors); and Adhunik (modern). ... Chauhan or Chahaman(a) is a clan that ruled parts of Northern India in the Middle Ages. ... Rajput (from the Sanskrit tatpurusha compound , son of a king) is a Caste among Hindus in India, Pakistan and Nepal. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Teachers and Parents - Biographies (1565 words)
The story of Prithviraj's bold exploits spread far and wide in the country and he was the center of much discussion in the circle of the nobility.
Prithviraj who was hiding behind the statue, also in the garb of a doorman, whisked Sanyogita away and put her up on his steed to make a fast getaway to his capital at Delhi.
This heinous deed being done, Prithviraj was regularly brought to the court to be taunted by Ghori and his courtiers.
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