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Encyclopedia > Prison ship
A prison police boat under way in Venice
A prison police boat under way in Venice

A prison ship, historically sometimes called a prison hulk, is a vessel used as a prison, often to hold convicts awaiting transportion to prison colonies. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 684 KB) A prison police boat on its way in the channels of Venice. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 684 KB) A prison police boat on its way in the channels of Venice. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

The vessels were a common form of internment in Britain and elsewhere in the 18th and 19th centuries. Charles F. Campbell writes that around 40 ships of the British Navy were converted for use as prison hulks. One was established at Gibraltar, others at Bermuda, at Antigua, and off Brooklyn in Wallabout Bay and Sheerness. Other hulks were anchored off Woolwich, Portsmouth, Chatham, Deptford, and Plymouth[1]. Private companies owned and operated the hulks holding prisoners bound for penal transportation. This article is about the borough of New York City. ... A small body of water along the northwest shore of Brooklyn, New York. ... , Woolwich town hall dates from when this was a borough in its own right. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... Chatham may mean: In England: Chatham, Kent Chatham Dockyard, frequently referred to simply as Chatham Battle of Chatham, a successful Dutch naval attack during the Second Anglo-Dutch War Chatham (ward), of the London Borough of Hackney In the United States: Chatham, Chicago, a neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois Chatham, Illinois... This article is about the district in London. ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses see Transport (disambiguation) or Transportation (disambiguation). ...


More American prisoners of war during the American Revolutionary War died on British prison ships than died in every battle of the war combined. According to the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, more than "11,500 men and women died of overcrowding, contaminated water, starvation, and disease aboard the ships, and their bodies were hastily buried along the shore"[2]. A monument in Fort Greene Park commemorates those who died. One such Revolutionary War ship was HMS Jersey. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... This article is about military actions only. ... uring the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) the management and treatment of prisoners of war was very different from the standards of modern warfare. ... Fort Greene Park is a municipal park in Brooklyn, New York, comprising 30. ... HMS Jersey was a British Royal Navy most noted for serving as a prison ship in the American Revolutionary War. ...

The prison hulk, Success, at Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
The prison hulk, Success, at Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

Prison ships were also used to detain prisoners-of-war during the revolutionary wars and the Napoleonic wars. A typical British hulk, the former man-of-war HMS Bellerophon, was decommissioned after the Battle of Trafalgar. Anchored off Sheerness in England, it usually held about 480 convicts in woeful conditions.[3]. Other hulks included the Warrior (Woolwich) in the 1780s, The Discovery (Deptford). [4] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x810, 44 KB) Prison Huilk SUCCESS, at Hobart. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x810, 44 KB) Prison Huilk SUCCESS, at Hobart. ... For other places and things named Hobart, see Hobart (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Revolutionary be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... , Sheerness is a town located beside the mouth of the River Medway on the northwest corner of the Isle of Sheppey in north Kent, England. ... , Woolwich town hall dates from when this was a borough in its own right. ... This article is about the district in London. ...


In New South Wales, hulks were also used as juvenile correctional centres. The Vernon (1867-1892) and the Sobraon (1892-1911) - the latter officially a "nautical school ship" - were anchored in Sydney Harbour. The commander of the two ships, Frederick Neitenstein (1850-1921), introduced a system of "... discipline, surveillance, physical drill and a system of grading and marks. He aimed at creating a 'moral earthquake' in each new boy. Every new admission was placed in the lowest grade and, through hard work and obedience, gradually won a restricted number of privileges." [5]


Modern prison ships

HMS Maidstone was used as a prison ship in Northern Ireland in the 1970s for suspected Nationalist guerrillas and non-combatant activist supporters held without trial. The current president of the Nationalist political party Sinn Féin, Gerry Adams, spent time on the Maidstone in 1972. He was released at the time in order to take part in peace talks. For other ships of the same name, see HMS Maidstone. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... Non-combatant is a military and legal term describing civilians not engaged in combat. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Gerard Adams MP (Irish: [1]; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish Republican politician and abstentionist Westminster Member of Parliament for Belfast West. ...


In 1997, the United Kingdom Government established a new prison ship, HMP Weare, as a temporary measure to ease prison overcrowding. Weare was docked at the disused Royal Navy dockyard at Portland, Dorset. On 9 March 2005 it was announced that the Weare was to close. Since then, the government has advertised for a contractor to supply 800 prison ship spaces to alleviate overcrowding. The agencies responsible for the government of the United Kingdom consist of a number of ministerial departments (usually headed by a Secretary of State) and non-ministerial departments headed by senior civil servants. ... HMP Weare is a prison ship berthed in Portland Harbour in Dorset, England. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Isle of Portland is a long by wide limestone island in the English Channel. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Other types of prison ships

Around the Mediterranean, convicts and prisoners-of-war were used as oarsmen on galleys as late as the 19th century. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... A galley slave was a slave rowing in a galley. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ...


Literary references

Charles Dickens' novel Great Expectations opens in 1812 with the escape of the convict Abel Magwitch from a hulk moored in the Thames Estuary. In fact, the prison ships were largely moored in the neighbouring River Medway, but Dickens combined real elements to create fictional locations for his work.[citation needed] Dickens redirects here. ... For other uses, see Great Expectations (disambiguation). ... Magwitch. ... The Thames Estuary is a large estuary where the River Thames flows into the North Sea. ... Rivers in Kent, showing the Medway. ...


In the early stages of Victor Hugo's novel Les Misérables, Jean Valjean is a convict on the galleys at Toulon in France. Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... This article is about the original 1862 novel. ... Jean Valjean - illustration from original publication of Les Misèrables, after a painting by Gustave Brion (1824-1877) Jean Valjean is a fictional character and the protagnost of Victor Hugos classic novel Les Misèrables. ... Panorama of Toulon area. ...


References

  1. ^ Brad William, The archaeological potential of colonial prison hulks: The Tasmanian case study
  2. ^ PRISON SHIP MARTYRS MONUMENT - Historical Sign
  3. ^ Charles F. Campbell, The Intolerable Hulks (2001)
  4. ^ Prison hulks on the Thames
  5. ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography, Neitenstein, Frederick William (1850-1921)

External links

  • Charles F. Campbell, The Intolerable Hulks (2001)
  • Convicts to Australia, Prison hulks
  • New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, Prison Ship Martyrs Monument

See also

The term Convict ship is colloquially used to describe any ship engaged on a voyage to carry convicted felons under sentence of transportation from their place of conviction to their place of banishment. ... Philip Morin Freneau ( January 2, 1752 – December 18, 1832 ) was a United States poet and one of the most important writers/poets of The Age of Reason. He is often considered the first American poet, in a popular sense. ... Ambroise Louis Garneray (1783 - 1857) French corsair, painter and writer. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Monument (1310 words)
The Prison Ship Martyrs Monument that stands today in the center of Fort Greene Park is a 1908 memorial to the 11,000 men, women and children who died in horrid conditions on the British Prison Ships during the Revolutionary War.
Among the city's most remarkable monuments, the Prison Ship Martyrs Memorial was designed at different times by the two most important landscape-architecture firms in the city's history: Olmsted, Vaux and Co. and McKim, Mead, and White.
Those who refused were taken as prisoners of war and held captive on ships where they died at a rate of 10 to 12 a day, according to John Krawchuk, who is heading the reconstruction project for the city's Department of Parks and Recreation.
Prison ship - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (147 words)
A prison ship is a boat or ship that is used as a prison.
The United Kingdom Government established in 1997 a new prison ship, HMP Weare, as a temporary measure to ease prison overcrowding.
The HMS Maidstone was used as a prison ship in Northern Ireland in the 1970s for suspected Nationalist terrorists held without trial.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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