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Encyclopedia > Prison
Dorchester Penitentiary in New Brunswick, Canada is an institution that is part of Corrections Canada. Opened in 1880 as a maximum security prison, it now functions as a medium security facility.

A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of personal freedoms. Prisons are conventionally institutions, which form part of the criminal justice system of a country, such that imprisonment or incarceration is a legal penalty that may be imposed by the state for the commission of a crime. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Prison (original title Fängelse) is a 1949 Swedish film by Ingmar Bergman. ... Prison is a 1988 horror film starring Viggo Mortensen. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x624, 574 KB) Summary Dorchester Penitentiary in New Brunswick Canada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x624, 574 KB) Summary Dorchester Penitentiary in New Brunswick Canada. ... Dorchester Penitentiary The Dorchester Penitentiary in New Brunswick, Canada is an institution that is part of Corrections Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province; for the city in New Jersey, see New Brunswick, New Jersey. ... The Correctional Service of Canada is the government agency responsible for the federal prison and parole system in Canada. ... Supermax is the name used to describe control-unit prisons or units within prisons, representing the most secure and austere levels of custody in the prison systems of the United States and other countries. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... This article is about institutions as social mechanisms. ... United States criminal justice system flowchart. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


In popular parlance of many countries, the term gaol (jail) is considered synonymous with prison, although legally these are often distinct institutions: typically jails are intended to hold persons awaiting trials or serving sentences of less than one year, whereas prisons host prisoners serving longer sentences. The word Gaol can refer to the following: Gaol American/British English jail, Early Modern English spelling, though this spelling is seldom used today, it is still considered the official spelling in Australian English. ...


A criminal suspect who has been charged with or is likely to be charged with a criminal offense may be held on remand in prison if he or she is denied, refused or unable to meet conditions of bail, or is unable to post bail. This may also occur where the court determines that the suspect is at risk of absconding before the trial, or is otherwise a risk to society. A criminal defendant may also be held in prison while awaiting trial or a trial verdict. If found guilty, a defendant will be convicted and may receive a custodial sentence requiring imprisonment. For the 1987 movie starring Cher, see Suspect (film). ... In law, an offense (or offence) is a violation of the penal law. ... A prisoner who is denied, refused or unable to meet the conditions of bail, or who is unable to post bail, may be held in a prison on remand until their criminal trial. ... The word bail as a legal term means: Security, usually a sum of money, exchanged for the release of an arrested person as a guarantee of that persons appearance for trial. ... A defendant or defender is any party who is required to answer the complaint of a plaintiff or pursuer in a civil lawsuit before a court, or any party who has been formally charged or accused of violating a criminal statute. ... In legal parlance, a trial is an event in which parties to a dispute present information (in the form of evidence) in a formal setting, usually a court, before a judge, jury, or other designated finder of fact, in order to achieve a resolution to their dispute. ... In law, a verdict indicates the judgment of a case before a court of law. ... In law, a conviction is the verdict which results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of committing a crime. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ...


Prisons may also be used as a tool of political repression to detain political prisoners, prisoners of conscience, and "enemies of the state", particularly by authoritarian regimes. In times of war or conflict, prisoners of war may also be detained in prisons. A prison system is the organizational arrangement of the provision and operation of prisons, and depending on their nature, may invoke a corrections system. Although people have been imprisoned throughout history, they have also regularly been able to perform prison escapes. Political repression is the oppression or persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of society. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... Prisoner of conscience (POC) is a term coined by the human rights pressure group Amnesty International in the early 1960s. ... Enemy of the State is a 1998 film written by David Marconi, directed by Tony Scott, and starring Will Smith, Gene Hackman, Jon Voight, Lisa Bonet and Regina King. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Corrections refers to one of the components of the criminal justice system. ... U.S. Marshals observing a prisoner transport to prevent escapes Escape from prison via helicopter is seen as a major threat. ...

Contents

History

For most of history, imprisoning has not been a punishment in itself, but rather a way to lock up criminals until corporal or capital punishment. There were prisons used for detention in Jerusalem in Old Testament times.[1] Dungeons were used to hold prisoners; those who were not killed or left to die there often became galley slaves or faced penal transportations. In other cases debtors were often thrown into debtor's prisons, until they paid their jailers enough money in exchange for a limited degree of freedom. Only in the 19th century did prisons as we know them today become commonplace. Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain and suffering intended to change a persons behavior or to punish them. ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... The dungeons of Blarney Castle. ... A galley slave was a slave rowing in a galley. ... For other uses see Transport (disambiguation) or Transportation (disambiguation). ... In economics a debtor (or a borrower) owes money to a creditor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The first "modern" prisons of the early 19th Century were sometimes known by the term "penitentiary" (a term still used by some prisons in the USA today): as the name suggests, the goal of these facilities was that of penance by the prisoners, through a regimen of strict disciplines, silent reflections, and maybe forced labor on treadwheels and the like. This "Auburn system" of prisoner management was often reinforced by elaborate prison architectures, such as the separate system and the panopticon. It was not until the late 19th Century did rehabilitation through education and skilled labor become the standard goal of prisons. For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... What is a treadwheel? A treadwheel is a form of Animal engine powered by man. ... Lockstep in the Auburn Prison The Auburn system (also known as the New York System) is a penal method of the 19th century in which persons worked during the day in groups and were kept in solitary confinement at night, with enforced silence at all times. ... The Separate system is a form of prison management, its principle being to hold prisoners in solitary confinement. ... For other uses, see Panopticon (disambiguation). ...


Design and facilities

The main entrance to the Utah State Prison.
A modern jail cell.

Male and female prisoners are typically kept in separate locations or separate prisons altogether. Prison accommodation, especially modern prisons in the developed world, are often divided into wings. A building holding more than one wing is known as a "hall". Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1024 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1024 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Utah State Prison main complex is located in Draper, Utah about 20 miles southwest of Salt Lake City. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ...


Amongst the facilities that prisons may have are:

  • A main entrance, which may be known as the 'gatelodge' or 'sally port' (stemming from old castle nomenclature)
  • A chapel, mosque or other religious facility, which will often house chaplaincy offices and facilities for counselling of individuals or groups
  • An 'education facility', often including a library, providing adult education or continuing education opportunities
  • A gym or an exercise yard, a fenced, usually open-air-area which prisoners may use for recreational and exercise purposes
  • A healthcare facility or hospital
  • A segregation unit (also called a 'block' or 'isolation cell'), used to separate unruly, dangerous, or vulnerable prisoners from the general population, also sometimes used as punishment (see solitary confinement)
  • A section of vulnerable prisoners (VPs), or protective Custody (PC) units, used to accommodate prisoners classified as vulnerable, such as sex offenders, former police officers, informants, and those that have gotten into debt or trouble with other prisoners
  • A section of safe cells, used to keep prisoners under constant visual observation, for example when considered at risk of suicide
  • A visiting area, where prisoners may be allowed restricted contact with relatives, friends, lawyers, or other people
  • A death row in some prisons, a section for criminals awaiting execution
  • A staff accommodation area, where staff and guards live in the prison, typical of historical prisons
  • A service/facilities area housing support facilities like kitchens
  • Industrial or agricultural plants operated with convict labour
  • A recreational area consisting of a TV and pool table
A corrections officer in Finland

Prisons are normally surrounded by fencing, walls, earthworks, geographical features, or other barriers to prevent escape. Multiple barriers, concertina wire, electrified fencing, secured and defensible main gates, armed guard towers, lighting, motion sensors, dogs, and roving patrols may all also be present depending on the level of security. Remotely controlled doors, CCTV monitoring, alarms, cages, restraints, nonlethal and lethal weapons, riot-control gear and physical segregation of units and prisoners may all also be present within a prison to monitor and control the movement and activity of prisoners within the facility. For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... A chaplain in the 45th Infantry Division leads a Christmas Day service in Italy, 1943. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... Libraries are useful resources for adult learners. ... Continuing education is an all encompassing term within a broad spectrum of post-secondary learning activities and programs. ... Modern indoor gymnasium with pull-down basketball hoops. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding guards, chaplains and doctors. ... Police officers in South Australia A police officer (or policeman/policewoman) is a warranted worker of a police force. ... Those who supply information to enforcers of law or administration. ... Constant visual observation, often abbreviated to constant visual, is a term used in various Mental Health Services, Prisons and Special Schools to describe the status of a service user who poses a threat to themselves or a third party, and must therefore be kept under constant observation. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... A kitchen is a room used for food preparation and sometimes entertainment. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A sketch of a typical concertina wire obstacle Concertina wire is a type of barbed wire or razor wire that is formed in large coils which can be expanded like a concertina. ... An electric fence is a barrier that uses painful or even lethal high-voltage electric shocks to deter animals or people from crossing a boundary. ... Police dog getting ready to search a vehicle for drugs A policemans dog is a dog that is trained specifically to assist police and similar law-enforcement personnel with their work. ... This article refers to a surveillance system. ...


Modern prison designs, particularly those of high-security prisons, have sought to increasingly restrict and control the movement of prisoners throughout the facility while minimizing the corrections staffing needed to monitor and control the population. As compared to the traditional landing-cellblock-hall designs, many newer prisons are designed in a decentralized "podular" layout with individual self-contained housing units, known as "pods" or "modules", arranged around centralized outdoor yards in a "campus". The pods contain tiers of cells laid out in an open pattern arranged around a central control station from which a single corrections officer can monitor all of the cells and the entire pod. Control of cell doors, communications and CCTV monitoring is conducted from the control station as well. Movement out of the pod to the exercise yard or work assignments can be restricted to individual pods at designated times, or else prisoners may be kept almost always within their pod or even their individual cells depending upon the level of security. Goods and services, such as meals, laundry, commissary, educational materials, religious services and medical care can increasingly be brought to individual pods or cells as well. A commissary is someone delegated by a superior to execute a duty or an office. ...


Conversely, despite these design innovations, overcrowding at many prisons, particularly in the U.S., has resulted in a contrary trend, as many prisons are forced to house large numbers of prisoners, often hundreds at a time, in gymnasiums or other large buildings that have been converted into massive open dormitories.


Lower-security prisons are often designed with less restrictive features, confining prisoners at night in smaller locked dormitories or even cottage or cabin-like housing while permitting them freer movement around the grounds to work or activities during the day.


See Panopticon for a historical prison design that has influenced modern designs. For other uses, see Panopticon (disambiguation). ...


Types

Juvenile

Prisons for juveniles (people under 18) are known as young offenders institutes and hold minors who have been convicted, many countries have their own age of criminal responsibility in which children are deemed legally responsible for their actions for a crime. Defense of infancy is a form of defense by excuse; in which a defendant argues that, at the time a law was broken, they were not criminally liable for their actions, as they had not reached an age of criminal responsibility. ...

See also: Juvenile delinquency

Juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles. ...

Military

Main article: Military prison

Prisons form part of military systems, and are used variously to house prisoners of war, unlawful combatants, those whose freedom is deemed a national security risk by military or civilian authorities, and members of the military found guilty of a serious crime. Military Prison is where the level military operates some type of military prison system. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes a person denied the privileges of prisoner of war (POW) designation, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions; one to whom protection is recognised as due is a lawful or privileged combatant. ...


Political

Main article: Political prisoner

Certain countries maintain or have in the past had a system of political prisons; arguably the gulags associated with Stalinism are best known. The definition of what is and is not a political crime and a political prison is, of course, highly controversial. A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ...


Psychiatric

Some psychiatric facilities have characteristics of prisons, especially when confining patients who have committed a crime and are considered dangerous. Involuntary commitment is the practice of using legal means or forms as part of a mental health law to commit a person to a mental hospital, insane asylum or psychiatric ward without their informed consent, against their will or over their protests. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ...

See also: Punitive psychiatry in the Soviet Union

In the Soviet Union, psychiatry was used for punitive purposes. ...

Rehabilitation

Meta-analysis of previous studies shows that prison sentences do not reduce future offenses, when compared to non-residential sanctions.[2] This meta-analysis of one hundred separate studies found that post-release offenses were around 7% higher after imprisonment compared with non-residential sanctions, at statistically significant levels. Another meta-analysis of 101 separate tests of the impact of prison on crime found a 3% increase in offending after imprisonment.[3] Longer periods of time in prison make outcomes worse, not better; offending increases by around 3% as prison sentences increase in length.[4]


Effective rehabilitation programs reduce the likelihood of re-offense and recidivism.[5] Effective programs are characterised by three things: first, they provide more hours for people with known offense risk factors (the Risk Principle); secondly, they address problems and needs that have a proven causal link to offending (the Needs Principle); and thirdly, they use cognitive-behavioural approaches (the Responsivity Principle). Providing rehabilitation to people at lower risk of reoffending results in a 3% reduction in reoffending, while providing rehabilitation to people with a high risk of reoffending is three times as effective, resulting in a 10% reduction in subsequent offending.[6] Risk factors for reoffending are: age at first offense, number of prior offenses, level of family and personal problems in childhood and other historical factors, along with level of current needs related to offending. Those individuals who had many personal and family problems in childhood (particularly 19 or more), started offending before puberty, and have committed multiple priors are more likely to reoffend in future, according to longitudinal studies internationally.[7] This article is about recidivism in criminology and penology. ...


In support of the Needs Principle:
Programs that specifically target criminogenic needs (causal needs and problems), see a 19% reduction in reoffending.[8]


In support of the Responsivity Principle:
There is a 23% reduction in reoffending after participating in programs that use cognitive-behavioural methods to bring about changes in behaviour, thinking, and relationships.[9]


When all three of these principles are effectively applied, the impact on offending is a 26-32% reduction.[10][11] This is in comparison to a 3-7% increase in offending that is found with imprisonment.


Residential approaches—whether in prison or some other live-in option—tend to be less effective than non-residential approaches.[12] These researchers found that effective programs delivered in the community were followed by a 35% reduction in reoffending, whereas effective programs delivered in residential settings (such as prisons and halfway houses) were followed by a 17% reduction in reoffending. One very likely reason for this is that for teens and adults, mixing with antisocial peers increases the risk of offending. In prison or residences inmates spend a great deal of time with other people immersed in criminal pursuits and beliefs, whereas in community-based programs there is more opportunity to mix with people involved in constructive, law-abiding activities. Antisocial peers in prisons and residences can form a very powerful pressure group, subtly and not so subtly influencing the behavior of other inmates.


Population statistics

World map showing number of prisoners per 100,000 citizens

As of 2006, it is estimated that at least 9.25 million people are currently imprisoned worldwide.[13] It is believed that this number is likely to be much higher, in view of general under-reporting and a lack of data from various countries, especially authoritarian regimes. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ...


In absolute terms, the United States currently has the largest inmate population in the world, with more than 2½ million[14] or more than one in a hundred adults[15] in prison and jails. Although the United States represents less than 5% of the world's population, over 25% of the people incarcerated around the world are housed in the American prison system. Pulitzer Prize winning author Joseph T. Hallinan wrote in his book Going Up the River: Travels in a Prison Nation, "so common is the prison experience that the federal government predicts one in eleven men will be incarcerated in his lifetime, one in four if he is black." In 2002, both Russia and China also had prison populations in excess of 1 million.[16] By October 2006, the Russian prison population declined to 869,814 which translated into 611 prisoners per 100,000 population.


As a percentage of total population, the United States also has the largest imprisoned population, with 738 people per 100,000 serving time, awaiting trial or otherwise detained.[17]


In March 2007, the United Kingdom had 80,000 inmates (up from 73,000 in 2003 and 44,000 in 1985) in its facilities, one of the highest rates among the western members of the European Union (EU) (a record formerly held by Portugal). The highest imprisonment rates among the larger EU members include that of Poland, which in August 2007 had about 90,000 inmates, i.e. 234 prisoners per 100,000 inhabitants,[18] while the highest rates are in the Baltic states Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania with estimated rates of 240, 292 and 333 respectively in 2006.[17] EU redirects here. ...


The high proportion of prisoners in some developed countries is from various causes, but the attitude towards drug-taking plays a considerable part. In undeveloped countries, rates of incarceration are often lower, though this is not a rule. In general, such societies have less goods to steal and a more community based social system, with less judicial law-enforcement. Also their economies may not support the high cost of incarceration.

Prison population per 100,000 inhabitants[13]
United States
of America
Russian
Federation
New
Zealand
Australia United
Kingdom
Turkey Canada Germany Italy France Vietnam Sweden Denmark Japan Iceland
756[19] 611 186 126 148 91 107 95 104 85 105 82 77 62 40

Prisons by country

Australia

Further information: List of Australian prisonsImmigration detention centres, and Mandatory detention in Australia
The main cell block of Fremantle Prison, Western Australia.

Many prisons in Australia were built by convict labour in the 1800s. During the 1990s, various state governments in Australia engaged private sector correctional corporations to build and operate prisons whilst several older government run institutions were decommissioned. Operation of Federal detention centres was also privatised at a time when a large influx of illegal immigrants began to arrive in Australia. This is a list of operational and former Australian prisons. ... Australian immigration detention facilities comprise a number of different facilities throughout Australia and the Pacific Ocean. ... Mandatory detention in Australia concerns the Australian federal government policy and system of mandatory detention, pursuant to which all persons entering or remaining in the country without a valid visa are compulsorily detained and may be subject to deportation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2080x1544, 693 KB) Summary The main cellblock taken by ghostieguide dec 22 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2080x1544, 693 KB) Summary The main cellblock taken by ghostieguide dec 22 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A recreation of typical 1855 cell accommodation. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person...


Canada

Further information: Correctional Service Canada

...

France

France has 188 prisons in mainland and the oversea territories. Statistics showed around 50,000 places on July 1, 2005 for around 60,000 prisoners.

  • Official website
  • Official statistic (2005)

Germany

Further information: Prisons in Germany

Germany has 194 prisons (of which 19 are open institutions). Official statistics showed 80,214 places on March 31, 2007. On the same day, there were 75,719 prisoners (of which 13,168 pre-trial; 60,619 serving sentences; 1,932 others, i.e. mainly civil prisoners; 4,068 were female). This is less than the highest value of 81,176 prisoners on March 31, 2003.[20][21] The prison service in Germany is run solely by the federal states although governed by a federal law. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ireland

Most jails in the Republic of Ireland were built in the 19th century, including Kilmainham Gaol (no longer in use), Mountjoy Prison and Portlaoise Prison. A new €30m prison is planned at Thornton Hall to replace Mountjoy. Kilmainham Jail, also known as Kilmainham Gaol, is a prison located in Kilmainham, Dublin, Ireland. ... Mountjoy Prison is a closed medium security prison located in Dublin, Ireland. ... Portlaoise Prison is a maximum security prison located in Portlaoise, Co. ...


Jamaica

Further information: Prisons in Jamaica

Japan

Further information: Penal system of Japan
Mount Eden Prison is a 19th century brick stockade located just south of the Auckland CBD, a very populous (and affluent) neighbourhood of Mt Eden in Auckland, New Zealand.

Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Exterior of the old prison section. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened to provide some security. ... The Auckland CBD seen from the Waitemata Harbour. ... Mount Eden is a inner suburb of Auckland, New Zealand, surrounded by Three Kings, Balmoral, Newmarket, and Epsom. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ...

New Zealand

Further information: Department of Corrections (New Zealand) and List of correctional facilities in New Zealand

New Zealand currently maintains 19 prisons around the country. The Department of Corrections has an annual budget of NZD$748 million and assets worth over NZD$1.7 billion. Official statistics show (as of June 30, 2007) that there are currently 7,605 prisoners within the New Zealand correctional system. (5,490 Sentenced Prisoners and 1,552 Remanded Prisoners) + 5,795 staff. Breakouts are only at 0.15 per 100 prisoners and there is a rate of only 15% positive drug results during random drug testing in NZ prisons. [22] The New Zealand Department of Corrections The New Zealand Department of Corrections was established on 1 October 1995, following government decisions on the recommendations of the Review of the New Zealand Department of Justice in 1994. ... Correctional facilities (prisons) in New Zealand (as at July 2005) are as follows. ... The New Zealand dollar (ISO 4217: NZD, sometimes NZ$ and often informally known as the Kiwi dollar) is the official currency of New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau, and the Pitcairn Islands. ... The New Zealand dollar (ISO 4217: NZD, sometimes NZ$ and often informally known as the Kiwi dollar) is the official currency of New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau, and the Pitcairn Islands. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Poland

As of the end of August 2007, Poland officially declared 90,199 prisoners (13,374 pre-trial; 76,434 serving sentences; 391 others; 2,743 prisoners were female), giving an imprisonment rate per 100,000 inhabitants of about 234. The overpopulation rate (number of prisoners held compared to number of places for prisoners) was estimated by the official prison service as 119%.[18]


The growth rate of imprisonment in Poland during 2006-2007 was approximately 4% annually, based on the August 2007 estimate of 90,199 prisoners and the June 2005 estimate of 82,572 prisoners.[23]


Turkey

Prisons in Turkey are classified as closed, semi-open and open prisons. Closed prisons are separated into different kinds according to its structure and the number of the prisoners held. Examples are A type, B type, E type and F type. F types are the ones in which high penalty prisoners are held. Most which are being built today are L types that are for low penalty prisoners.


United Kingdom

Further information: Scottish Prison ServiceNorthern Ireland Prison ServiceHer Majesty's Prison ServiceUnited Kingdom prison population, and List of United Kingdom prisons

The Scottish Prison Service (SPS) is the executive agency reporting to the Scottish Executive tasked with managing prisons within Scotland. ... The Northern Ireland Prison Service is an executive agency of the Northern Ireland Office (NIO) established on 1 April 1995. ... Her Majestys Prison Service is the British Executive Agency reporting to the Home Office tasked with managing most of the prisons within England and Wales (Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own Prison Services). ... The United Kingdom has one of the highest rates of incarceration in western Europe: on average 139 people in every 100,000 are in prison (although this is far short of the 714 per 100,000 in the United States). ... This page lists all current and a number of historical prisons in the United Kingdom. ...

United States

Further information: Prisons in the United States

Prisons in the United States are operated by both the federal and state governments as incarceration is a concurrent power under the Constitution of the United States. ...

Correspondence

Research indicates that inmates who maintain contact with family and friends in the outside world are less likely to offend and usually have an easier reintegration period back into society. Many institutions encourage friends and families to send letters, especially when they are unable to visit regularly. However, guidelines exist as to what constitutes acceptable mail, and these policies are strictly enforced.


Mail sent to inmates in violation of prison policies can cost inmates "gain time" and even lead to punishment. Most Department of Corrections websites provide detailed information regarding mail policies. These rules can even vary within a single prison depending on which part of the prison an inmate is housed. For example, death row and maximum security inmates are usually under stricter mail guidelines for security reasons. The Department of Corrections is a U.S. department responsible for the nations prison and reform system. ... For information about the Record company see Death Row Records For information about the computer game see Deathrow (game) Death Row is a term that refers to the section of a prison that houses individuals awaiting execution. ... Maximum Security was a comic book published by Marvel Comics in 2001 as the core of a company-wide crossover. ...


There have been several notable challenges to prison corresponding services. The Missouri Department of Corrections (DOC) stated that effective June 1, 2007, inmates would be prohibited from using pen pal websites citing concerns of fraud. Service providers such as WriteAPrisoner.com, together with the ACLU, plan to challenge the ban in Federal Court. Similar bans on an inmate's rights or a website's right to post such information has been ruled unconstitutional in other courts, citing First Amendment freedoms.[24] Since most DOCs already post inmate information on their websites, critics claim this is a moot point. Inmates' ability to mail letters to other inmates has been limited by the courts.[25] Inmate correspondence with members of society is typically encouraged because of the positive impact it can have on inmates, albeit under the guidelines of each institution and availability of letter writers. is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Pen pals (or penpals or pen friends) are people who regularly write each other, in particular in the case of snail mail. ... WriteAPrisoner. ... The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ...


See also

Lippstadt Anton Praetorius (Lippstadt 1560 – 6 December 1613 near Heidelberg in Laudenbach (Rhein-Neckar)/Bergstrasse in Germany), Protestant pastor and fighter against the persecution of witches (witchhunts, witchcraft trials) and against torture. ... Community service refers to service that a person performs for the benefit of his or her local community. ... The Department of Corrections is a U.S. department responsible for the nations prison and reform system. ... It has been suggested that Adjudication be merged into this article or section. ... Jailhouse lawyer is a colloquial term in North American English to refer to an inmate in a jail or other prison who, though usually never having practiced law nor having any formal legal training, informally assists other inmates in legal matters relating to their sentence (e. ... A kishka is a type of prison cell used in Soviet political prisons. ... Penal labour or penal servitude is a form of unfree labour. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... The aim of the prison abolition movement is to eliminate prisons, jails, immigration detention centers, and prisoner of war camps by alternatives which they argue are more useful and more humane. ... Prison education involves vocational training or academic education supplied to prisoners as part of their rehabilitation and preparation for life outside prison. ... U.S. Marshals observing a prisoner transport to prevent escapes Escape from prison via helicopter is seen as a major threat. ... A Correction officer is a person charged with the responsibility of the supervision of prisoners in a prison or jail. ... Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, aiming at a more effective penal system. ... Prison religion includes the religious beliefs and practices of prison inmates, usually stemming from or including concepts surrounding their imprisonment and accompanying lifestyle. ... Prison sexuality deals with sexual relationships between confined individuals or those between a prisoner and a prison employee (or other persons to whom prisoners have access). ... The movement for Prisoners rights is based on the principle that prisoners, even though they are deprived of liberty, are still entitled to basic human rights. ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This theory of punishment is based on the notion that punishment is to be inflicted on a offender so as to reform him, or rehabilitate him so as to make his re-integration into society easier. ... This page provides a list of prisons by country. ... This is an alphabetical list of notable or historically significant prisons. ... This is a listing of past and present correctional facilities run by the provincial government in Ontario, Canada. ... False imprisonment is a tort, and possibly a crime, wherein a person is intentionally confined without legal authority. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... Life imprisonment is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, nominally for the entire remaining life of the prisoner, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 50 years) a prisoner may be incarcerated, or require the... Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding members of prison staff. ... A prisoner who is denied, refused or unable to meet the conditions of bail, or who is unable to post bail, may be held in a prison on remand until their criminal trial. ... Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding guards, chaplains and doctors. ... For other uses, see Boot camp. ... In the United Kingdom, a borstal was a juvenile detention centre or reformatory, an institution of the criminal justice system, intended to reform delinquent male youths aged between about 16 and 21. ... For information about the Record company see Death Row Records For information about the computer game see Deathrow (game) Death Row is a term that refers to the section of a prison that houses individuals awaiting execution. ... A youth detention center, also known as Juvenile Hall is a prison for people under the age of 18. ... For other uses, see Panopticon (disambiguation). ... A penis colony is a colony used to detain prisoners and generally use them for penal labor in an economically underdeveloped part of the states (usually colonial) territories, and on a far larger scale than a prison farm. ... Most prisons are operated by government agencies. ... Village lock-ups were temporary holding places for detaining people in rural parts of England and Wales. ... Supermax is the name used to describe control-unit prisons, or units within prisons, which represent the most secure levels of custody in prison systems. ... Village lock-ups were temporary holding places for detaining people in rural parts of England and Wales. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

References

  1. ^   "Prisons". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  2. ^ Smith et al, 2002
  3. ^ Andrews and Bonta, 2003
  4. ^ Smith et al, 2002
  5. ^ Andrews and Bonta, 2003
  6. ^ Andrews and Bonta, 2003
  7. ^ e.g.Moffit T E, Caspi A, Harrington H and Milne B J (2002) Males on the life-course persistent and adolescence-limited pathways: Follow-up at age 26, Development and Psychopathology, 14: 179 - 207
  8. ^ Andrews and Bonta, 2003
  9. ^ Andrews and Bonta, 2003
  10. ^ Andrews and Bonta, 2003
  11. ^ Andrews et al, 1990
  12. ^ Andrews and Bonta, 2003
  13. ^ a b Walmsley, Roy (October 2006). World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition). Retrieved on 2007-12-15.
  14. ^ Harrison, Paige M., Allen J. Beck (June 2006). Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
  15. ^ One in100: Behind Bars in America 2008. Pew Charitable Trusts (2008-02-28). Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  16. ^ Prison population statistics. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  17. ^ a b World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  18. ^ a b Statistics - August 2007 (pdf) (Polish). Prison Service, Poland (Służba Więzienna) (August 2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
  19. ^ This value includes 501 prisoners per 100,000 in prisons (US Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisons (2005). Retrieved on 2007-12-15.) and 256 prisoners per 100,000 in jails (US Bureau of Justice Statistics, Jails (June 2006). Retrieved on 2007-12-15.).
  20. ^ Official Prison Statistics of Germany (from the German statistics office)
  21. ^ Prison Archive (from the University of Bremen)
  22. ^ http://www.corrections.govt.nz/public/aboutus/factsandstatistics/
  23. ^ Statistics - June 2006 (pdf) (Polish). Prison Service, Poland (Służba Więzienna) (June 2006). Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
  24. ^ Arizona Inmates Back on the Net. Wired News (2002). Retrieved on 2008-01-26.
  25. ^ Prisoners’ Rights – Legal Correspondence. FindLaw. Retrieved on 2008-01-26.

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Pew Research Center be merged into this article or section. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Bremen (Universität Bremen) is a university of about 23,000 students and 1,500 scientists in Bremen, Germany. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wired News, online at Wired. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... FindLaw. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison, New York: Random House 1975.
  • James (Jim) Bruton, Big House: Life Inside a Supermax Security Prison, Voyageur Press (July, 2004), hardcover, 192 pages, ISBN 0-89658-039-3
  • George Jackson, Soledad brother, ISBN 978-1556522307.
  • Paula C. Johnson, Inner Lives: Voices of African American Women in Prison, New York University Press 2004.
  • Marek M. Kaminski (2004) Games Prisoners Play. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11721-7
  • Ted Conover. Newjack: Guarding Sing Sing. Knopf, 2001. Trade paperback, 352 pages, ISBN 0-375-72662-4
  • Mark L. Taylor. The Executed God: The Way of the Cross in Lockdown America. Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-8006-3283-4
  • Heinz Sobota, Der Minus-Mann. Heyne Verlag 1980, ISBN 345301111

Stover H, "Overview study. An assistance to drug users in European prisons, "EMCDDA", 2001, 305p, ISBN: 1 902114 03 5 Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Discipline and Punish (subtitled The Birth of the Prison) is a book written by the philosopher Michel Foucault. ... Cover of Soledad Brother George Jackson (September 23, 1941 – August 21, 1971) was a Black American militant who became a member of the Black Panther Party while in prison, where he spent the last 12 years of his life. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Prisons

Title: Overview study. An assistance to drug users in European prisons. Editor(s) Stover H Publisher: Lisbon: EMCDDA Publication Year: 2001 Pagination: 305p ISBN: 1 902114 03 5 Call No. MO4, HK, VH4 Document Type Book Notes includes bibliographical references. A5, ringbound Full Text http://www.hipp-europe.org/downloads/england-prisonsanddrugs (abridged) Keywords [ prevalence ] [ communicable disease by infectious agent ] [ AOD prevention ] [ harm reduction ] [ prison-based health service ] [ drug-free zoning ] [ European Union ] [ prison ] Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: ) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Prison - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2080 words)
Prisons are conventionally institutions which form part of the criminal justice system of a country, such that imprisonment or incarceration is the legal penalty that may be imposed by the state for the commission of a crime.
Prisons may also be used as a tool of political repression to detain political prisoners, prisoners of conscience, and "enemies of the state", particularly by authoritarian regimes.
Prisons form part of military systems, and are used variously to house prisoners of war, unlawful combatants, those whose freedom is deemed a national security risk by military or civilian authorities, and members of the military found guilty of a serious crime.
Abu Ghraib prison - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1833 words)
Under Hussein's Ba'ath government, it was known as Abu Ghraib Prison and had a reputation as a place of torture and some of the worst cases of torture in the modern world.
The prison complex was built by British contractors in the 1960s, and covered 280 acres (1.15 km²) with a total of 24 guard towers.
All [prisoners in Iraq] except those held by the Ministry of Justice are, technically speaking, held against the law because the Ministry of Justice is the only authority that is empowered by law to detain, to hold anybody in prison.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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