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Encyclopedia > Printing press
For the invention and technology of movable type, see Movable type.
Printing press from 1811, photographed in Munich, Germany.

A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a media (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring an image. The systems involved were first assembled in Germany by the goldsmith Johann Gutenberg in the 1430s.[1] Printing methods based on Gutenberg's printing press spread rapidly throughout first Europe and then the rest of the world, replacing most block printing and making it the progenitor of modern movable type printing. As a method of creating reproductions for mass consumption, the printing press has been superseded by the advent of offset printing. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 1056 KB) Printing press from 1811. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 1056 KB) Printing press from 1811. ... A goldsmith creating a new ring A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with precious metals, usually to make jewelry. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The global spread of printing with movable type from its origins in Germany began with the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg, (c. ... Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or offset) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. ...


In Europe, the printing press's ability to quickly and uniformly disseminate knowledge aided in the propagation of Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses and other works of the Protestant Reformation, the European rediscovery of the Greek and Roman classics that helped stimulate the Renaissance, the decline of Latin and the ascent of the various vernaculars, and the development of scientific journals and their specialist vocabulary, or jargon. The level of importance of the printing press is rivaled by few other inventions, so much so that "the invention of the printing press" is often used as a reference to the social, political, and scientific change experienced by Europe after the press' introduction.[citation needed] Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences, known as the 95 Theses, challenged the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. ... Reformation redirects here. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nature, Science and PNAS In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. ... For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ...

Contents

History

Finely crafted books—like the Bencao (materia medica) shown here—were produced by woodblock in China as early as the ninth century.[2]

The invention of Gutenberg's printing press depended primarily upon a diffusion of technologies from Asia—paper and woodblock printing—in addition to a growing demand for books.[1] By 1424, Cambridge University library owned only 122 books—each of which had a value equal to a farm or vineyard.[1] The demand for these books was driven by rising literacy amongst the middle class and students in Europe.[1] At this time, the Renaissance was still in its early stages and the populace was gradually removing the monopoly the clergy had held on literacy.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 574 pixelsFull resolution (2286 × 1640 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 574 pixelsFull resolution (2286 × 1640 pixel, file size: 1. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


While woodblock printing had arrived in Europe at approximately the same time paper did, this method was not as suitable for literary communication as it was in the east.[1] Block printing is well-suited to Written Chinese because character alignment is not critical and the existence of over 5,000 basic characters made movable type an impractical technology.[1] With the Latin alphabet, however, the need for precise alignment and a much simpler character set positioned movable type as a great advance for the west.[1] Various styles of Chinese calligraphy. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ...


Technological differences also provided European inventors with advantages over their Chinese counterparts—the screw-based presses used in wine and olive oil production.[1] Attaining mechanical sophistication in approximately the year 1000 CE,[3] devices for applying pressure on a flat-plane were common in Europe. For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ...


Gutenberg's press

Johannes Gutenberg's work on the printing press began in approximately 1436 when he partnered with Andreas Dritzehan—a man he had previously instructed in gem-cutting—and Andreas Heilmann, owner of a paper mill.[1] It was not until a 1439 lawsuit against Gutenberg that official record exists; witnesses testimony discussed type, an inventory of metals (including lead) and his type mold.[1] Events April - Paris is recaptured by the French End of the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. ... Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... Civil action redirects here. ...


Others in Europe were developing movable type at this time, including goldsmith Procopius Waldfoghel of France and Laurens Janszoon Coster of the Netherlands.[1] They are not known to have contributed specific advances to the printing press.[1] While the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition had attributed the invention of the printing press to Coster, the company now states that is incorrect.[4] Statue of Laurens Janszoon Coster on the Grote Markt in Haarlem, where he was born. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

In this woodblock from 1568, the printer at left is removing a page from the press while the one at right inks the text-blocks

Having previously worked as a professional goldsmith, Gutenberg made skillful use of the knowledge of metals he had learned as a craftsman. He was the first to make type from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony, which was critical for producing durable type that produced high-quality printed books and proved to be more suitable for printing than the clay, wooden or bronze types invented in East Asia. To create these lead types, Gutenberg used what some considered his most ingenious invention, a special matrix enabling the quick and precise moulding of new type blocks from a uniform template. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 465 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (754 × 972 pixel, file size: 319 KB, MIME type: image/png) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 465 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (754 × 972 pixel, file size: 319 KB, MIME type: image/png) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... A goldsmith creating a new ring A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with precious metals, usually to make jewelry. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... This article is about the metal. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metal alloy. ...


Gutenberg is also credited with the introduction of an oil-based ink which was more durable than the previously used water-based inks. As printing material he used both vellum and paper, the latter having been introduced in Europe a few centuries earlier from China by way of the Arabs. For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... Vellum (from the Old French Vélin, for calfskin[1]) is a sort of parchment, a material for the pages of a book or codex, characterized by its thin, smooth, durable properties. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...


In the Gutenberg Bible, Gutenberg made a trial of coloured printing for a few of the page headings, present only in some copies.[5] A later work, the Mainz Psalter of 1453, presumably designed by Gutenberg but published under the imprint of his successors Johann Fust and Peter Schoeffer, had elaborate red and blue printed initials.[6] A copy of the Gutenberg Bible owned by the U.S. Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible or the Mazarin Bible) is a printed version of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany in... Johann Fust ( died 1466) was an early German printer. ... Peter Schoeffer (1452-1502), was the principal workman of Johannes Gutenberg. ...


Life magazine called the Printing Press the greatest invention in the last 1000 years. It is important to note that it was the alphabet that made the success of the printing press possible. See Online Video: "The Code of da Vinci"for a discussion of the role of the Alphabet in the emergence of printing.


Historical Impact

See also: History of typography in East Asia

Printing as developed in East Asia did not make use of a printing press. Although the invention of movable type in China and Korea preceded Gutenberg's printing press, the impact of movable type devices was limited. This was likely due to the enormous amount of labour involved in manipulating the thousands of porcelain tablets, or in the case of Korea, metal tablets, required by the use of written Chinese characters. Nevertheless, hundreds of thousands of books, on subjects ranging from Confucian Classics to science and mathematics, were printed using the older technology of woodblock printing, creating the world's first print culture.[7]. For the article on the development of printing in Europe, see History of western typography. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other meanings please see Tablet (disambiguation) Common disk-shaped pills A pharmacological tablet is a medicinal or other active substance mixed with binder powders and pressed into a tablet form. ... The Chinese written language consists of a writing system stretching back nearly 4000 years. ... [1]#redirect Book ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... The transition of communication technology: Oral Culture, Manuscript Culture, Print Culture, and Information Age Print culture embodies all forms of printed text and other printed forms of visual communication. ...


In contrast, the impact of Gutenberg's printing press in Europe was comparable to the development of writing, the invention of the alphabet or the Internet, as far as its effects on society. Just as writing did not replace speaking, printing did not achieve a position of total dominance. Handwritten manuscripts continued to be produced, and the different graphic modes of communication continued to influence each other. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Write redirects here. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ...


The printing press was also a factor in the establishment of a community of scientists who could easily communicate their discoveries through the establishment of widely disseminated scholarly journals, helping to bring on the scientific revolution. Because of the printing press, authorship became more meaningful and profitable. It was suddenly important who had said or written what, and what the precise formulation and time of composition was. This allowed the exact citing of references, producing the rule, "One Author, one work (title), one piece of information" (Giesecke, 1989; 325). Before, the author was less important, since a copy of Aristotle made in Paris would not be exactly identical to one made in Bologna. For many works prior to the printing press, the name of the author was entirely lost. For a List of scientists, see: List of anthropologists List of astronomers List of biologists List of chemists List of computer scientists List of economists List of engineers List of geologists List of inventors List of mathematicians List of meteorologists List of physicists Scientist pairs List of scientist pairs See... This article is about the period or event in history. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


Because the printing process ensured that the same information fell on the same pages, page numbering, tables of contents, and indices became common, though they previously had not been unknown. The process of reading was also changed, gradually changing over several centuries from oral readings to silent, private reading. The wider availability of printed materials also led to a drastic rise in the adult literacy rate throughout Europe.


Within fifty or sixty years of the invention of the printing press, the entire classical canon had been reprinted and widely promulgated throughout Europe (Eisenstein, 1969; 52). Now that more people had access to knowledge both new and old, more people could discuss these works. Furthermore, now that book production was a more commercial enterprise, the first copyright laws were passed to protect what we now would call intellectual property rights. A second outgrowth of this popularization of knowledge was the decline of Latin as the language of most published works, to be replaced by the vernacular language of each area, increasing the variety of published works. Paradoxically, the printing word also helped to unify and standardize the spelling and syntax of these vernaculars, in effect 'decreasing' their variability. This rise in importance of national languages as opposed to pan-European Latin is cited as one of the causes of the rise of nationalism in Europe. Not to be confused with copywriting. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


The art of book printing

For years, book printing was considered a true art form. Typesetting, or the placement of the characters on the page, including the use of ligatures, was passed down from master to apprentice. In Germany, the art of typesetting was termed the "black art," in allusion to the ink-covered printers. It has largely been replaced by computer typesetting programs, which make it easy to get similar results more quickly and with less physical labor. Some practitioners continue to print books the way Gutenberg did. For example, there is a yearly convention of traditional book printers in Mainz, Germany. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ...


Some theorists, such as McLuhan, Eisenstein, Kittler, and Giesecke, see an "alphabetic monopoly" as having developed from printing, removing the role of the image from society. Other authors stress that printed works themselves are a visual medium. Certainly, modern developments in printing have revitalized the role of illustrations. “McLuhan” redirects here. ... Elizabeth Eisenstein is an American historian of the French Revolution and early 19th c. ... Kittel can refer to the following things: kittel, Jewish robe Charles Kittel Emmy Kittel (1878 – 1930), Czech operatic soprano Ferdinand Kittel (1832-1903), a priest and indologist Gerhard Kittel (1888-1948) Johann Christian Kittel (*1732 - †1809), composer Johann Joseph Antonius Eleazar Kittel (*1703 - †1783), doctor Marlon Kittel (*1983), chess player...


The Industrial Revolution

Koenig's 1814 steam-powered printing press

The Gutenberg press was much more efficient than manual copying and still was largely unchanged in the eras of John Baskerville and Giambattista Bodoni—over 300 years later.[8] By 1800, Lord Stanhope had constructed a press completely from cast iron, reducing the force required by 90% while doubling the size of the printed area.[8] While Stanhope's "mechanical theory" had improved the efficiency of the press, it still was only capable of 250 sheets per hour.[8] German printer Friedrich Koenig would be the first to design a non-manpowered machine—using steam.[8] Having moved to London in 1804, Koenig soon met Thomas Bensley and secured financial support for his project in 1807.[8] Patented in 1810, Koenig had designed a steam press "much like a hand press connected to a steam engine."[8] The first production trial of this model occurred in April 1811. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1122 × 840 pixel, file size: 631 KB, MIME type: image/png) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1122 × 840 pixel, file size: 631 KB, MIME type: image/png) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... John Baskerville (January 28, 1706 - January 8, 1775) was a printer in Birmingham, a member of the Royal Society of Arts, and an associate of some of the members of the Lunar Society. ... Bodoni is a typeface designed by Giambattista Bodoni (February 16, 1740 in Saluzzo – November 29, 1813 in Parma), an Italian engraver, publisher, printer and typographer of high repute. ... Friedrich Gottlob Koenig (1774-1833) was a German inventor best-known for his high-speed printing press, which he built together with watchmaker Andreas Friedrich Bauer. ...


Koenig and Bauer sold two of their first models to The Times in London in 1814, capable of 1,100 impressions per hour. The first edition so printed was on November 28, 1814. They went on to perfect the early model so that it could print on both sides of a sheet at once. This began the long process of making newspapers available to a mass audience (which in turn helped spread literacy), and from the 1820s changed the nature of book production, forcing a greater standardization in titles and other metadata. Their company Koenig & Bauer AG is still one of the world's largest manufacturers of printing presses today. The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... Metadata is data about data. ... Koenig & Bauer AG is a German company which manufactures printing presses. ...

The Miehle P.P. & Mfg. Co. 1905

Later on in the middle of the 19th century the rotary printing press (invented in 1833 in the United States by Richard M. Hoe) allowed millions of copies of a page in a single day. Mass production of printed works flourished after the transition to rolled paper, as continuous feed allowed the presses to run at a much faster pace. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,497 × 2,339 pixels, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,497 × 2,339 pixels, file size: 6. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Richard March Hoe (September 12, 1812-June 7, 1886) was an American inventor who designed an improved printing press. ...


Also, in the middle of the 19th century, there was a separate development of jobbing presses, small presses capable of printing small-format pieces such as billheads, letterheads, business cards, and envelopes. Jobbing presses were capable of quick set-up (average makeready time for a small job was under 15 minutes) and quick production (even on treadle-powered jobbing presses it was considered normal to get 1,000 impressions per hour [iph] with one pressman, with speeds of 1,500 iph often attained on simple envelope work). Job printing emerged as a reasonably cost-effective duplicating solution for commerce at this time. A fancy billhead receipt, dated 1895. ...


Later inventions in this field include the following:

Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or offset) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... Electronic publishing includes the digital publication of ebooks and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. ... A composing stick loaded with metal movable type, lying on a lower case with larger boxes for more common minuscule letters: the upper case holds capital letters. ...

References

This article is part of the series on: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...


History of printing The history of printing begins with attempts to streamline communication of commerce, law, religion and culture. ...

Technologies
Phaistos Disc (1850–1400 BCE)
Woodblock printing (200 CE)
Movable type (1040)
Printing press (1439)
Rotary press (1843)
Intaglio (printmaking)
Lithography (1796)
Chromolithography (1837)
Offset press
Screen-printing (1907)
Flexography
Thermal printer
Photocopier (1960s)
Laser printer (1969)
Dot matrix printer (1970)
Inkjet printer
Dye-sublimation printer
Digital press (1993)
3D printing
v  d  e
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998. (pp 58–69) ISBN 0-471-291-98-6
  2. ^ Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998. (p 24) ISBN 0-471-291-98-6
  3. ^ David Bird, Understanding Wine Technology The Science of Wine Explained, p 47 ISBN 1-891267-91-4
  4. ^ Typography - Gutenberg and printing in Germany. Encyclopædia Britannica ©2007.
  5. ^ Albert Kapr, "Johannes Gutenberg", Scolar 1996, p. 172
  6. ^ Albert Kapr, "Johannes Gutenberg", Scolar 1996, p. 203
  7. ^ A Hyatt Mayor, Prints and People, Metropolitan Museum of Art/Princeton, 1971, nos 1-4. ISBN 0691003262
  8. ^ a b c d e f Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998. (pp 130–133) ISBN 0-471-291-98-6
  • Fontaine, Jean-Paul. L'aventure du livre: Du manuscrit medieval a nos jours. Paris: Bibliotheque de l'image, 1999.
  • Citation from The Encyclopedia of World History Sixth Edition, Peter N. Stearns (general editor), © 2001 The Houghton Mifflin Company, at Bartleby.com.

The Phaistos Disc (Phaistos Disk, Phaestos Disc) is a curious archaeological find, likely dating to the middle or late Minoan Bronze Age. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Intaglio printing. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Folding Card, The Old Woman Who Lived in A Shoe, 6 April 1883. ... Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or offset) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. ... Screen-printing, also known as silkscreening or serigraphy, is a printmaking technique that creates a sharp-edged single-color image using a stencil and a porous fabric. ... A flexographic printing plate. ... A thermal printer (or direct thermal printer) produces a printed image by selectively heating coated thermochromic paper, or thermal paper as it is commonly known, when the paper passes over the thermal print head. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ... A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer refers to a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. ... An Epson inkjet printer Inkjet printers are a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. ... Samsung SPP-2040 working. ... Digital printing is the reproduction of digital images on physical surface, such as common or photographic paper, film, cloth, plastic, etc. ... Three-dimensional printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D model into a physical object. ... The Encyclopedia of World History is a classic single volume work detailing world history. ... Bartleby. ...

Further reading

On the effects of Gutenberg's printing

  • Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, Cambridge University Press, September 1980, Paperback, 832 pages, ISBN 0-521-29955-1
  • More recent, abridged version: Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge University Press, 2Rev ed, 12 September 2005, Paperback, ISBN 0-521-60774-4
  • Marshall McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1962) Univ. of Toronto Press (1st ed.); reissued by Routledge & Kegan Paul ISBN 0-7100-1818-5.

“McLuhan” redirects here. ...

See also

Augustus Applegath (1788-1871) was the inventor of the vertical printing-press. ... In printing, anilox is a method used to provide a measured amount of ink to a flexo printing plate. ... Color printing is the reproduction of an image or text in color (as opposed to simpler black and white or monochrome printing). ... David Bruce jr. ... A flexographic printing plate. ... George E. Clymer (1752-1834) was the inventor of the Columbian Printing Press. ... Muller Martini manufactures a wide variety of printing presses, bookbinding equipment, newspaper inserting systems, mailroom delivery systems and other printing related equipment from Switzerland. ... The National Print Museum of Ireland is based in a soldiers chapel in the Beggars Bush area of Dublin, Republic of Ireland. ... The transition of communication technology: Oral Culture, Manuscript Culture, Print Culture, and Information Age Print culture embodies all forms of printed text and other printed forms of visual communication. ... For other uses, see Print. ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... William Clowes, (January 1, 1779 – January 26, 1847), founded a printing firm in London in 1803. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Printing press
  • Centre for the History of the Book
  • Gutenberg printing Photos of Incunabula and the Gutenberg Bible (1455)
  • BGDP Safety on printing presses
  • Internet Archive: Printing (1947)—a film from the Prelinger Archives explaining the printing industry

  Results from FactBites:
 
Printing press - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2151 words)
Printing press from 1811, taken in Munich, Germany.
The impact of printing is comparable to the development of language, and the invention of the alphabet, as far as its effects on the society.
In the sciences, the introduction of the printing press marked a move from the medieval language of metaphors to the adoption of the scientific method.
Printing press - definition of Printing press in Encyclopedia (1773 words)
First invented in China in 1041, the printing press as we know it today was invented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg in the 1450s.
Not only did the papal court contemplate making printing presses an industry requiring a licence from the Catholic Church (an idea rejected in the end), but as early as in the 15th century some nobles refused to have printed books in their libraries to sully their valuable handcopied manuscripts.
The impact of printing is comparable to the development of language, the invention of the alphabet, and the invention of the computer as far as its effects on the society.
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