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Encyclopedia > Prison guard
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A cell and galleries at London's Newgate Prison in 1896.

A prison is a place in which individuals are physically confined and usually deprived of a range of personal freedoms. Prisons are conventionally institutions which form part of the criminal justice system of a country, such that imprisonment or incarceration is the penalty imposed by the state for the commission of a crime. Prisons may also be used as a tool of political repression to detain political prisoners, prisoners of conscience and "enemies of the state", particularly by authoritarian regimes. In times of war or conflict, prisoners of war may also be detained in prisons. A prison system is the organizational arrangement of the provision and operation of prisons (see also corrections). A cell and the galleries at Newgate in 1896. ... A cell and the galleries at Newgate in 1896. ... Jump to: navigation, search The clock tower of the Palace of Westminster, which contains Big Ben London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Old Newgate Prison, which was replaced in the 18th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search Personal Liberty is one of the meanings of freedom. Statue of Liberty - Societal Liberty is one of the meanings of freedom. For proper-noun uses of Freedom, see Freedom (disambiguation). ... Institutions are organizations, or mechanisms of social structure, governing the behavior of two or more individuals. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ... Jump to: navigation, search A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... Political repression means the restriction of the abilities of certain groups of people to take part in the political life of a society; or the persecution of people for their political beliefs. ... Jump to: navigation, search A political prisoner is anyone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image either challenge or pose a real or potential threat to the state. ... Prisoner of Conscience (POC) is a term coined by Amnesty International, the global human rights group. ... Jump to: navigation, search An enemy of the state is a person accused of certain crimes against the state, such as treason. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Corrections refers to one of the components of the criminal justice system. ...


There are a variety of other names for prisons, such as a prison-house, penitentiary or jail (in British English and Australian English, the spelling gaol is sometimes used in a formal contexts, although this spelling is pronounced in the same fashion). There are, also, many colloquial terms for prisons — such as big house, beantown, can, clink, joint, jug, cooler, hoosegow, lockup, lockdown and slammer — and a similar range of terms for imprisonment, including doing time, bird, porridge, working for Copper John, etc. British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate the form of the written English language in the United Kingdom from other forms of the English language. ... Jump to: navigation, search Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Slang is the non-standard use of words in a language of a particular social group, and sometimes the creation of new words or importation of words from another language. ... Porridge is a British BBC television sitcom (1974 - 1977), written by Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais and starring Ronnie Barker. ... Copper John is a famous statue of an American Revolutionary War soldier that stands atop the Auburn Correctional Facility in Auburn, New York. ...


In the United States at least, jail is generally used for facilities where inmates are locked up for a relatively short time (either while awaiting trial or serving a sentence of one year or less upon conviction for a misdemeanor), while prison and penitentiary typically denote a place where inmates go to serve long terms after having been found guilty of a felony. In the United States, jails are usually operated under the jurisdiction of local municipal governments while prisons are operated under the jurisdiction of state or federal governments. In the state of Massachusetts, some jails are known as houses of correction. In Washington some adult prisons are called reformatories, while in other states this is reserved as a term for a prison of the juvenile justice system. Misdemeanors (or misdemeanours) are lesser criminal acts which are generally punished less severely than felonies; but more so than infractions. ... Jump to: navigation, search A felony, in many common law legal systems, is the term for a very serious crime; misdemeanors are considered to be less serious. ... Jump to: navigation, search A U.S. state is any one of the fifty states (four of which officially favor the term commonwealth) which, together with the District of Columbia and Palmyra Atoll (an uninhabited incorporated unorganized territory), form the United States of America. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Bay State Other U.S. States Capital Boston Largest city Boston Governor Mitt Romney (R) Senators Edward Kennedy (D) John Kerry (D) Official languages English Area 27,360 km² (44th)  - Land 20,317 km²  - Water 7,043 km² (25. ... State nickname: The Evergreen State Other U.S. States Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Governor Christine Gregoire (D) Senators Patty Murray (D) Maria Cantwell (D) Official languages None Area 184,824 km² (18th)  - Land 172,587 km²  - Water 12,237 km² (6. ...

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Prisons in the criminal justice system

A prisoner behind bars.
A prisoner behind bars.

In the domain of criminal justice, prisons are used to incarcerate convicted criminals, but also to house those charged with or likely to be charged with offences. Custodial sentences are sanctions authorised by law for a range of offences. A court may order the incarceration of an individual found guilty of such offences. Individuals may also be committed to prison by a court before a trial, verdict or sentence, generally because the court determines that there is a risk to society or a risk of absconding prior to a trial; such pre-trial imprisonment is known as remand. The possibility and maximal duration of remand vary between jurisdictions. Picture from http://hrc. ... Picture from http://hrc. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ... A trial is, in the most general sense, a test, usually a test to see whether something does or does not meet a given standard. ... In law, a verdict indicates the judgment of a case before a court of law. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ... Jump to: navigation, search Risk is the potential harm that may arise from some present process or from some future event. ... Remand is a legal term which has two related but distinct usages. ...


The availability of incarceration as a sanction is designed to militate against the likelihood of individuals committing offences: thus prisons are in part about the punishment of individuals who transgress statutory boundaries. Prisons also can serve to protect society, by removing individuals likely to pose a risk to others. Prisons also can have a rehabilitative role in seeking to change the nature of individuals so as to reduce the probability that they will reoffend upon release.

Gatehouse of former 19th century St Albans prison in England.
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Gatehouse of former 19th century St Albans prison in England.

The nature of prisons and of prison systems varies from country to country. Common though by no means universal attributes are segregation by sex, and by category of risk. Prisons are often rated by the degree of security, ranging from minimum security (used mainly for nonviolent offenders such as those guilty of fraud) through to maximum security and super-maximum or supermax (often used for those who have committed crimes while imprisoned). Gatehouse of former St Albans Prison. ... Gatehouse of former St Albans Prison. ... St Albans (thus spelt, no apostrophe or dot) is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35. ... Supermax is the name used to describe control-unit prisons, the most secure prisons in the US prison system. ...


Crime and punishment is a wide, very controversial and deeply politicised area, and so too are discussions of prisons, prison systems, the concepts and practices of imprisonment; and the sanction of custody set against other non-custodial sanctions and against the capital sanction, a death sentence. Some of these issues are discussed in the by country descriptions, below. Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ...


Military prisons

Prisons form part of military systems, and are used variously to house prisoners of war, unlawful combatants, those whose freedom is deemed a national security risk by military or civilian authorities, and members of the military found guilty of a serious crime. See military prison. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Unlawful combatant (also illegal combatant or unprivileged combatant) describes a person who engages in combat without fulfilling the conditions that confer lawful combatant status according to the laws of war. ... Almost every modern state-level military operates some type of military prison system. ...


Political prisons

Certain countries maintain or have in the past had a system of political prisons; arguably the gulags associated with Stalinism are best known. The definition of what is and is not a political crime and a political prison is, of course, highly controversial. Jump to: navigation, search Gulag (Russian: ГУЛАГ listen [▶]) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей и колонии, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or... Jump to: navigation, search Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ...


World prison populations

At least nine million people are imprisoned worldwide, though given under-reporting or lack of statistics for certain (often repressive) countries the number is likely much higher. The prison population in most countries increased significantly beginning in the 1990s.


By country, the United States prison population is the world's largest in absolute terms, at more than 1.3 million. Both Russia and China (with population 4 times that of the USA) also had prison populations of 1 million or more in 2002. No data is available for North Korea. [1], [2] According to most reports, the United States of America has the highest reported incarceration rate in the world - although several nations do not release incarceration statistics. ...


Rwanda has the largest proportion of its population in prison where, as of 2002, over 100,000 people (out of a total populace of some 8 million) were held on suspicion of participation in the 1994 genocide. The USA is second largest in relative numbers with 701 people per 100,000 incarcerated, and the proportion in Russia is similar. Jump to: navigation, search 2002(MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search The skulls of victims show gashes and signs of violence The Rwandan Genocide was the slaughter of an estimated 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus by a group of Hutu extremists known as Interahamwe during a period of 100 days in 1994. ...


The UK had 73,000 inmates in its facilities in 2003, with France and Germany having a similar number.


New Zealand has the 2nd highest prison population per capita in the developed world, of 169 prisoners per 100,000 population (second only to the United States).


Prisons by country

Prisons in Australia

Image:Geelonggaol.jpg
HM Prison Geelong, in Geelong, Victoria, Australia, closed in 1991.

Many prisons in Australia were built by convict labour in the 1800s. During the 1990s many prisons which were government run were privatised. Australian Prisons Categories: Stub | Victorian prisons | Geelong ... Jump to: navigation, search - - Nickname: City by the Bay Geography Area: 1,240 km² Coordinates: Time Zone UTC +10:00 Population (2003) 200,067 Among Australian cities: Density: persons/km² Political Mayor: Shane Dowling Governing body: City of Greater Geelong Geelong is a port city of 200,067 people (2003... Jump to: navigation, search 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

This is a list of operational and former Australian prisons and immigration detention centres. ... Australian immigration detention facilities comprise a number of different facilities throughout Australia and the Pacific Ocean. ... In Australia, the term mandatory detention describes the legislation and actions of the Australian government to detain all persons entering the country by boat without a valid visa, including children. ...

Prisons in Japan

Prisons in the United Kingdom

For information on prisons and related subjects in the United Kingdom, see articles on Her Majesty's Prison Service, on the United Kingdom prison population and the List of United Kingdom prisons. Also see house arrest. Her Majestys Prison Service is the British Executive Agency reporting to the Home Office tasked with managing most of the prisons within England and Wales (Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own Prison Services). ... The United Kingdom has one of the highest rates of incarceration in western Europe: on average 109 people in every 100,000 are in prison, but far short of the 702 per 100,000 in the United States. ... This page lists all current and a number of historical prisons in the United Kingdom. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ...


Prisons in the United States

According to most reports, the United States of America has the highest reported incarceration rate in the world - although several nations do not release incarceration statistics. ...

See also

This page provides a list of prisons by country. ... Most prisons are operated by government agencies. ... A county jail is a place of detention for people awaiting trial, or for those who have been convicted of a misdemeanor and are serving a sentence of less than one year. ... Remand is a legal term which has two related but distinct usages. ... A Penal Colony is a colony used to detain prisoners and generally use them for penal labor in an economically underdeveloped part of the states (usually colonial) territories, and on a far larger scale than the prison farm. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... The aim of the prison abolition movement is to eliminate freedom-depriving institutions such as prisons, jails, immigration detention centers, and war camps by promoting more useful and humane alternatives. ... In criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away of a person against the persons will, usually to hold the person in false imprisonment (confinement without legal authority) for ransom or in furtherance of another crime. ... According to most reports, the United States of America has the highest reported incarceration rate in the world - although several nations do not release incarceration statistics. ... Jump to: navigation, search Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ... Jump to: navigation, search Panopticon blueprint by Jeremy Bentham, 1791 The Panopticon is a type of prison building designed by the philosopher Jeremy Bentham. ... Penal labour is a form of the unfree labour. ... Prison education involves vocational training or academic education supplied to prisoners as part of their rehabilitation and preparation for life outside prison. ... Jump to: navigation, search Life in prison Prison reform is the steady improvement of conditions inside prisons, aiming at a more effective penal system. ... Prison sexuality deals with sexual relationships between confined individuals. ... In the United Kingdom, a Borstal was a juvenile detention centre, prison or reformatory, an institution of the criminal justice system, intended to reform delinquent youths aged between about 16 and 21. ... Anton Praetorius (Lippstadt 1560 – 6 December 1613 near Heidelberg in Laudenbach/Bergstrasse), Protestant pastor and fighter against the persecution of witches (witchhunts, witchcraft trials) and against torture. ... Photograph of the island Alcatraz Island (37° 49′ 35″ N, 122° 25′ 21″ W) is located in the middle of San Francisco Bay in California. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... Community service refers to service that a person performs for the benefit of his or her local community. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Further reading

  • Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison, New York: Random House 1975
  • Peter Kropotkin, "In Russian and French Prisons". Online book. This is a criticism of the existence of prisons.
  • James (Jim) Bruton, Big House: Life Inside a Supermax Security Prison, Voyageur Press (July, 2004), hardcover, 192 pages, ISBN 0896580393
  • George Jackson: George Jackson: Soledad brother.
  • Paula C. Johnson, Inner Lives: Voices of African American Women in Prison, New York University Press 2004
  • Ted Conover. Newjack: Guarding Sing Sing. Knopf, 2001. Trade paperback, 352 pages, ISBN 0375726624.
  • Mark L. Taylor. The Executed God: The Way of the Cross in Lockdown America. Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0800632834.
  • Wil S. Hylton. "Sick on the Inside: Correctional HMOs and the coming prison plague". Harper's Magazine, August 2003.

Jump to: navigation, search Michel Foucault Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 26, 1984) was a French philosopher and held a chair at the Collège de France, a chair to which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. His writings have had an enormous impact on... Discipline and Punish (subtitled The Birth of the Prison) is a book written by the philosopher Michel Foucault. ... Peter Kropotkin Prince Peter Alexeevich Kropotkin (In Russian Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин) (December 9, 1842 - February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society... Jump to: navigation, search Cover of Soledad Brother George Jackson (September 23, 1941 – August 21, 1971) was a Black American militant who became a member of the Black Panther Party while in prison, where he spent the last 12 years of his life. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Prison officer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (237 words)
A Correctional Officer is a person charged with the responsibility of the supervision of prisoners in a prison.
Most prison officers are employed by the Federal or State Government, City, or County, though some are employed by private companies.
The duties of a Prison Officer often include maintaining order within the institution, enforcement of the facility rules and regulations, search of inmates and their living quarters for contraband like weapons or drugs, writing reports on any inmate misbehavior and transportation of inmates.
Prison Flick Cliches (828 words)
He/she is usually the most distinctive guard in appearance as well, being either the largest or smallest, the only one with facial hair, the one wearing a different style uniform from the others, or having a special implement of his/her own (such as carrying a whip or club or something).
In many prison movies, just as the hero is about to be assaulted by a villainous group of prisoners, a guard will often been seen deliberately turning away to avoid having to interfere.
Whenever prisoners are first introduced to the general population of the prison, they usually have to walk a gauntlet between the inmates who call out to them with threats and catcalls.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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