FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Prisoner of war" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Prisoner of war
Austro-Hungarian POWs in Russia; a 1915 photo by Prokudin-Gorskii
Burial of a Japanese POW and a Russian convict in the permafrost of Gulag. Painting by Nikolai Getman provided by Jamestown Foundation

A prisoner of war (POW, PoW, PW, P/W or PsW) is a combatant who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. POW is a three letter abbreviation and as such has several meanings: POW is short for Prisoner of War POW is also a shortened name of the Polish Military Organisation active before and during the World War I Pow is a onomatopoeia found commonly in comic strips to describe an... Download high resolution version (800x691, 124 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Prisoner of war World War I Austro-Hungarian Army ... Download high resolution version (800x691, 124 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Prisoner of war World War I Austro-Hungarian Army ... The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... Sergei Prokudin-Gorski. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... Getmans painting of Nagaevo, Magadans port Nikolai Getman (Russian: , Ukrainian: ), an artist, was born in 1917 in Kharkiv, Ukraine, and died in Orel, Russia, in 2004. ... The Jamestown Foundation (founded 1984) is an American think tank whose mission is to inform and educate policy makers about events and trends which are current strategic importance to the United States. ... A combatant is a person who takes a direct part in the hostilities of an armed conflict who upon capture qualifies for prisoner of war under the Third Geneva Convention (GCIII). ...

Contents

Ancient times

For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, combatants on the losing side in a battle could expect to be either slaughtered, to eliminate them as a future threat, or enslaved, bringing economic and social benefits to the victorious side and its soldiers. Typically, little distinction was made between combatants and civilians, although women and children were certainly more likely to be spared. Sometimes the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture women, a practice known as raptio; the Rape of the Sabines was a notable mass capture by the founders of Rome. Typically women had no rights, were held legally as chattel, and would not be accepted back by their birth families once they had bore children to those who had killed their brothers and fathers. Facsimile of the sculpture in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Personal property is a type of property. ...


Likewise the distinction between POW and slave is not always clear. Some of the indigenous people of the Americas captured Europeans and used their labour and used them as bartering chips; see for example John R. Jewitt, an Englishman who wrote a memoir about his years as a captive of the Nootka people on the Pacific Northwest Coast in 1802-1805. Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Nuu-chah-nulth (pronounced New-cha-nulth) (also formerly referred to as the Nootka, Nutka, Aht, West Coast, T’aat’aaqsapa, Nuuchahnulth) people are indigenous peoples of Canada. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ...


Qualifications

To be entitled to prisoner of war status, the captured service member must be a "lawful combatant" entitled to combatant's privilege--which gives them immunity for crimes constituting lawful acts of war, e.g., killing enemy troops. To qualify under the Fourth Geneva Convention, the combatant must have conducted military operations according to the laws and customs of war: be part of a chain of command and wear a "fixed distinctive marking, visible from a distance", and bear arms openly. Thus, francs-tireurs, "terrorists", saboteurs, mercenaries and spies may be excluded. A combatant (also referred to as an enemy combatant) is a soldier or guerrilla member who is waging war. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... IS the order you go to see people in. ... The phrase Francs-tireurs was used to describe irregular military formations deployed by France during the early stages of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) and from that usage is is sometimes used to refer more generally to guerrilla fighters who fight outside the laws of war[1]. The term... Terrorist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ...


In practice, these criteria are not always interpreted strictly. Guerrillas, for example, may not wear an issued uniform or carry arms openly yet are sometimes granted POW status if captured (although Additional Protocol 1 may give them POW status in some circumstances). These criteria are normally restricted to international armed conflicts: in civil wars insurgents are often treated as traitors or criminals by government forces, and are sometimes executed. However, in the American Civil War both sides treated captured troops as POWs despite the Union considering the Confederacy separatist rebels, presumably because of reciprocity. After the hunger strike by Bobby Sands and his Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) colleagues, the British government allegedly gave some POW privileges to IRA prisoners. Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Animated map of secession, Civil War and re-admission:  States of the Union  Territories of the Union (including occupied territory)  States of the Confederacy  Territories claimed by Confederacy During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the twenty-three states of the United States... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Robert Gerard Sands (Irish: [1][2]), commonly known as Bobby Sands, (9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981), was a Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteer and member of the UK parliament who died on hunger strike whilst in HM Prison Maze (also known as Long Kesh) for the possession of firearms. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern...


However, guerrillas or any other combatant may not be granted the status if they try to use both the civilian and the military status. Thus, uniforms and/or badges are important in determining prisoner of war status.


Middle Ages

See also: Prisoners of war in Islam

During the Middle Ages, a number of religious wars were particularly ferocious. In Christian Europe, the extermination of the heretics or "non-believers" was considered desirable. Examples include the 13th century Albigensian Crusade and the Northern Crusades.[1] Likewise the inhabitants of conquered cities were frequently massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th century and the 12th century. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed; their families would have to send to their captors large sums of wealth commensurate with the social status of the captive. In pre-Islamic Arabia, upon capture, those captives not executed, were made to beg for their subsistence. During the early reforms under Islam, Muhammad changed this custom and made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion. If the prisoners were in the custody of a person, then the responsibility was on the individual.[2] He established the rule that prisoners of war must be guarded and not ill-treated, and that after the fighting was over, the prisoners were expected to be either released or ransomed. The freeing of prisoners in particular was highly recommended as a charitable act. Mecca was the first city to have the benevolent code applied (rather than what Mecca’s people expected: complete massacre). However, Christians who were captured in the Crusades were sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom.[3] The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ... Many Reforms took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammads mission and the rule of his four immediate successors. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


The 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, established the rule that prisoners of war should be released without ransom at the end of hostilities and that they should be allowed to return to their homelands.[4] Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I...


Modern times

Jan Kilinski leading a group of Russian prisoners of war following the Warsaw Uprising of 1794

During the 19th century, efforts increased to improve the treatment and processing of prisoners. The extensive period of conflict during the Revolutionary War and Napoleonic Wars (1793-1815), followed by the Anglo-American War of 1812, led to the emergence of a cartel system for the exchange of prisoners, even while the belligerents were at war. A cartel was usually arranged by the respective armed service for the exchange of like ranked personnel. The aim was to achieve a reduction in the number of prisoners held, while at the same time alleviating shortages of skilled personnel in the home country. Image File history File links Kilinski. ... Image File history File links Kilinski. ... Jan KiliÅ„ski - (1760-1819 was one of the most illustrious commanders of the KoÅ›ciuszko Uprising. ... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... See Anglo-America for the term denoting mixed English and American influence or heritage or those parts of (or groups within) America which have a tie to or which are influenced by England or simply English-speaking America. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... For the American pop-punk band, see Cartel (band). ... For the American pop-punk band, see Cartel (band). ...


Later, as result of these emerging conventions a number of international conferences were held, starting with the Brussels Conference of 1874, with nations agreeing that it was necessary to prevent inhumane treatment of prisoners and the use of weapons causing unnecessary harm. Although no agreements were immediately ratified by the participating nations, work was continued that resulted in new conventions being adopted and becoming recognized as international law, that specified that prisoners of war are required to be treated humanely and diplomatically. The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that binds together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems...


Hague and Geneva Conventions

Specifically, Chapter II of the Annex to the 1907 Hague Convention covered the treatment of prisoners of war in detail. These were further expanded in the Third Geneva Convention of 1929, and its revision of 1949. Article 4 of the Third Geneva Convention protects captured military personnel, some guerrilla fighters and certain civilians. It applies from the moment a prisoner is captured until he or she is released or repatriated. One of the main provisions of the convention makes it illegal to torture prisoners and states that a prisoner can only be required to give their name, date of birth, rank and service number (if applicable). The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Third Geneva Convention The Third Geneva Convention (or GCIII) of 1949, one of the Geneva Conventions, is a treaty agreement that primarily concerns the treatment of prisoners of war (POWs), and also touched on other topics. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Third Geneva Convention The Third Geneva Convention (or GCIII) of 1949, one of the Geneva Conventions, is a treaty agreement that primarily concerns the treatment of prisoners of war (POWs), and also touched on other topics. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


However, nations vary in their dedication to following these laws, and historically the treatment of POWs has varied greatly. During the 20th century, Imperial Japan and Nazi Germany were notorious for atrocities against prisoners during World War II. The German military used the Soviet Union's refusal to sign the Geneva Convention as a reason for not providing the necessities of life to Russian POWs. North Korean and North Vietnamese forces routinely killed or mistreated prisoners taken during those conflicts. For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The United States Military Code of Conduct

The United States Military Code of Conduct, Articles III through V, are guidelines for United States service members who have been taken prisoner. They were created in response to the breakdown of leadership which can happen in an atypical environment such as a POW situation, specifically when US forces were POWs during the Korean War. When a person is taken prisoner, the Code of Conduct reminds the service member that the chain of command is still in effect (the highest ranking service member, regardless of armed service branch, is in command), and that the service member cannot receive special favors or parole from their captors, lest this undermine the service member's chain of command. The United States Military Code of Conduct (CoC) is the moral guide for the behavior of U.S. military members who are evading or captured by hostile forces. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...

World War I

American prisoners of war in Germany in 1917.

During World War I about 8 million men surrendered and were held in POW camps until the war ended. All nations pledged to follow the Hague rules on fair treatment of prisoners of war, and in general the POWs had a much higher survival rate than their peers who were not captured.[5] Individual surrenders were uncommon; usually a large unit surrendered all its men. At Tannenberg 92,000 Russians surrendered during the battle. When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in 1915, 20,000 Russians became prisoners. Over half the Russian losses were prisoners (as a proportion of those captured, wounded or killed); for Austria 32%, for Italy 26%, for France 12%, for Germany 9%; for Britain 7%. Prisoners from the Allied armies totaled about 1.4 million (not including Russia, which lost between 2.5 and 3.5 million men as prisoners.) From the Central Powers about 3.3 million men became prisoners.[6] Image File history File links US_pow. ... Image File history File links US_pow. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Stębark (German:Tannenberg) is a village in Poland. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s...

German soldiers captured by the British in Flanders

Germany held 2.5 million prisoners; Russia held 2.9 million, and Britain and France held about 720,000, mostly gained in the period just before the Armistice in 1918. The US held 48,000. The most dangerous moment was the act of surrender, when helpless soldiers were sometimes shot down. Once prisoners reached a POW camp in general conditions were satisfactory (and much better than in World War II), thanks in part to the efforts of the International Red Cross and inspections by neutral nations. Conditions were terrible in Russia, starvation was common for prisoners and civilians alike; about 40% of the prisoners in Russia died or remained missing.[7] Nearly 375,000 of the 500,000 Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war taken by Russians have perished in Siberia from smallpox and typhus.[8] In Germany food was short but only 5% died. [9] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 771 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (822 × 639 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 771 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (822 × 639 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the worlds largest group of humanitarian non-governmental organizations, often known simply as the Red Cross, after its original symbol. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... This article is about the disease. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ...


The Ottoman Empire often treated prisoners of war poorly. Some 11,800 British soldiers, most of them Indians, became prisoners after the five-month Siege of Kut, in Mesopotamia, in April 1916. Many were weak and starved when they surrendered and 4,250 died in captivity.[10] Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Combatants Britain, British India Ottoman Empire Commanders General Townshend Baron von der Goltz†, Khalil Pasha Strength 30,000 50,000 Casualties 23,000 10,000 The Siege of Kut-al-Amara (December 7, 1915 – April 29, 1916) was part of the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I. The British Mesopotamian... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


The most curious case came in Russia where the Czech Legion of Czech prisoners (from the Austro-Hungarian army), were released in 1917, armed themselves, and briefly became a military and diplomatic force during the Russian Civil War. Czech Legion, also called Czech-Slovak Legion was an armed force attached to the Russian army during the World War I. It played a prominent role in the Russian Civil War. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist...


Release of prisoners

At the end of the war in 1918 there were believed to be 140,000 British prisoners of war in Germany, including 3,000 internees held in neutral Switzerland. The first British prisoners were released and reached Calais on 15 November. Plans were made for them to be sent via Dunkirk to Dover and a large reception camp was established at Dover capable of housing 40,000 men, which could later be used for demobilisation. Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... For other uses of Dunkirk or Dunkerque, see Dunkirk (disambiguation). ... , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... Demobilization is the process of standing down a nations armed forces from combat-ready status. ...


On 13 December 1918 the armistice was extended and the Allies reported that by 9 December 264,000 prisoners had been repatriated. A very large number of these has been released en masse and sent across Allied lines without any food or shelter. This had created difficulties for the receiving Allies and many released prisoners had died from exhaustion. The released POWs were met by cavalry troops and sent back through the lines in lorries to reception centres where they were refitted with boots and clothing and dispatched to the ports in trains. Upon arrival at the receiving camp the POWs were registered and “boarded” before being dispatched to their own homes. All commissioned officers had to write a report on the circumstances of their capture and to ensure that they had done all they could to avoid capture. Each returning officer and man was given a message from King George V, written in his own hand and reproduced on a lithograph. It read as follows:[citation needed] Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... In military organizations, a commissioned officer is a member of the service who derives authority directly from a sovereign power, and as such holds a commission from that power. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ...

The Queen joins me in welcoming you on your release from the miseries & hardships, which you have endured with so much patience and courage.


During these many months of trial, the early rescue of our gallant Officers & Men from the cruelties of their captivity has been uppermost in our thoughts.


We are thankful that this longed for day has arrived, & that back in the old Country you will be able once more to enjoy the happiness of a home & to see good days among those who anxiously look for your return. George R.I.

World War II

Treatment of POWs by the Axis

Germany and Italy generally treated prisoners from the British Commonwealth, France, the U.S. and other western allies, in accordance with the Geneva Convention (1929), which had been signed by these countries.[11] Nazi Germany did not extend this level of treatment to non-Western prisoners, such as the Soviets, who suffered harsh captivities and died in large numbers while in captivity. The Empire of Japan also did not treat prisoners of war in accordance with the Geneva Convention. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Geneva Convention (1929) The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi...

New Guinea, 1943. An Australian POW about to be beheaded.

When soldiers of lower rank were made to work, they were compensated, and officers (e.g. in Colditz Castle) were not required to work. The main complaint of British, British Commonwealth, U.S. and French prisoners of war in German Army POW camps, especially during the last two years of the war, was the poor quality and miserly quantities of food provided, a fate German soldiers and civilians were also suffering due to the blockade conditions. Fortunately for the prisoners, food packages provided by the International Red Cross supplemented the food rations, until the last few months when allied air raids prevented shipments from arriving. The other main complaint was the harsh treatment during forced marches in the last months, resulting from German attempts to keep prisoners away from the advancing allied forces. Image File history File linksMetadata LeonardGSiffleet. ... Image File history File linksMetadata LeonardGSiffleet. ... Colditz Castle in April 1945. ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the worlds largest group of humanitarian non-governmental organizations, often known simply as the Red Cross, after its original symbol. ...

Soviet POWs in German captivity

In contrast, Germany treated the Soviet Red Army troops that had been taken prisoner with neglect and deliberate, organized brutality. The first eight months of the German campaign on their Eastern Front were by far the worst phase, with up to 2.4 of 3.1 million POWs dying. Soviet POWs were held under conditions that resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands from starvation and disease. Most prisoners were also subjected to forced labour under conditions that resulted in further deaths. An official justification used by the Germans for this policy was that the Soviet Union had not signed the Geneva Convention. This was not legally justifiable, however, as under article 82 of the Geneva Convention (1929), signatory countries had to give POWs of all signatory and non-signatory countries the rights assigned by the convention.[12] A month after the German invasion in 1941 an offer was made by the USSR for a reciprocal adherence to the Hague conventions. This 'note' was left unanswered by Third Reich officials [13]. Soviet POWs in German captivity The extermination of Soviet prisoners of war by Nazi Germany relates to the genocidal policies taken towards the captured soldiers of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Eastern Front may refer to one of the following. ... Soviet POWs in German captivity The extermination of Soviet prisoners of war by Nazi Germany relates to the genocidal policies taken towards the captured soldiers of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Geneva Convention (1929) The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international...


According to some sources, between 1941 and 1945, the Axis powers took about 5.7 million Soviet prisoners. About 1 million of them were released during the war, in that their status changed but they remained under German authority. A little over 500,000 either escaped or were liberated by the Red Army. Some 930,000 more were found alive in camps after the war. The remaining 3.3 million prisoners (57.5% of the total captured) died during their captivity.[14] According to Russian military historian General G. Krivoshhev, 4.6 million Soviet prisoners were taken by the Axis powers, of which 1.8 million were found alive in camps after the war and 318,770 were released by the Axis during the war and were then drafted into the Soviet armed forces again.[15]. In comparison, 8,348 Western Allied (British, American and Canadian) prisoners died in German camps in 1939-45 (3.5% of the 232,000 total).


On 11 February 1945, at the conclusion of the Yalta Conference, the United States and the United Kingdom signed a Repatriation Agreement with the USSR.[16] The interpretation of this Agreement resulted in the forcible repatriation of all Russians (Operation Keelhaul) regardless of their wishes. The forced repatriation operations took place in 1945-1947.[17] Many Soviet POWs and forced laborers transported to Nazi Germany were on their return to the USSR treated as traitors and sent to the gulag. The remainder were barred from all but the most menial jobs. The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Operation Keelhaul was a programme carried out in Austria by British forces in May and June 1945 that decided the fate of thousands of post-war refugees fleeing eastern Europe. ... Eastern Workers or Ostarbeiter is the official term introduced in Nazi Germany to denote people of non-German national origin who inhabited the Reich Commissariat for the Ukraine, the General Commissariat for White Russia, or territories bordering on these territories to the east or on the former free states of... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ...


In the Pacific War, the Empire of Japan had never signed the Third Geneva Convention of 1929. The Empire, however, violated international agreements signed by Japan, including provisions of the Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907), which protect prisoners of war (POWs). For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Geneva Convention (1929) The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international...


Prisoners of war from China, the United States, Australia, Britain, Canada, Netherlands and New Zealand held by the Japanese armed forces were subject to murder, beatings, summary punishments, brutal treatment, forced labor, medical experimentation, starvation rations, and poor medical treatment. No access to the POWs was provided to the International Red Cross. Escapes were almost impossible because of the difficulty of men of European descent hiding in Asiatic societies.[18] The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the worlds largest group of humanitarian non-governmental organizations, often known simply as the Red Cross, after its original symbol. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


According to the findings of the Tokyo tribunal, the death rate of Western prisoners was 27.1% (American POWs died at a rate of 37%),[19] seven times that of POW's under the Germans and Italians[20] The death rate of Chinese was much larger as, according to the directive ratified on 5 August 1937 by Hirohito, the constraints of international law were removed on those prisoners.[21] Thus, of 37,583 prisoners from the UK, 28,500 from Netherlands and 14,473 from USA were released after the surrender of Japan, the number for the Chinese was only 56.[22] Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... The Japanese representatives, Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu, on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ...


Treatment of POWs by the Allies

According to some sources, the Soviets captured 3.5 million Axis servicemen (excluding Japanese) of which more than a million died.[23]. According to G. Krivoshhev, the Soviets captured in total 4,126,964 Axis servicemen, of which 580,548 died in captivity. Of 2,389,560 German servicemen 450,600 died in captivity.[24] One specific example of the tragic fate of the German POWs was after the Battle of Stalingrad, during which the Soviets captured 91,000 German troops. Of the German troops captured in Stalingrad, many already starved and ill, only 5,000 survived the war. The last German POWs (those who were sentenced for war crimes, sometimes without sufficient reasons) were released by the Soviets in 1955, only after Joseph Stalin had died.[25] See also POW labor in the Soviet Union, Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Romanian POW in the Soviet Union. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Viktor Pavičić Josef Stalin Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Andrei Yeremenko Strength... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Systematic POW labor in the Soviet Union is associated primarily with the outcomes of the World War II and covers the period of 1939-1956. ...

German soldiers taken POW by the Polish Independent Highland Brigade during the Battle of Narvik of 1940

During the war allied nations such as the U.S., UK, Australia and Canada tried[citation needed] to treat Axis prisoners strictly in accordance with the Geneva Convention (1929). Image File history File links Podhalan_POWs. ... Image File history File links Podhalan_POWs. ... Polish Independent Highland Brigade (Polish Samodzielna Brygada Strzelców Podhalańskich) was Polish military unit created in France in 1939, after the fall of Poland. ... The Battles of Narvik were naval battles between the Royal Navy (Britain) and the Kriegsmarine (Germany) that occurred in April 1940 (during the Second World War). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Geneva Convention (1929) The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929. ...


Japanese prisoners sent to camps in the U.S. faired well, but many Japanese were killed when trying to surrender or were massacred just after they had surrendered. (see Allied war crimes during World War II in the Pacific) Allied war crimes were violations of the laws of war committed by the Allies of World War II against civilian populations or military personnel of the Axis Powers. ...


Towards the end of the war, as large numbers of Axis soldiers surrendered, the U.S. created the designation of Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEF) so as not to treat prisoners as POWs. A lot of these soldiers were kept in open fields in various Rheinwiesenlagers. Controversy has arisen about how Eisenhower managed these prisoners. [2] (see Eisenhower and German POWs). Many died when forced to clear minefields in Norway, France etc. How many died during the several post-war years that they were used for forced labor in France, the Soviet Union etc is disputed. Disarmed Enemy Forces is a designation for captive enemy soldiers. ... The Rheinwiesenlager (Rhine meadow camps) were transit camps for millions of German POWs after World War II. There were some deaths, with a few thousand German POWs dying from starvation and exposure. ... Allegations made by Canadian novelist James Bacque were that nearly one million German prisoners of war, that Dwight Eisenhower redesignated as Disarmed Enemy Forces in order to avoid having to obey the third Geneva Convention, died of starvation or exposure while held in post-war Western internment camps. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ...


See also List of World War II POW camps


Post World War II

U.S soldier taken as a POW by Chinese forces and shot in the head with his hands tied behind his back during the Korean War.
North Korean POWs being guarded by a U.S. Marine during the Korean War

During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Indian Armed Forces captured more than 90,000 Pakistani soldiers in East Pakistan (which became an independent nation following the war)[26]. It was one of the largest surrenders since World War II. India originally wished to try some 200 of them for war crimes for the brutality in East Pakistan, but eventually acceded to releasing them as a gesture of reconciliation. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 793 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2923 × 2211 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 793 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2923 × 2211 pixel, file size: 1. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (585x765, 115 KB) This image is a work of a sailor or employee of the U.S. Navy, taken or made during the course of the persons official duties. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (585x765, 115 KB) This image is a work of a sailor or employee of the U.S. Navy, taken or made during the course of the persons official duties. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Belligerents India Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora G.G Bewoor K. P. Candeth Gul Hassan Khan Abdul Hamid Khan Tikka Khan A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 100,000 Mukti BahiniRebels 400,000+ troops Casualties and losses 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] Unknown... The Indian Armed Forces is the primary military organization responsible for the territorial security and defence of India. ... Military manpower Military age 16 years of age Availability 39,028,014 (2005) Males ages 16-49 Reaching military age males: 1,969,055 (2005) Active troops 620,000 (Ranked 7th) Military expenditures Dollar figure $3. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Combatants Bengali units of Pakistan Army and civilian volunteers Pakistan Armed Forces Commanders Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmed (April 17 -December 16) Col(ret). ...


Regardless of regulations determining treatment to prisoners, violation of their rights continue to be reported. Many cases of POW massacres have been reported in recent times, including October 13 massacre in Lebanon and June 1990 massacre in Sri Lanka. The October 13 Massacre took place on October 13, 1990, during the final moments of the Lebanese Civil War. ... The massacre of police officers was one of the largest massacres of Prisoners of War carried out by the LTTE. This massacre took place in June 1990 and resulted in the deaths of most of the 400 to 600 police officers captured after they had surrendered to the LTTE[1...


During the 1990s Yugoslav Wars, Serb forces committed many POW massacres, including: Vukovar, Škarbrnja and Srebrenica massacres. Belligerents Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo Liberation Army, NATO, UCPMB SFR Yugoslavia, Republic of Srpska Serbian Krajina FR Yugoslavia, Paramilitary forces from Serbia Commanders Milan Kučan Janez JanÅ¡a, Franjo TuÄ‘man, Mate Boban Janko Bobetko, Alija Izetbegović, Sefer Halilović, Hashim Thaci, Wesley Clark, Javier Solana Bill Clinton... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Ovčara massacre memorial The Vukovar massacre was a war crime that took place between November 18 and November 21, 1991 near the city of Vukovar, a mixed Croat/Serb community in northeastern Croatia. ... According to the census of 1991, Å kabrnja was inhabited by 1,953 people in 397 households, and the vast majority of them were Croats, there wasnt a single Serb resident. ... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Numbers of POWs

This is a list of nations with the highest number of POWs since the start of World War II, listed in descending order. These are also the highest numbers in any war since the Geneva Convention, Relative to the treatment of prisoners of war (1929) entered into force 19 June 1931. The USSR had not signed the Geneva convention.[27] The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Prisoner nationality Number Name of conflict
 Soviet Union 4 - 5.7 million (2.7 - 3.3 million died in German POW camps) [28] (ref. Streit) World War II (Total)
 Nazi Germany 3,127,380 taken by U.S.S.R. (474,967 died in captivity) [29] World War II
 France 1,800,000 Battle of France in World War II
 Poland 675,000 (420,000 by Germans, 240,000 by Soviets in 1939; 15,000 Warsaw 1944) World War II
 United Kingdom ~200,000 (135,000 taken in Europe, does not include Pacific or Commonwealth figures) World War II
 United States ~130,000 (95,532 taken by Germany) World War II
 Pakistan 90,368 taken by India Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Belligerents India Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora G.G Bewoor K. P. Candeth Gul Hassan Khan Abdul Hamid Khan Tikka Khan A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 100,000 Mukti BahiniRebels 400,000+ troops Casualties and losses 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] Unknown...

List of notable POWs

List of POWs that attracted notable attention or influence by this status:

A Pakistan stamp shows the 90,000 POWs in Indian camps following its surrender in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. This stamp, released with the aim of raising the POW issue at a global level in securing their release, is one of the very few stamps issued by a nation about its POWs.

Image File history File links PakistanPoW.jpg Stamp issued by Pakistan representing 90000 prisoners of war in India. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... Belligerents India Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora G.G Bewoor K. P. Candeth Gul Hassan Khan Abdul Hamid Khan Tikka Khan A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 100,000 Mukti BahiniRebels 400,000+ troops Casualties and losses 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] Unknown... Wajid Ali Khan (born April 24, 1946 in Lahore, Pakistan) is a Canadian businessman and politician. ... Floyd James Jim Thompson (July 8, 1933 - July 16, 2002) was the longest held POW in United States history, spending nearly nine years in captivity in Vietnam. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... Ron Arad (‎) (born May 5, 1958) is an Israeli Air Force weapon systems officer (WSO) who is officially classified as missing in action but widely presumed dead. ... Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader, CBE, DSO and Bar, DFC and Bar, FRAeS, DL, RAF (21 February 1910–5 September 1982); surname pronounced IPA: ) was a successful fighter pilot in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. ... This article is about the Second World War battle. ... Air Commodore Leonard Birchall, CM, OBE, DFC, OOnt, CD, ( July 6, 1915 - September 10, 2004 ), The Saviour of Ceylon Leonard Joseph Birchall was born on July 6, 1915, in St. ... Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... This article is about the person. ... Jeremiah Andrew Denton Jr. ... The Navy Cross is the second highest medal that can be awarded by the Department of the Navy and the second highest award given for valor. ... Roy Dotrice (born May 26, 1925) is a British actor. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... Werner Drechsler, was a German U-boat crewman during World War II. He was stationed on U-118 which was sunk off the Azores in 1943. ... Sir Edward Weary Dunlop (July 12, 1907 - July 2, 1993) was born in Wangaratta, Victora Australia. ... The Bridge over the river Kwai Map of the Death Railway The Death Railway (known also as Thai-Burma Railway or Burma Railway) was a railway built from Thailand to Burma (now Myanmar) by the Japanese during World War II to complete the route from Bangkok to Rangoon and support... Yakov Dzhugashvili Yakov Iosifovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Russian: Яков Иосифович Джугашвили) (March 1908 – April 14, 1943) was one of Joseph Stalins three known children, along with Svetlana Stalin and Vasily Stalin. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Elliott in The Signal-Man Denholm Mitchell Elliott (May 31, 1922 – October 6, 1992) was a distinguished British actor, well known for his appearances on stage, film and television. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... Roosevelt and Henri Giraud in Casablanca, 19 January 1943 Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 13 March 1949) was a French general who fought in the First and Second World Wars. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Ehud (Udi) Goldwasser (image courtesy of the Goldwasser family) Ehud (Udi) Goldwasser is an Israeli soldier captured in Israel by Hezbollah along with Eldad Regev on 12 July 2006, sparking the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Ernest Gordon (1917 - 16 January 2002) was the former Presbyterian dean of the chapel at Princeton University. ... To End All Wars To End All Wars is a movie starring Robert Carlyle, Keifer Sutherland and Sakae Kimura. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... The Bridge over the river Kwai Map of the Death Railway The Death Railway (known also as Thai-Burma Railway or Burma Railway) was a railway built from Thailand to Burma (now Myanmar) by the Japanese during World War II to complete the route from Bangkok to Rangoon and support... Brigadier James Hargest (4 September 1891 - 12 August 1944) was a New Zealand military officer and politician. ... Heinrich Harrer Heinrich Harrer (July 6, 1912 – January 7, 2006) was an Austrian mountaineer, sportsman, geographer, and author. ... Peter Aufschnaiter Peter Aufschnaiter (* 1899 in Kitzbühel, Austria; † October 19th 1973 in Innsbruck, Austria) was a mountaineer, agricultural scientist and geographist. ... Erich Alfred Bubi Hartmann (April 19, 1922 - September 20, 1993), also nicknamed The Blond Knight Of Germany by friends and The Black Devil by his enemies, is the most successful fighter ace in the history of aerial combat. ... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... R. A. Bob Hoover (born c. ... Wilm Hosenfeld (full name: Wilhelm Hosenfeld; May 2, 1895 in Mackenzell, Hessen-Nassau, Germany–August 13, 1952 near Stalingrad), originally a teacher, was a German army officer who rose to the rank of captain by the end of the war. ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Szpilman (1942) WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Szpilman (also spelled Vladislav Szpilman in English) (December 5, 1911–July 6, 2000) was a Polish pianist, composer, and memoirist. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Alija Izetbegović, former president of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 - October 19, 2003) was a Bosnian Muslim activist, philosopher, and politician, president of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1990 to 1996 and member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1996 to 2000, and author of several... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA) was the army of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia prior to its dissolution. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... This article is about military actions only. ... Stanley Dubik Jaworski, Sr. ... Joseph Richards Essigs portrait of General Johnson Harold Keith Johnson was a U.S. general. ... Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Tikka Khan (Urdu: ٹکا خان) (b. ... The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... Gustav (Gurk) Krist (29 July 1894-1937) was an Austrian adventurer, prisoner-of-war, carpet-dealer and author. ... Russian Turkestan (Russian: Ру́сский Туркеста́н), also known as Turkestansky Krai (Туркеста́нский край), was a subdivision (Krai or Governor-Generalship) of Imperial Russia, comprising the oasis region to the South of the Kazakh steppes, but not the Protectorates of Bukhara and Khiva. ... Dieter Dengler (May 22, 1938 - February 7, 2001) was a United States Navy pilot during the Vietnam War. ... Pathet Lao (Laotian, Land of Laos) was a communist, nationalist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid 20th century. ... Desmond Wilkinson Llewelyn (September 12, 1913 – December 19, 1999) was a Welsh actor, famous for playing the fictional character of Q in the James Bond series of films. ... Q is a fictional character in the James Bond novels and films. ... The official film logo of James Bond (007) The adventures of Ian Flemings fictional secret agent, James Bond, have become a successful film series, with twenty-one titles made by EON Productions as of 2007. ... Jessica Dawn Lynch (b. ... Keith Matthew Matt Maupin (13 July 1983–) was a United States Army PFC captured by Iraqi insurgents on April 9, 2004 while serving in the Iraq War after his convoy came under attack by rocket-propelled grenades and small arms fire near Baghdad, Iraq. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Cardwell McCabe (October 11, 1836 - December 19, 1906), Civil War chaplain and Methodist Episcopal bishop, was Chancellor of American University from December 1902 until his death in December 1906. ... A chaplain in the 45th Infantry Division leads a Christmas Day service in Italy, 1943. ... Libby Prison, located in Richmond, Virginia, was a former tobacco warehouse located on Tobacco Row, converted into prison used by the Confederacy to house captured Union officers during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... McCain redirects here. ... GOP redirects here. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ... Dusty Miller was a British P.O.W. in Thailand during Second World War. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... William Hutchinson Murray (18 March 1913 - 19 March 1996) was one of a group of active Scottish mountain climbers, mainly from Clydeside, before and just after World War Two. ... Airey Middleton Sheffield Neave, DSO, OBE, MC, (23 January 1916 – 30 March 1979) was a British soldier, barrister and politician. ... Lt. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... For other persons named Noriega, see Noriega (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Paulus. ... Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad (metro station... Donald Pleasence (October 5, 1919 - February 2, 1995) was a British actor. ... Eldad Regev (image courtesy of the Regev family) Eldad Regev is an Israeli soldier, born in Qiryat Motzkin, captured by Hezbollah fighters along with Ehud Goldwasser on 12 July 2006, in Israel near the Lebanese border, sparking the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... Pat Reid photographed shortly after crossing the Swiss border on October 18, 1942. ... For the book by Chuck Palahniuk titled Non-fiction, see Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Rodionov (Russian: Родионов Евгений Александрович) (May 23, 1977 - May 23, 1996) was a Russian soldier who was kidnapped and later executed in Chechen captivity. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Kazuo Sakamaki (酒巻和男 Sakamaki Kazuo, November 8, 1918 - November 29, 1999) was a Japanese naval officer. ... Modern Classics reissue of Ronald Searles St Trinians drawings Ronald William Fordham Searle C.B.E.(born March 3, 1920) is an English artist and cartoonist. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Cartoonist Jack Elrod at work. ... Léopold Sédar Senghor (October 9, 1906–December 20, 2001) was an Seneglese poet and politician who served as the first president of Senegal (1960–1980). ... “Shalit” redirects here. ... William Stacy (1734–1802) was an officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and a pioneer to the Ohio Country. ... The Continental Army was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. ... Incident in Cherry Valley - fate of Jane Wells from the original picture by Alonzo Chappel by Thomas Phillibrown, engraver. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Vice Admiral James Bond Stockdale (December 23, 1923 – July 5, 2005) was one of the most highly decorated officers in the history of the United States Navy. ... Dick Cheney 46th and current Vice President (2001- ) The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who is a heartbeat from the presidency. ... Ernest William (Jim) Swanton CBE (11 February 1907 – 22 January 2000) is chiefly known for being a cricket writer and commentator under his initials, E. W. Swanton. ... Tito redirects here. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Russian: ; Polish: ) (February 16 [O.S. February 4] 1893 â€“ June 12, 1937), was a Soviet military commander, chief of the Red Army (1925–1928), and one of the most prominent victims of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... Charles Upham Captain Charles Hazlitt Upham VC and bar (September 21, 1908 – November 22, 1994) was a New Zealand soldier who won the Victoria Cross twice during the Second World War: in Crete in May 1941, and at Ruweisat Ridge, Egypt, in July 1942. ... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ... Sir Laurens Jan van der Post by Frances Baruch Sir Laurens Jan van der Post (aka Laurens van der Post) December 13, 1906 – December 16, 1996. ... Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach (August 22, 1888 in Hamburg, Germany - April 28, 1976 in Bremen) was a German general. ... Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad (metro station... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... The bombing of Dresden, led by Royal Air Force (RAF) and followed by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. The exact number of casualties is uncertain, but most historians agree... Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV (August 23, 1883 – September 2, 1953), as a Lieutenant General, was the commanding officer of the Philippine Department at the time of its surrender to the Japanese, during World War II. Wainwright was married to Adele Holley Wainwright (1887–1979). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Springhill is a small city in Webster Parish, Louisiana, United States. ... American Ex-Prisoners of War is a service organization based in Arlington, Texas, which was founded in 1942 and chartered by the United States Congress in 1982. ... Louis S. Zamperini (born January 26, 1917 in Olean, New York) was an American competitive runner, World War II POW survivor, and inspirational speaker. ...

See also

Movies Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ... WIA is a three letter abbreviation meaning Wounded in action. ... During the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) the management and treatment of prisoners was very different from the standards of modern warfare. ... During the American Revolutionary War at least 16 hulks, including the infamous HMS Jersey, were placed by British authorities in the waters of Wallabout Bay off the shores of Brooklyn, New York as a place of incarceration for many thousands of American soldiers and sailors during about 1776–1783. ... A combatant is a person who takes a direct part in the hostilities of an armed conflict who upon capture qualifies for prisoner of war under the Third Geneva Convention (GCIII). ... Disarmed Enemy Forces is a designation for captive enemy soldiers. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... Unlawful combatant (also illegal combatant or unprivileged combatant) describes a person who engages in combat without meeting the requirements for a lawful belligerent according to the laws of war as specified in the Third Geneva Convention. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... During times of war post from the front is often opened and offending parts blanked or cut out. ... A Prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of persons captured by the enemy in time of war. ... U.S. Marshals observing a prisoner transport to prevent escapes Escape from prison via helicopter is seen as a major threat. ... The United States Military Code of Conduct (CoC) is the moral guide for the behavior of U.S. military members who are evading or captured by hostile forces. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Civilian Internee is a special status of a prisoner under the Fourth Geneva Convention. ... Soviet POWs in German captivity The extermination of Soviet prisoners of war by Nazi Germany relates to the genocidal policies taken towards the captured soldiers of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany. ...

Songs Andersonville was a film directed by John Frankenheimer about a group of union soliders who are captured by the confederates and sent to the infamous confederate prison camp. ... Blood Oath is a 1990 Australian feature film, known in some countries as Prisoners of the Sun. ... Empire of the Sun is a 1987 film directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Christian Bale, John Malkovich, and Miranda Richardson. ... Escape to Athena is an adventure war film (with the elements of comedy) made in 1979, directed by George Pan Cosmatos. ... Grand Illusion (1937) poster for American release, depicting actors Jean Gabin (as Lt. ... Merry Christmas, Mr. ... Stalag 17 is a 1953 war film which tells the story of a group of American G.I.s held in a German World War II prisoner of war camp who come to believe one of their number is a traitor. ... The One That Got Away is a 1957 World War II film starring Hardy Krüger. ... Danger Within is a 1959 British war film set in a Prisoner of war camp in Northern Italy during the summer of 1943. ... Summer of My German Soldier is a 1978 film based on a novel by Bette Green of the same name. ... This article is about the film. ... The Wooden Horse is a 1950 2nd World War film starring Leo Genn, Anthony Steel and David Tomlinson. ... Uncommon Valor (1983) is a war film written by Joe Gayton and directed by Ted Kotcheff. ... Robert De Niro This article is about The Deer Hunter, the movie. ... The Brylcreem Boys is a 1997 film directed and co-written by Terence Ryan about the extraordinary neutrality arrangements pertaining in Éamon de Valeras newly founded republic of Éire during World War II. Dublin made agreements with Berlin and London during the war that any serviceman found on Irish... Based on the novel by John Katzenbach Harts War is a 2002 film about a fictional World War II prisoner of war camp starring Bruce Willis, Colin Farrell and Terrance Howard. ... Tea with Mussolini (1999) is a semi-autobiographical film directed by Franco Zeffirelli, telling the story of young Italian boy Lucas upbringing by a kind British woman and her circle of friends. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Great Raid is a 2005 war film which tells the story of the January 1945 liberation of the Cabanatuan Prison Camp during World War II. It is directed by John Dahl and stars Benjamin Bratt, Joseph Fiennes, James Franco and Connie Nielsen with Filipino actor Cesar Montano. ... Rescue Dawn is a 2007 movie starring Christian Bale and Steve Zahn. ... Missing in Action (film) is a 1984 action film starring Chuck Norris and directed by Joseph Zito. ... Released on Friday, May 24, 1985, the second movie of Rambo, Rambo: First Blood Part II, has Rambo (Sylvester Stallone) released from prison by Federal order to document the possible existence of POWs in Vietnam, under the belief that he will find nothing and the government can sweep the issue... To End All Wars To End All Wars is a movie starring Robert Carlyle, Keifer Sutherland and Sakae Kimura. ...

Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...

References

  1. ^ "History of Europe, p.362 - by Norman Davies ISBN 0-19-520912-5
  2. ^ Maududi (1967), Introduction of Ad-Dahr, "Period of revelation", p. 159.
  3. ^ Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam. Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 115. 
  4. ^ "Prisoner of war", Encyclopedia Britannica
  5. ^ Geo G. Phillimore and Hugh H. L. Bellot, "Treatment of Prisoners of War," Transactions of the Grotius Society, Vol. 5, (1919), pp. 47-64.
  6. ^ Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War. (1999) p 368-9 for data.
  7. ^ Prisoners of War and Communism.
  8. ^ 375,000 Austrians Have Died in Siberia; Remaining 125,000 War Prisoner... - Article Preview - The New York Times
  9. ^ Richard B. Speed, III. Prisoners, Diplomats and the Great War: A Study in the Diplomacy of Captivity. (1990); Ferguson, The Pity of War. (1999) ch 13; Desmond Morton, Silent Battle: Canadian Prisoners of War in Germany, 1914-1919. 1992.
  10. ^ British National Archives, "The Mesopotamia campaign," at [1];
  11. ^ International Humanitarian Law - State Parties / Signatories
  12. ^ Part VIII : Execution of the convention #Section I : General provisions. Retrieved on 2007-11-29..
  13. ^ Beevor, Stalingrad . Penguin 2001 ISBN 0141001313 p60
  14. ^ Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II
  15. ^ Report at the session of the Russian assosiation of WWII historians in 1998
  16. ^ Repatriation -- The Dark Side of World War II
  17. ^ Forced Repatriation to the Soviet Union: The Secret Betrayal
  18. ^ Prisoners of the Japanese : Pows of World War II in the Pacific - by Gavin Dawes, ISBN 0-688-14370-9
  19. ^ Japanese Atrocities in the Philippines.
  20. ^ Yuki Tanaka, Hidden Horrors, 1996, p.2,3.
  21. ^ Akira Fujiwara, Nitchû Sensô ni Okeru Horyo Gyakusatsu, Kikan Sensô Sekinin Kenkyû 9, 1995, p.22
  22. ^ Tanaka, ibid., Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p.360
  23. ^ German POWs and the Art of Survival
  24. ^ Report at the session of the Russian assosiation of WWII historians in 1998
  25. ^ German POWs in Allied Hands - World War II
  26. ^ Fall of Dhaka 1971
  27. ^ Clark, Alan Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict 1941-1945 page 206, ISBN 0-304-35864-9
  28. ^ "Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century", Greenhill Books, London, 1997, G. F. Krivosheev, editor
  29. ^ "Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century", Greenhill Books, London, 1997, G. F. Krivosheev, editor
  30. ^ Sparks, Jared: The Writings of George Washington, Vol VII, Harper and Brothers, New York (1847) p. 211.

Other references: Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von...

  • Full text of Third Geneva Convention, 1949 revision
  • "Prisoner of War". Encyclopedia Britannica (CD Edition). (2002). 
  • Gendercide site
  • "Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century", Greenhill Books, London, 1997, G. F. Krivosheev, editor.
  • "Keine Kameraden. Die Wehrmacht und die sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen 1941-1945", Dietz, Bonn 1997, ISBN 3-8012-5023-7

Further reading

  • Roger DEVAUX : Treize Qu'ils Etaient - Life of the french prisoners of war at the peasants of low Bavaria (1939-1945) - Treize Qu'ils Etaient - Mémoires et Cultures - 2007 - ISBN 2-916062-51-3
  • Pierre Gascar, Histoire de la captivité des Français en Allemagne (1939-1945), Éditions Gallimard, France, 1967.
  • McGowran OBE, Tom, Beyond the Bamboo Screen: Scottish Prisoners of War under the Japanese. 1999. Cualann Press Ltd
  • Bob Moore,& Kent Fedorowich eds., Prisoners of War and their Captors in World War II, Berg Press, Oxford, UK, 1997.
  • David Rolf, Prisoners of the Reich, Germany’s Captives, 1939-1945, 1998.
  • Richard D. Wiggers "The United States and the Denial of Prisoner of War (POW) Status at the End of the Second World War," Militargeschichtliche Mitteilungen 52 (1993) pp. 91-94.
  • Winton, Andrew, Open Road to Faraway: Escapes from Nazi POW Camps 1941-1945. 2001. Cualann Press Ltd.
  • The stories of several American fighter pilots, shot down over North Vietnam are the focus of American Film Foundation's 1999 documentary Return with Honor, presented by Tom Hanks.
  • Lewis H. Carlson, WE WERE EACH OTHER'S PRISONERS: An oral history of World War II American and German Prisoners Of War, 1st Edition.; 1997, BasicBooks (HarperCollins, Inc).ISBN 0-465-09120-2.
  • Arnold Krammer, NAZI PRISONERS OF WAR IN AMERICA; 1979 Stein & Day; 1991, 1996 Scarborough House. ISBN 0-8128-8561-9.
  • Alfred James Passfield, The Escape Artist; An WW2 Australian prisoner's chronicle of life in German POW camps and his eight escape attempts, 1984 Artlook Books Western Australia. ISBN 0 86445 047 8.

American Film Foundation is an award-winning production company based in Southern California. ... Thomas Jeffrey Tom Hanks (born July 9, 1956) is a two-time Academy Award-, two-time Emmy-, four-time Golden Globe- and Screen Actors Guild Award-winning American film actor, director, voice-over artist, writer and film producer. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Prisoners of war
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on 5 August 1990 at the Nineteenth Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers in Cairo. ... The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly during its 61st session at UN Headquarters in New York City on 13 September 2007. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man Place signed Bogotá, Colombia Date signed April 1948 Date entered into force April 1948 Conditions for entry into force Parties The American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man was the worlds first international human rights instrument of a... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... International human rights law codifies legal provisions governing human rights in various international human rights instruments. ... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ... Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Opened for signature 18 December 1979 in New York City Entered into force 3 September 1981 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 185[1] The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW... The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) is a United Nations convention adopted and opened for signature and ratification by United Nations General Assembly resolution 2106 (XX) December 21, 1965, and which entered into force January 4, 1969. ... Convention on the Rights of the Child Opened for signature 20 November 1989 in - Entered into force September 2, 1990 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications or accessions (Article 49) Parties 193 (only 2 non-parties: USA and Somalia) The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child... The United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families is an international agreement governing the matters described in the title. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 treaty establishing the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or... Initial signatories to the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance: signatories in green, non-members in grey The International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance is an international human rights instrument of the United Nations and intended to prevent forced disappearance. ... Parties to the ICCPR: members in green, non-members in grey The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... ... American Convention on Human Rights Opened for signature 1969 at San José, Costa Rica Entered into force 18 July 1978 Conditions for entry into force 11 ratifications Parties 24 The American Convention on Human Rights (also known as the Pact of San José) is an International human rights instrument. ... “ECHR” redirects here. ... The European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment was adopted by the member states of the Council of Europe, meeting at Strasbourg on 26 November 1987. ... The European Social Charter is a document signed by the members of the Council of Europe in Turin, 18 October 1961 in which they agreed to secure to their populations the social rights specified therein in order to improve their standard of living and their social well-being. ... The Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture (IACPPT) is an international human rights instrument, created within the Western Hemisphere Organization of American States and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... The United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees is an international convention that defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum. ... The Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees entered into force on October 4, 1967, and extended the protections granted by the United Nations 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees to those beyond Europe and those refugees who survived the Second World War. ... Original document. ... The longtime status of Netherlands as a largely neutral nation in international conflicts and the corresponding ascendance of The Hague as a primary location for diplomatic and international conferences has led to several negotiated conventions over the years being termed the Hague Convention: The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... The term right to life is a political term used in controversies over various issues that involve the taking of a life (or what is perceived to be a life). ... For the 1987 film, see Right to Die (film) The term right to die refers to various issues around the death of an individual when that person could continue to live with the aid of life support, or in a diminished or enfeebled capacity. ... Not to be confused with Right to Arm Bears. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... Human security refers to an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. ... Title page of a European Union member state passport. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Cruel And Unusual redirects here. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... Equality before the law or equality under the law or legal egalitarianism is the principle under which each individual is subject to the same laws, with no individual or group having special legal privileges. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arbitrary arrest and detention, or (AAD), is the arrest and detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that he or she committed a crime against legal statute, or where there has been no proper due process of law. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... Presumption of innocence is a legal right that the accused in criminal trials has in many modern nations. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Group of women holding placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that one... Freedom of association is a Constitutional (legal) concept based on the premise that it is the right of free adults to mutually choose their associates for whatever purpose they see fit. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ... Remuneration is pay or salary, typically monetary compensation for services rendered, as in a employment. ... Equal pay for women is an issue involving pay inequality between men and women. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool. ... ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ... Freedom of education incorporates the right of any person to manage their own education, start a school, or to have access to education of their choice without any constraints. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... It is now time to consider access to safe drinking water and sanitation as a human right, defined as the right to equal and non-discriminatory access to a sufficient amount of safe drinking water for personal and domestic uses - drinking, personal sanitation, washing of clothes,food preparation and personal... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to... Oral contraceptives. ... Within the framework of WHOs definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. ... An abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. ... The symbol of the Genital integrity movement is the ribbon Genital Integrity. ... Female genital cutting (FGC), also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), female circumcision or female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
CBC News Indepth: Iraq (1972 words)
John McCain is administered to in a Hanoi, Vietnam hospital as a prisoner of war in the fall of 1967.
In particular, no prisoner of war may be subjected to physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments of any kind which are not justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the prisoner concerned and carried out in his interest.
Prisoners of war are entitled in all circumstances to respect for their persons and their honour.
Crimes Of War Project > The Book (1322 words)
If the people held are lawful prisoners of war they should have been given an opportunity to fill out and send a “capture card.” The purpose of the card is to let the next of kin know of the capture and provide some general information as to the health of the captive.
Generally, the laws of war recognize the right of a POW to attempt to escape and the duty of the detaining power to prevent an escape.
It provides that the use of weapons against POWs is “an extreme measure” and their use “shall always be preceded by warnings appropriate to the circumstances.” A relevant question to ask of camp personnel is how attempted escapees are punished.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m