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Encyclopedia > Printmaking

Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Except in the case of Monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiple copies of the same piece, which is called a print. Each copy is known as an impression. Painting or drawing, on the other hand, create a unique original piece of artwork. Prints are created from a single original surface, known technically as a matrix. Common types of matrices include: plates of metal, usually copper or zinc for engraving or etching; stone, used for lithography; blocks of wood for woodcuts and linoleum for linocuts. But there are many other kinds, discussed below. Each print is considered an original work of art, not a copy. Works printed from a single plate create an edition, in modern times usually each signed and numbered to form a limited edition. Prints may also be published in book form, as Artists' Books. A single print could be the product of one or multiple techniques. Process (lat. ... For other articles which might have the same name, see Print (disambiguation). ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... Monotyping (not to be confused with monoprinting) is a type of printmaking made by drawing or painting on a smooth, non-absorbent surface. ... Drawing involves the choice of one or more tools from a wide variety and the choice of a support appropriate to that tool in order to make marks. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is incised into the surface of a metal plate using an acid. ... Lithography stone and mirror-image print of a map of Munich. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Colour Linocut Linocut Linocut is a variant of woodcut, in which a sheet of linoleum (sometimes mounted on a wooden block) is used for the relief surface. ... In printmaking, an edition is a set of prints off one plate, composing a limited run of prints. ... In printmaking, an edition is a set of prints off one plate, composing a limited run of prints. ... Artists books are works of art realized in the form of a book. ...

mount Fuji, from the Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji), color woodcut by Katsushika Hokusai

Contents

Image File history File links I believe this image was sourced from this website: Jim Breens Ukiyo-E Gallery - Hokusai As the compiler of this gallery notes on his copyrights and copying page, scans of works in the public domain are not considered original work and the resulting scan... Image File history File links I believe this image was sourced from this website: Jim Breens Ukiyo-E Gallery - Hokusai As the compiler of this gallery notes on his copyrights and copying page, scans of works in the public domain are not considered original work and the resulting scan... In the Hollow of a Wave off the Coast at Kanagawa, woodcut by Katsushika Hokusai 36 Views of Mount Fuji (Japanese: 富嶽三十六景; Fugaku Sanjū-Rokkei) is a series of woodblock prints by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849), depicting Mount Fuji in differing seasons and weather conditions from... The Great Wave at Kanagawa (from a Series of Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji) by Katsushika Hokusai. ...

Media

Printmakers work using a variety of media, including water based ink, water color paint, oil based ink, oil pastels, and any water soluble solid pigment such as Caran D'Ache crayons. The work is created on a flat surface called a plate. Printmaking techniques that utilize digital methods are becoming increasingly popular and in many markets are the preferred method. Surfaces or matrices used in printmaking include planks of wood, metal plates, panes of acrylic glass, pieces of shellacked book board, sheets of linoleum or lithographic stones. A separate technique, called serigraphy, screenprinting, or silk-screening makes use of a porous fabric mesh stretched in a frame, called a screen. Small prints can even be made using the surface of a potato. An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for colouring a surface to render an image or text. ... Look up Plank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or poly (methyl 2-methylpropenoate) is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ...


Color

Printmakers apply color to their prints in many different ways. Often color in printmaking that involves etching, screenprinting, woodcut, or linocut is applied by either using separate plates, blocks or screens or by using a reductionist approach. In multiple plate color techniques are a number of plates, screens or blocks produced, each providing a different colour. Each separate plate, screen, or block will be inked up in a different color and applied in a particular sequence to produce the entire picture. On average about 3 to 4 plates are produced but there are occasions where a printmaker may use up to seven plates. Every application of another plate of color will interact with the color already applied to the paper and this must be kept in mind when producing the separation of colors. The lightest colors are often applied first and then that darker colors successively until the last one. Screen-printing, also known as silkscreening or serigraphy, is a printmaking technique that creates a sharp-edged single-color image using a stencil and a porous fabric. ... Colour Linocut Linocut Linocut is a variant of woodcut, in which a sheet of linoleum (sometimes mounted on a wooden block) is used for the relief surface. ...


The reductionist approach to producing color is to start with a lino or wood block that is either blank or with a simple etching. Upon each printing of color the printmaker will then further cut into the lino or woodblock removing more material and then apply another color and reprint. Each successive removal of lino or wood from the block will expose the already printed color to the viewer of the print.


With some printing techniques like chine-collé or monotyping the printmaker may sometimes just paint into the colors they want like a painter would and then print. Chine-collé is a special technique in printmaking in which the image is transferred to a surface that is bonded to a heavier support in the printing process. ... Monotyping (not to be confused with monoprinting) is a type of printmaking made by drawing or painting on a smooth, non-absorbent surface. ...


The subtractive color concept is also used in offset or digital print and is present in bitmap or vectorial software in CMYK or other color spaces. Subtractive color mixing An 1877 color photo by Louis Ducos du Hauron, a French pioneer of color photography. ... In computer science, an offset within an array or other data structure object is an integer indicating the distance (displacement) from the beginning of the object up until a given element or point, presumably within the same object. ... Giclée (IPA: // or //, from French /ʒiˈkle/), commonly pronounced zhee-clay, is the use of the ink-jet printing process for making fine art large format digital images. ... Cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black) CMYK (or sometimes YMCK) is a subtractive color model used in color printing. ...


Techniques

Overview

Printmaking techniques can be divided into the following basic families or categories:

  • planographic, where the matrix retains its entire surface, but some parts are treated to make the image. Planographic techniques include: lithography, monotyping, and digital techniques.

Other types of printmaking techniques outside these groups include collography and foil imaging. Digital processes include giclée, photographic mediums and combination of both digital process and conventional processes. A relief print is an image created by a printmaking process, such as woodcut, where the areas of the matrix (plate or block) that are to show printed black (typically) are on the original surface; the parts of the matrix that are to be blank (white) having been cut themselves... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Yuan dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East... Thomas Bewick. ... Colour Linocut Linocut Linocut is a variant of woodcut, in which a sheet of linoleum (sometimes mounted on a wooden block) is used for the relief surface. ... Metalcut is a relief printmaking technique, belonging to the category of old master prints. ... Intaglio (pronounced in-TAL-yo, IPA: ) is a printmaking technique in which the image is incised into a surface. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is incised into the surface of a metal plate using an acid. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... Aquatint is an intaglio printmaking technique. ... Chine-collé is a special technique in printmaking in which the image is transferred to a surface that is bonded to a heavier support in the printing process. ... Drypoint is a printmaking technique of the intaglio family, in which an image is incised into a plate (typically copper, zinc, or plexiglas) by scratching the surface with a hard, sharp metal point. ... Planographic printing means printing from a flat surface, as opposed to a raised surface (as with relief printing) or incised surface (as with intaglio printing). ... Lithography stone and mirror-image print of a map of Munich. ... Monotyping (not to be confused with monoprinting) is a type of printmaking made by drawing or painting on a smooth, non-absorbent surface. ... Screen-printing, also known as silkscreening or serigraphy, is a printmaking technique that creates a sharp-edged single-color image using a stencil and a porous fabric. ... This article is not about calligraphy. ... In art, foil imaging is a unique printmaking technique made possible by the invention of the Iowa Foil Printer, which makes use of the commercial foil stamping process. ... Peter Paul Rubens The Hippopotamus Hunt printed on paper and canvas stock with the seven Epson pigmented ink printer cartridges used to produce it (printer and prints commonly called Giclée). ...


Many of these techniques can also be combined, especially within the same family. For example Rembrandt's prints are usually referred to as "etchings" for convenience, but very often include work in engraving and drypoint as well, and sometimes have no etching at all.


Woodcut

Main article: woodcut
Woodcut print by Edvard Munch.
Woodcut print by Edvard Munch.

Woodcut, a type of relief print, is the earliest printmaking technique, and the only one traditionally used in the Far East. It was probably first developed as a means of printing patterns on cloth, and by the 5th century was used in China for printing text and images on paper. Woodcuts of images on paper developed around 1400 in Europe, and slightly later in Japan. These are the two areas where woodcut has been most extensively used purely as a process for making images without text. Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Image File history File links Munch_print. ... Image File history File links Munch_print. ... Edvard Munchs Tomb, Oslo, Norway Edvard Munch (IPA: , December 12, 1863 – January 23, 1944) was a Norwegian Symbolist painter, printmaker, and an important forerunner of Expressionistic art. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... A relief print is an image created by a printmaking process, such as woodcut, where the areas of the matrix (plate or block) that are to show printed black (typically) are on the original surface; the parts of the matrix that are to be blank (white) having been cut themselves...


The artist draws a sketch either on a plank of wood, or on paper which is transferred to the wood. Traditionally the artist then handed the work to a specialist cutter, who then uses sharp tools to carve away the parts of the block that he/she does not want to receive the ink. The raised parts of the block are inked with a brayer, then a sheet of paper, perhaps slightly damp, is placed over the block. The block is then rubbed with a baren or spoon, or is run through a press. If in color, separate blocks are used for each color. Look up artist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... CSI:MILWAUKEE PART 2 THE MANHUNT For THE MARINE SNIPER produced BY BRYAN NEUMANN AND CO PRODUCER KATHERINE STROMEYER LT. Neumann awoke in a deep dark smelly warehouse somewhere in the Milwaukee harbor and he realized that his Dalay 9mm was gone and so where his hand cuffs. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... Baren is a Japanese tool used in printmaking processes such as woodcut or linoleum. ... A common silver spoon A spoon is a common eating utensil, or item of cutlery, somewhat like a small spade, with a bowl-shaped end on a handle, that occurs in a number of sizes and forms. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ...

Artists using this technique include

Albrecht Dürer, Werner Drewes, Hiroshige, Hokusai. Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... Werner Drewes, 1940 Drewes, Pencil Sketch Werner Drewes (1899-1985) was a German-American painter and printmaker, born in 1899 in Canig, Germany. ... Memorial portrait of Hiroshige by Kunisada. ... Beneath the Great Wave off Kanagawa[1] Katsushika Hokusai, (葛飾北斎), (1760 — 1849[2]), was an Edo period Japanese artist, painter, printmaker and ukiyo-e maker. ...


"Melancholia I", engraving by Albrecht Dürer, one of the most important printmakers.
"Melancholia I", engraving by Albrecht Dürer, one of the most important printmakers.

Image File history File linksMetadata Melancholia_I.jpg Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Melancholia_I.jpg Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Albrecht Dürers engraving Melancholia I (originally known by Dürer as Melencolia I) is notable for being an allegorical depiction of the main symptoms of melancholy, now better known as depression. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ...

Engraving

Main article: Engraving

The process was developed in Germany in the 1430s from the engraving used by goldsmiths to decorate metalwork. Using the burin is a difficult skill to learn. Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... A goldsmith creating a new ring A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with precious metals, usually to make jewelry. ... In lithic reduction, a burin is a special type of lithic flake with a chisel-like edge which prehistoric humans may have used for engraving or for carving wood or bone. ...


Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin to cut the design into the surface of a metal, traditionally copper, plate. Gravers come in a variety of shapes and sizes that yield different line types. The burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line that is characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. Other tools such as mezzotint rockers, roulets and burnishers are used for texturing effects. In lithic reduction, a burin is a special type of lithic flake with a chisel-like edge which prehistoric humans may have used for engraving or for carving wood or bone. ...


The plate is inked all over, and then the ink wiped off the surface, leaving only the ink in the engraved lines. The plate is then put through a high-pressure printing-press together with a sheet of paper (often moistened to soften it). The paper picks up the ink from the engraved lines, making a print. The process can be repeated many times; typically several hundred impressions (copies) could be printed before the plate shows much sign of wear. The work on the plate can also be added to by repeating the whole process; this creates an engraving which exists in more than one state.


In the 20th Century copper-plate engraving as a serious art form was revived by Josef Hecht and Stanley William Hayter (founder of the hugely influential Atelier 17 and closely associated with the revival of experimental printmaking in France and later in the USA)


Etching

"The sleep of Reason creates monsters", etching and aquatint by Francisco Goya
"The sleep of Reason creates monsters", etching and aquatint by Francisco Goya
Main article: Etching

Etching is part of the intaglio family (along with engraving, drypoint, mezzotint, and aquatint.) The process is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer (circa 1470-1536) of Augsburg, Germany, who decorated armour in this way, and applied the method to printmaking. Etching soon came to challenge engraving as the most popular printmaking medium. Its great advantage was that, unlike engraving which requires special skill in metalworking, etching is relatively easy to learn for an artist trained in drawing. Image File history File links Goya_print. ... Image File history File links Goya_print. ... Goyas self-portrait Goya redirects here. ... Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is incised into the surface of a metal plate using an acid. ... Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is incised into the surface of a metal plate using an acid. ... Intaglio (pronounced in-TAL-yo, IPA: ) is a printmaking technique in which the image is incised into a surface. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Drypoint is a printmaking technique of the intaglio family, in which an image is incised into a plate (typically copper, zinc, or plexiglas) by scratching the surface with a hard, sharp metal point. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... Aquatint is an intaglio printmaking technique. ... Daniel Hopfer: Gib Frid - three old women beating a devil on the ground. ...


Etching prints are generally linear and often contain fine detail and contours. Lines can vary from smooth to sketchy. An etching is opposite of a woodcut in that the raised portions of an etching remain blank while the crevices hold ink. In pure etching, a metal (usually copper, zinc or steel) plate is covered with a waxy ground. The artist then scratches off the ground with a pointed etching needle where he wants a line to appear in the finished piece, so exposing the bare metal. The plate is then dipped in a bath of acid, or has acid washed over it. The acid "bites" into the metal, where it is exposed, leaving behind lines to the plate. The remaining ground is then cleaned off the plate, and the printing process is then just the same as for engraving.

The Three Crosses, etching by Rembrandt
The Three Crosses, etching by Rembrandt
Artists using this technique include

Albrecht Dürer, Rembrandt, Francisco Goya, Whistler, Jim Dine, Otto Dix, James Ensor, Lucian Freud, Paul Klee, Einar Hakonarson, Edward Hopper, Horst Janssen, Käthe Kollwitz, Mauricio Lasansky, Brice Marden, Henri Matisse, Giorgio Morandi, Pablo Picasso, Peter Milton, Paula Rego and Cy Twombly. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1392, 603 KB) Rembrandt (1606-1669) The Three Crosses Drypoint and burin, 1653 15 1/8 x 17 5/8 inches (38. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1392, 603 KB) Rembrandt (1606-1669) The Three Crosses Drypoint and burin, 1653 15 1/8 x 17 5/8 inches (38. ... Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is incised into the surface of a metal plate using an acid. ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606– October 4, 1669) is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... This article is about the Dutch painter. ... Goyas self-portrait Goya redirects here. ... Whistler can refer to the following: Whistler, British Columbia - the municipality of the 2010 Winter Olympics Alpine events Whistler-Blackcomb - the ski resort that will host the 2010 Winter Olympics Alpine events Whistler (radio) - a very low frequency radio phenomenon. ... Jim Dine (born June 16, 1935) is an American pop artist. ... Otto Dix (December 2, 1891 - July 25, 1969) was a German painter and printmaker. ... James Ensor (April 13, 1860 - November 19, 1949) was a Belgian impressionist painter, who lived in Ostend for almost his entire life; his father was English, his mother Belgian. ... The Painters Room, 1943, private collection. ... Paul Klee (IPA: ) (December 18, 1879 to June 29, 1940) was a Swiss painter of German nationality. ... Einar Hákonarson Einar Hákonarson (b. ... Nighthawks. ... Horst Janssen was a German printmaker (born 14th November 1929, Hamburg, died 31st August 1995, Oldenburg). ... Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz (July 8, 1867 - April 22, 1945) was a German painter, printmaker, and sculptor whose work offered an eloquent and often searing account of the human condition in the first half of the 20th century. ... Mauricio Lasansky (born October 12, 1914 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is one of the few modern artists who have limited their works almost exclusively to the graphic media. ... Brice Marden (born October 15, 1938), is an American abstract painter. ... Henri Matisse (December 31, 1869 – November 3, 1954) was a French artist, noted for his use of color and his fluid, brilliant and original draughtsmanship. ... Giorgio Morandi (June 20, 1890 - June 18, 1964) was an Italian painter who specialized in still life. ... Pablo Ruiz Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... Peter Winslow Milton (b. ... Paula Figueiroa Rego, GCSE, pron. ... Cy Twombly (born April 25, 1928) is an American abstract artist. ...


Mezzotint

Main article: Mezzotint

An intaglio variant of engraving where the plate first is roughened evenly all over; the image is then brought out by scraping smooth the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. It is possible to create the image by only roughening the plate selectively, so working from light to dark. Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... Intaglio is a printmaking technique in which the image is incised into a surface. ...


Mezzotint is known for the luxurious quality of its tones: first, because an evenly, finely roughened surface holds a lot of ink, allowing deep solid colors to be printed; secondly because the process of smoothing the texture with burin, burnisher and scraper allows fine gradations in tone to be developed.


The mezzotint printmaking method was invented by Ludwig von Siegen (1609-1680). The process was especially widely used in England from the mid-eighteenth century, to reproduce portraits and other paintings. Ludwig von Siegen (c. ...


Aquatint

Main article: Aquatint

A variant of etching. Like etching, Aquatint uses the application of acid to make the marks in the metal plate. Where the etching technique uses a needle to make lines that print in black (or whatever colour ink is used), aquatint uses powdered resin which is acid resistant in the ground to create a tonal effect. The tonal variation is controlled by the level of acid exposure over large areas, and thus the image is shaped by large sections at a time. Aquatint is an intaglio printmaking technique. ...


Goya used aquatint for most of his prints.


Drypoint

Main article: Drypoint

A variant of engraving, done with a sharp point, rather than a v-shaped burin. While engraved lines are very smooth and hard-edged, drypoint scratching leaves a rough burr at the edges of each line. This burr gives drypoint prints a characteristically soft, and sometimes blurry, line quality. Because the pressure of printing quickly destroys the burr, drypoint is useful only for very small editions; as few as ten or twenty impressions. To counter this, and allow for longer print runs, electro-plating (here called steelfacing) has been used since the nineteenth century to harden the surface of a plate. Drypoint is a printmaking technique of the intaglio family, in which an image is incised into a plate (typically copper, zinc, or plexiglas) by scratching the surface with a hard, sharp metal point. ... In lithic reduction, a burin is a special type of lithic flake with a chisel-like edge which prehistoric humans may have used for engraving or for carving wood or bone. ...


The technique appears to have been invented by the Housebook Master, a south German fifteenth century artist, all of whose prints are in drypoint only. Among the most famous artists of the old master print: Albrecht Dürer produced 3 drypoints before abandoning the technique; Rembrandt used it frequently, but usually in conjunction with etching and engraving. Pair of Lovers - C. 1480, a painting thought to be by the dry point engraver identified as the Master of the Housebook Master of the Housebook and Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet are two appellations used for an engraver and painter working in South Germany in the last quarter of...


Lithography

Main article: Lithography
La Goulue, Lithograph poster by Toulouse-Lautrec.
La Goulue, Lithograph poster by Toulouse-Lautrec.

Lithography is a technique invented in 1798 by Alois Senefelder and based on the chemical repulsion of oil and water. A porous surface, normally limestone, is used; the image is drawn on the limestone with a greasy medium. Acid is applied, transferring the grease to the limestone, leaving the image 'burned' into the surface. Gum arabic, a water soluble substance, is then applied, sealing the surface of the stone not covered with the drawing medium. The stone is wetted, with water staying only on the surface not covered in grease-based residue of the drawing; the stone is then 'rolled up', meaning oil ink is applied with a roller covering the entire surface; since water repels the oil in the ink, the ink adheres only to the greasy parts, perfectly inking the image. A sheet of dry paper is placed on the surface, and the image is transferred to the paper by the pressure of the printing press. Lithography is known for its ability to capture fine gradations in shading and very small detail. Lithography stone and mirror-image print of a map of Munich. ... Download high resolution version (576x939, 119 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (576x939, 119 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (November 24, 1864 - September 9, 1901) was a French painter. ... Lithography stone and mirror-image print of a map of Munich. ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Alois Senefelder (November 6, 1771 _ February 26, 1834) was a German inventor. ... Repulsion is a film made in 1965 directed by Roman Polański. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Impact of a drop of water. ... An open surface with X-, Y-, and Z-contours shown. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Gradation of color is a consistent and gradual change from one color to another. ...


A variant is photo-lithography, in which the image is captured by photographic processes on metal plates; printing is carried out in the same way.

Artists using this technique include

George Bellows, Pierre Bonnard, Honoré Daumier, M.C. Escher, Ellsworth Kelly, Willem de Kooning, Joan Miró, Edvard Munch, Emil Nolde, Pablo Picasso, Odilon Redon, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Stow Wengenroth George Bellows George Wesley Bellows (August 19, 1882 - January 8, 1925) was an American painter, known for his bold depictions of urban life in New York City. ... The Dining Room in the Country Pierre Bonnard (October 3, 1867 – January 23, 1947) was a French painter and printmaker. ... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ... Hand with Reflecting Sphere (Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror), 1935. ... Ellsworth Kelly (b. ... Willem de Koonings Woman V (1952-53), National Gallery of Australia Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was an abstract expressionist painter, born in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ... Joan Miró photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, June, 1935 Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Spanish (Catalan) painter, sculptor and ceramist born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... Edvard Munchs Tomb, Oslo, Norway Edvard Munch (IPA: , December 12, 1863 – January 23, 1944) was a Norwegian Symbolist painter, printmaker, and an important forerunner of Expressionistic art. ... Maskenstilleben (Masks Still Life), watercolor on paper, 1911. ... Pablo Ruiz Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... Self portrait, 1880, Musée dOrsay. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec [äNrÄ“ du tOOlOOz lōtrek] (November 24, 1864 – September 9, 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the decadent and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an oeuvre of provocative images of modern life. ... Wengenroth, Northern Coast, Rockport, Massachusetts, lithograph, 1937 Stow Wengenroth (1906-1978) was an American artist and lithographer, born in 1906 in Brooklyn, New York. ...


Screen-printing

Main article: Screen-printing

Screen-printing (also known as "screenprinting", "silk-screening", or "serigraphy") creates bold color using a stencil technique. The artist draws an image on a piece of paper or plastic (film can also be used.) The image is cut out creating a stencil. (Keep in mind the pieces that are cut away are the areas that will be colored.) A screen is made of a piece of fabric (originally silk) stretched over a wood frame. The stencil is affixed to the screen. The screen is then placed on top of a piece of dry paper or fabric. Ink is then placed across the top length of the screen. A squeegee (rubber blade) is used to spread the ink across the screen, over the stencil, and onto the paper/fabric. The screen is lifted once the image has been transferred onto the paper/fabric. Each color requires a separate stencil. The screen can be re-used after cleaning. Screen-printing, also known as silkscreening or serigraphy, is a printmaking technique that creates a sharp-edged single-color image using a stencil and a porous fabric. ... Screen-printing, also known as silkscreening or serigraphy, is a printmaking technique that creates a sharp-edged single-color image using a stencil and a porous fabric. ... A stencil is a template used to draw or paint identical letters, symbols, shapes, or patterns every time it is used. ... The term screen has a number of meanings: A window screen is a wire mesh that covers a window opening to keep out insects even when the window is open. ... Squeegee, sponge, and chalk on a desk. ...

Artists using this technique include

Josef Albers, Chuck Close, Ralston Crawford, Robert Indiana, Roy Lichtenstein, Julian Opie, Robert Rauschenberg, Bridget Riley, Edward Ruscha, and Andy Warhol. Josef Albers (born March 19, 1888 in Bottrop, Westphalia (Germany) - died March 26, 1976 in New Haven, Connecticut), was a German artist and educator whose work, both in Europe and in the United States, formed the basis of some of the most influential and far-reaching art education programs of... Chuck Close (born Charles Thomas Close July 5, 1940, Monroe, Washington) is an American photorealistic painter and photographer. ... Ralston Crawford (September 5, 1906–1978) was an American abstract painter, lithographer, and photographer. ... Robert Indiana (born September 13, 1928) is an American artist associated with the Pop Art movement. ... Drowning Girl (1963). ... Julian Opie (born 1958) is a contemporary English artist. ... Robert Rauschenberg (b. ... Movement in Squares, 1961. ... Edward Ruscha (born December 16, 1937 Omaha, Nebraska) is an American painter, printmaker, and filmmaker. ... Andy Warhol (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987) was an American artist associated with the definition of Pop Art. ...


Digital prints

Digital prints refers to editions of images created with a computer using drawings, other prints, photographs, light pen and tablet, and so on. These images can be printed to a variety of substrates including paper and cloth or plastic canvas. Accurate color reproduction is key to distinguishing high quality from low quality digital prints. Metallics (silvers, golds) are particularly difficult to reproduce accurately because they reflect light back to digital scanners. High quality digital prints typically are reproduced with very high-resolution data files with very high-precision printers. The substrate used has an effect on the final colors and cannot be ignored when selecting a color palette.


Digital images can be printed on standard desktop-printer paper and then transferred to traditional art papers (Velin Arch or Stonehenge 200gsm, for example). One way to transfer an image is to place the printout face down upon the art paper and rub Wintergreen oil upon the back of the print, and pass it through a press.


Digital prints that are stored and sold electronically are problematic when it comes to authorship of the print and the protection of pecuniary interests. Adobe Systems tried to overcome the digital edition problem with their Adobe Reader application. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Electronic images are truly multiple originals as they rely upon code to produce the image and every copy is actually the writing of code upon a disk or reproduction of code. Prints produced via any other medium are copies and not truly original unless a process of manual editing of the final result or plate is applied.


Sociologist Jean Baudrillard has had a large influence upon digital printmaking with theories expounded on in Simulacra and Simulation. Jean Baudrillard (born June 20, 1929, in Reims, died March 6, 2007 in Paris) (IPA pronunciation: [1]) was a French cultural theorist, philosopher, political commentator, and photographer. ... Simulacra and Simulation (Simulacres et Simulation in French), published in 1981, is a philosophical treatise by Jean Baudrillard. ...

Artists using this technique include

Istvan Horkay,Zazie (surrealist) István Horkay (b. ... For information about the singer, see Zazie. ...


Foil Imaging

Main article: Foil imaging

In art, foil imaging is a printmaking technique made using the Iowa Foil Printer, developed by Viginia A. Myers from the commercial foil stamping process. This uses gold leaf and foil in the printmaking process. In art, foil imaging is a unique printmaking technique made possible by the invention of the Iowa Foil Printer, which makes use of the commercial foil stamping process. ... Foil stamping, Typically a commercial print process, is the application of foil, a special film-backed material, to paper where a heated die is stamped onto the foil, making it adhere to the surface leaving the design of the die on the paper. ... Look up Foil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Protective printmaking equipment

Protective clothing is very important for printmakers who engage in etching. In the past many printmakers did not live far past 35 to 40 years of age due to their exposure and soaking up of various acids and liquids or their inhaling of rosin from aquatinting.


Whereas in the past printmakers used to put their plates in and out of acid baths with their bare hands, nowadays printmakers use industrial strength rubber gloves. They also wear industrial gas masks that are fitted with fume filters for the acid baths. Acid baths are often built with fumigators above them also.


Often an emergency cold shower is nearby in case of acid spillages and eye wash. Some printmakers wear goggles when dealing with acid.


The masks often have particle filters for aquatinting. Plates are put into an aquatinting cabinet and a fan is turned by hand blowing rosin up into the top of the cabinet. The rosin floats down and settles upon the plate (anywhere between 5 to 15 minutes until covering the plate properly). When the plate is taken out of the cabinet often rosin powder is still floating down and comes out into the area where the printmaker is. Should this rosin powder be inhaled it is taken into the lungs where it remains throughout life, without dissolving or being removed from the lungs. Rosin is a serious health hazard and especially to printmakers in the past who used to just hold their breath inside an aquatinting room.


Barrier cream is often used upon a printmaker's hands both when putting them inside the protective gloves and if using their hands to wipe-back plates (remove ink from plates).


Sterile plasters and bandages are always available especially if using steel plates that become extremely sharp when beveling the edges of the plate down so as not to tear the paper with the edges of the plate when passing the print through the press.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
printmaking

Some major printmakers

Main article List of Printmakers - by period, nationality and technique Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... An artists proof is, at least in theory, an impression of a print taken in the printmaking process to see the current printing state of a plate while the plate (or stone, or woodblock. ... In printmaking, an edition is a set of prints off one plate, composing a limited run of prints. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Iowa Biennial Exhibition and Archive [TIBEA] began in 2004 as an international survey of contemporary miniature printmaking with its initial exhibition held at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa. ... The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ... View of Mount Fuji from Numazu, part of the Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō series by Hiroshige, published 1850 Ukiyo-e ), pictures of the floating world, is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or woodcuts) and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of... List of Printmakers Artists who engaged significantly in Printmaking. ...

Printmakers by nationality

  • Etchers by nationality
  • Engravers by nationality
  • Printmakers by nationality

References

Suggested reading

Prints and Printmaking, Antony Griffiths, British Museum Press (in UK),2nd edn, 1996 ISBN 0-7141-2608-X Werner Drewes, 1940 Drewes, Pencil Sketch Werner Drewes (1899-1985) was a German-American painter and printmaker, born in 1899 in Canig, Germany. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... Maurits Cornelis Escher (June 18, 1898 – March 27, 1972) was a Dutch graphic artist known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs and mezzotints which feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, architecture, and tessellations. ... Jane Hammond Jane R. Hammond (b. ... Stanley William Hayter (1901-1988) was a British surrealist painter and printmaker. ... Mauricio Lasansky (born October 12, 1914 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is one of the few modern artists who have limited their works almost exclusively to the graphic media. ... Edvard Munchs Tomb, Oslo, Norway Edvard Munch (IPA: , December 12, 1863 – January 23, 1944) was a Norwegian Symbolist painter, printmaker, and an important forerunner of Expressionistic art. ... Frank Philip Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker. ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606 - October 4, 1669) is generally considered one of the greatest painters in European art history, and the most important United Provinces (Netherlands) painter of the seventeenth century. ... Andy Warhol (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987) was an American artist associated with the definition of Pop Art. ... Wengenroth, Northern Coast, Rockport, Massachusetts, lithograph, 1937 Stow Wengenroth (1906-1978) was an American artist and lithographer, born in 1906 in Brooklyn, New York. ... Auguste Rodin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... View across garden, in new MoMA building by Yoshio Taniguchi. ... Bamber Gascoigne (born 1935) is a British television presenter and author. ...


Ivins, William Jr. Prints and Visual Communication. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1953. ISBN 0-262-59002-6 William Ivins, Jr. ...


Gill Saunders and Rosie Miles Prints Now : Directions and Definitions Victoria and Albert Museum (May 1, 2006) ISBN 1-85177-480-7

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Printmaking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2768 words)
Printmaking is a process for producing editions (mutliple copies) of artwork; painting, on the other hand, is a process for producing a single original piece of artwork.
Often colour in printmaking that involves etching, screenprinting, woodcut or linocut is applied by either using separate plates, blocks or screens or by using a reductionist approach.
Other printmaking techniques include chine-collé, collography, monotyping, engraving, drypoint, mezzotint, linocut, aquatint and batik.Monotyping is not a printmaking technique in strict sense so it does not produce a matrix in which multiple artworks can be produced; it is more a printed painting than a proof of print.
Printmaking History (873 words)
It was not till the 18th century that art prints began to be considered originals and not till the 19th that artists began to produce limited editions and to sign their prints along with the technical information necessary to authenticate the work.
European printmaking began with textile printing as early as the sixth century, while printing on paper had to wait a bit longer for the arrival of paper technology from the Far East.
Europe's printmaking center of gravity moved to Italy in the 18th century, beginning with Tiepolo who, it is said, exercised a significant influence on Goya.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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