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Encyclopedia > Pristina

Prishtinë/Prishtina (Albanian indefinite/definite form) or Priština (Приштина) (Serbian) is the capital city of Kosovo, a landlocked province of Serbia located at 42°65′ N 21°17′ E (http://kvaleberg.com/extensions/mapsources/index.php?params=42_65_N_21_17_E_). It is estimated that the current population of Prishtina is as high as 500,000. The city has a majority Albanian population, alongside other smaller communities such as Serbs, Bosniaks and Roma. The province's Albanian-dominated interim government and the United Nations administration in Kosovo (UNMIK) have their headquarters in the city. It is the administrative, educational, cultural center of Kosovo. Prishtina is home to the University of Prishtina. Prishtina has an international airport, (Pristina International Airport - PRN). The Serbian language or Serb language is one of the standard versions of the Central-South Slavic diasystem, formerly (and still frequently) called Serbo-Croatian. ... Kosovo and Metohia (Serbian: Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, Albanian: Kosova), in English most oftenly called just Kosovo, is a province of Serbia. ... Serbia and Montenegro  – Serbia    – Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    – Vojvodina  – Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  – Total  – % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  – Total (2002)     (without Kosovo)  – Density  7. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosniaks (natively: Bošnjaci) are South Slavs who converted to Islam during the Ottoman period (15th-19th century). ... Roma is: The Latin, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish name for the Italian city of Rome. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... The United Nations Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration of the Serbian province (as part of Serbia and Montenegro) called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), under the authority of the United Nations. ... University of Prishtina (Albanian: Universiteti i Prishtinës) was opened in 1970 in Prishtina, the capital of Kosova. ...

Contents

1 Prishtina after World War II
2 Prishtina in the Kosovo War and afterwards
3 Demographics
4 See also
5 References and links

History

In Roman times a large town called Ulpiana existed 15 kilometres (9 miles) to the south of modern-day Prishtina. This city was destroyed but was restored by the Emperor Justinian. Today the town of Lipljan stands on the site of the Roman city, and remains of the old city can still be seen. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... Justinian I, depicted on a contemporary coin Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus or Justinian I (May 11, 483–November 13/14, 565), was Eastern Roman Emperor from AD August 1, 527 until his death. ...


In medieval times Prishtina grew from the ruins of the former Roman city. The city was located at a junction of roads leading in all directions throughout the Balkan peninsula. For this reason Priština rose to become an important trading centre on the main trade routes across south-eastern Europe. It also became an important mining town. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ...


The Slav occupiers, who had come in the previous centuries and expelled the local Illyrian population whose descendants are Albanians, during the time of the medieval Serbian state, made Prishtina the capital of King Milutin (1282-1321) and other Serbian rulers from the Nemanjic and Brankovic dynasties until the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, when an invading Ottoman army decisively defeated the Serbian army. The whole of Serbia was subsequently conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1459. Events English conquest of Wales begins under Edward I of England Sicilian Vespers - Sicilians rebel against Charles of Anjou and are aided by Peter III of Aragon Births Pope Innocent VI Deaths August 25 - Thomas Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford October 13 - Nichiren December 11 - Llywelyn the Last, Prince of Wales... Events Births Deaths September 14 - Dante Alighieri - author of The Divine Comedy, one of the great classics of World Literature and a foundation of Italian Literature, also considered a great masterpiece of Christian literature. ... This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles, see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation) The Battle of Kosovo Polje was fought on St. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I seizes Albert, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 15 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul (Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 6. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ...


While the town retained an almost exclusively Serb character for at least a quarter century more, because of heavy military expulsion/occupation/torture/assimilation of the local Albanian population, it progressively became more and more Turkish, although it was noted that in the 17th century, most of the inhabitants were local Muslim converts (Slavic) rather than Albanians. After centuries of Ottoman rule the town gained a distinct Turkish character. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


From the 1870s onwards Albanians in the region formed the League of Prizren to resist Ottoman rule, and a provisional government was formed in 1881. In 1912 Kosovo was briefly included in the newly independent state of Albania. But the following year the Great Powers forced Albania to cede the region to Serbia. In 1918 Kosovo became a part of the newly formed Yugoslavia. Events and Trends Technology The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... The League of Prizren (Albanian: Lidhja e Prizrenit) was created on June 10, 1878 in a mosque in Prizren, Kosovo by 300 Albanian nationalist leaders, mostly from Kosovo, Western Macedonia, and Muslim leaders from Bosnia-Hercegovina and the Sandzak, in order to achieve an autonomous Albanian state, representing the former... 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Serbia and Montenegro  – Serbia    – Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    – Vojvodina  – Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  – Total  – % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  – Total (2002)     (without Kosovo)  – Density  7. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ...


Before the Second World War, Prishtina was an ethnically mixed town with large communities of Albanians, Serbs and Turks. However, Prishtina's Turkish character began to fade slowly during the late 1930's with migrations to the newly-founded Republic of Turkey, which was eager to attract ethnic Turks from outside Turkey to settle the Turkish provinces formerly inhabited by Greeks and Armenians. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


The Second World War saw the decline of Prishtina's Serbian community as well as a large-scale settling of Albanians in the town. Between 1941 and 1945 Prishtina was incorporated into the Italian-occupied Greater Albania. The word Serbian might be: an adjective, meaning: of Serbs (Serbian tradition, Serbian religion) of Serbia (Serbian government, Serbian president) both of the above (Serbian flag) a noun, meaning: a Serb a Serb from Serbia (as opposed to Serb who is not from Serbia) citizen of Serbia (regardless of nationality... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... A Greater Albania is the theoretical political movement and nationalist ideal of an Albania with all major Albanian groups and traditional territories united together. ...


Prishtina after World War II

In 1946, Prishtina became the capital of the Autonomous Kosovan Area (Kosovo). Between 1953 and 1999, the population of Pristina increased from around 24,000 to over 300,000. All of the national communities of the city increased over this period, but the greatest increase was among the Albanian population, who settled in the city after their homes were destroyed by the serbian military during the war. The Albanian population increased from around 9,000 in 1953 to nearly 76,000 in 1981. The Serbian and Montenegrin population increased too but by a far more modest number, from just under 8,000 in 1953 to around 21,000 by 1981. By the start of the 1980s, Albanians constituted over 70% of Prishtina's population. 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Kosovo (known in Albanian as Kosova, in Serbian as Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, and in English simply as Kosovo) is a province in southern Serbia. ... Kosovo and Metohia (Serbian: Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, Albanian: Kosova), in English most oftenly called just Kosovo, is a province of Serbia. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although Kosovo was under the rule of local Albanian members of the Communist Party, economic decline and political instability in the late 1960s and at the start of the 1980s led to outbreaks of nationalist unrest. In November 1968, student demonstrations and riots in Belgrade spread to Prishtina, but were put down by the Yugoslav security forces. However, some of the demands of the students were met by the Tito government, including the establishment in 1970 of Prishtina University as an independent institution. This ended a long period when the institution had been run as an outpost of Belgrade University and gave a major boost to Albanian-language education and culture in Kosovo. 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Belgrade (Serbian, Београд, Beograd  listen), is the capital (2003–) of Serbia and Montenegro and Yugoslavia (1918–2003). ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


In March 1981, students at Prishtina University rioted over poor food in their university canteen. This seemingly trivial dispute rapidly spread throughout Kosovo and took on the character of a national revolt, with massive popular demonstrations in Prishtina and other Kosovo towns. The Communist Yugoslav presidency quelled the disturbances by sending in riot police and the army and proclaiming a state of emergency, with several killed in clashes and thousands subsequently being imprisoned or disciplined.


Prishtina in the Kosovo War and afterwards

Following the abolition of Kosovo's autonomy by Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic in 1990, a harshly repressive regime was imposed throughout Kosovo by the Serbian government with Albanians largely being purged from state industries and institutions. Prishtina University was seen as a hotbed of Albanian nationalism and was duly purged: 800 lecturers were sacked and 22,500 of the 23,000 students expelled. In response, the Kosovo Albanians set up a "shadow government" under the authority of the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK), led by the writer Ibrahim Rugova. Although the city was formally controlled by Serbs appointed by the Milosevic government, the LDK established parallel structures, funded by private contributions, to provide free services such as health care and higher education that were largely denied to the Albanian population. Slobodan Milošević. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ibrahim Rugova Ibrahim Rugova (b. ...


The LDK's role meant that when the Kosovo Liberation Army began to attack Serbian and Yugoslav forces from 1996 onwards, Priština remained largely calm until the outbreak of the Kosovo War in March 1999. The city was placed under a state of emergency at the end of March and large areas were sealed off. After NATO began air strikes against Yugoslavia on March 24, 1999, widespread violence broke out in Prishtina. Serbian and Yugoslav forces shelled several districts and, in conjunction with paramilitaries, conducted large-scale expulsions of ethnic Albanians accompanied by widespread looting. Many of those expelled were directed onto trains apparently brought to Prishtina's main station for the express purpose of taking them to the border of the Republic of Macedonia, where they were forced into exile. The United States Department of State estimated in May 1999 that between 100,000-120,000 people had been driven out of Prishtina by government forces and paramilitaries. The KLA insignia The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UÇK; Albanian: Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës) was an Albanian guerrilla group which operated in Kosovo during the late 1990s. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The flag of NATO NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4, 1949. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... Official languages Macedonian2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Bučkovski Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 145th  25,713 km²  1. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


Several strategic targets in Prishtina were attacked by NATO during the war, but physical damage appears to have largely been restricted to a few specific neighborhoods shelled by Yugoslav security forces. At the end of the war, most of the city's 40,000 Serbs (half of which were recent immigrants from Central Serbia) fled. The few who remained were subjected to harassment and violence by Albanian gangs, which reduced Prishtina's Serb population still further. Other national groups accused of collaboration with the Serbian war effort by Albanians - notably the gypsies - were also driven out. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, by August 1999 fewer than 2,000 Serbs were left in the city. That number dwindled to just 200 a few years later and just might have hit rock bottom with the March 17, 2004 Kosovo Unrests. The Rroma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of events Violent unrest in Kosovo (a United Nations-administrated province of Serbia officially called Kosovo and Metohija) broke out on March 17, 2004. ...


Prishtina is today the centre of the international presence in Kosovo and is home to the transitional administration of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo. The United Nations Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration of the Serbian province (as part of Serbia and Montenegro) called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), under the authority of the United Nations. ...


Demographics

  • 1931 census, out of a total of 18,358 inhabitants: 7,573 spoke Turkish (41%) as their mother tongue - 5,738 spoke the Serbian language (31%) - 2,351 spoke Albanian (13%) - 2,651 spoke other languages (Romany, Circassian etc.) (14%)
  • 1953 census recorded 24,229 citizens: 9,034 Albanians (37%) - 7,951 Serbs/Montenegrins (33%) - 4,726 Turks (20%) - 2,518 Roma and other minorities (10%)
  • 1961 census found 38,593 citizens: Albanians 19,060 (49%) - 14,695 Serbs/Montenegrins (38%) - 404 Croats (1%) - 195 Roma
  • 1971 census found 69,514 citizens: 40,873 Albanians (59%) - 19,767 Serbs/Montenegrins (28%) - 4,119 Roma (6%)
  • 1981 census found 108,083 citizens: - 75,803 Albanians (70%) - 21,067 Serbs/Montenegrins (19%) - 5,101 Roma (5%) - 2,504 Slavic Muslims (2%)
  • 2004 it is estimated that the population might be as high as 500,000, almost exclusively Albanians and some Turks

The Serbian language or Serb language is one of the standard versions of the Central-South Slavic diasystem, formerly (and still frequently) called Serbo-Croatian. ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, travelling peoples often referred to in English as gypsies. They came originally from northern India and parts of Pakistan, and their language belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language group. ... Circassian language is used in a number of ways: as a synonym for the Adyghe language; as a synonym for the Kabardian language; as a term for a distinct language that includes both Adyghe and Kabardian. ...

See also

Kosovo and Metohia (Serbian: Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, Albanian: Kosova), in English most oftenly called just Kosovo, is a province of Serbia. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...

References and links

  • The official website of the Municipality of Prishtina (http://www.prishtina-komuna.org/)
  • Erasing History: Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo (http://www.state.gov/www/regions/eur/rpt_9905_ethnic_ksvo_1.html) - US Department of State, May 1999
  • Human Rights in Kosovo: As Seen, As Told (Volume I, October 1998 - June 1999) (http://www.osce.org/item/1813.html) - OSCE, 1999
  • Human Rights in Kosovo: As Seen, As Told (Volume II, June - September 1999) (http://www.osce.org/item/1815.html) - OSCE, 1999
  • "Pristina's Serbs flee in thousands" (http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,73067,00.html), The Guardian, August 12, 1999

  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - Pristina, Former Yugoslavia (Former Yugoslavian Political Geography) - Encyclopedia (176 words)
Pristina or Prishtina[both: prE´shtinA] Pronunciation Key, city (1991 pop.
It is the chief city and capital of Kosovo and the heart of the Albanian Kosovar separatist movement.
Pristina was a capital of the Serbian empire in the 14th cent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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