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Encyclopedia > Printing
The folder of newspaper web offset printing press

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Printing is an industrial process for reproducing copies of texts and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. ... Download high resolution version (856x1144, 127 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (856x1144, 127 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Link title A folding machine. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...


History of printing The history of printing begins with attempts to streamline communication of commerce, law, religion and culture. ...

Technologies
Phaistos Disc (1850–1400 BCE)
Woodblock printing (200 CE)
Movable type (1040)
Printing press (1439)
Rotary press (1843)
Intaglio (printmaking)
Lithography (1796)
Chromolithography (1837)
Offset press
Screen-printing (1907)
Flexography
Thermal printer
Photocopier (1960s)
Laser printer (1969)
Dot matrix printer (1970)
Inkjet printer
Dye-sublimation printer
Digital press (1993)
3D printing
v  d  e

Printing is a process for production of book texts and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing The Phaistos Disc (Phaistos Disk, Phaestos Disc) is a curious archaeological find, likely dating to the middle or late Minoan Bronze Age. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Intaglio printing. ... Lithography stone and mirror-image print of a map of Munich. ... Folding Card, The Old Woman Who Lived in A Shoe, 6 April 1883. ... Offset lithography printing process Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or offset) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. ... Screen-printing, also known as silkscreening or serigraphy, is a printmaking technique that creates a sharp-edged single-color image using a stencil and a porous fabric. ... A flexographic printing plate. ... A thermal printer (or direct thermal printer) produces a printed image by selectively heating coated thermochromic paper, or thermal paper as it is commonly known, when the paper passes over the thermal print head. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ... A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer refers to a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. ... Inkjet printers are a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. ... Samsung SPP-2040 working. ... Digital printing is the reproduction of digital images on physical surface, such as common or photographic paper, film, cloth, plastic, etc. ... Three-dimensional printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D model into a physical object. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Block printing

Main article: Woodblock printing

Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ...

Block printing in China

Woodblock printing on paper, whereby individual sheets were pressed against wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved into them, was first recorded in China in the Tang Dynasty, although as a method for printing patterns on cloth the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220[1] , and from Egypt to the 6th or 7th centuries. [2] Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...


In the Tang Dynasty, a Chinese writer named Fenzhi first mentioned in his book "Yuan Xian San Ji" that the woodblock was used to print Buddhist scripture during the Zhenguan years (627~649 A.D.). The oldest known surviving printed work is a woodblock-printed Buddhist scripture in Chinese of Wu Zetian period (684~705 A.D.); discovered in Tubofan, Xinjiang province, China in 1906, it is now stored in a calligraphy museum in Tokyo, Japan. The oldest surviving documented printed book, a copy of the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, is dated 848 AD, but a recent excavation at a Korean pagoda may have unearthed an even earlier Buddhist text dating to AD 750-751. [3][4] In the modern Chinese historiography, printing is considered one of the Four Great Inventions of ancient China. Wu Zetian (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Emperor. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Chinese Diamond Sutra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world, printed in the 9th year of Xiantong Era of the Tang Dynasty, i. ... One of the five major steps in the ancient Chinese papermaking process, first outlined by Cai Lun in the 2nd century. ...


In a memorial to the throne in 1023, Northern Song Dynasty China, it recorded that the central government at that time used copperplate to print the paper money also the copper-block to print the numbers and characters on the money, nowadays we can find these shadows from the Song paper money. Later in the Jin Dynasty, people used the same but more developed technique to print paper money and formal official documents, the typical example of this kind of movable copper-block printing is a printed "check" of Jin Dynasty in the year of 1215. Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... For other uses, see Song (disambiguation). ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: JÄ«n 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ...


Block printing in Europe

Block printing came to Christian Europe as a method for printing on cloth, where it was common by 1300. Images printed on cloth for religious purposes could be quite large and elaborate, and when paper became relatively easily available, around 1400, the medium transferred very quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards printed on paper. These prints were produced in very large numbers from about 1425 onwards. [2] For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Some typical modern playing cards. ... The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ...


Around the mid-century, block-books, woodcut books with both text and images, usually carved in the same block, emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts and books printed with movable type. These were all short heavily illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions: the Ars moriendi and the Biblia pauperum were the most common. There is still some controversy among scholars as to whether their introduction preceded or, the majority view, followed the introduction of movable type, with the range of estimated dates being between about 1440-1460.[5] A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... Pride of the spirit is one of the five temptations of the dying man, according to Ars moriendi. ... The Biblia pauperum (Paupers Bible) was a tradition of picture Bibles beginning in the later Middle Ages. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ...


The volume of Joseph Needham's Science and Civilization in China dealing with Paper and printing has a chapter that suggests that "European block printers must not only have seen Chinese samples, but perhaps had been taught by missionaries or others who had learned these un-European methods from Chinese printers during their residence in China.", but he also admitted that the "only evidence of European printing transmitted from China is a lack of counterevidence".[6] However, paper itself was needed for the printing process and this came to Europe via trade with the Arabs from China. Historians acknowledge that paper indeed came from China without which printing would have been impossible, however, there is less direct evidence of the influence of printing technology from Asia and it's influence on European printing technology. [7] For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ...


Movable type printing

Main article: Movable type

Movable type allowed for much more flexible processes than hand copying or block printing. A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ...


In East Asia

For a description of

  • the oldest surviving metal type
  • early books printed with such metal type
  • the oldest surviving movable metal print book printed in Korea in 1377,
  • the Korean font casting process as recorded by Song Hyon in the 15th c., and
  • problems due to the nature of the Chinese language
see History of typography in East Asia

Movable type printing was first invented in 1041 by Bi Sheng in China. Sheng used clay type, which broke easily, but Wang Zhen later carved a more durable type from wood by 1298 AD, and developed a complex system of revolving tables and number-association with written Chinese characters that made typesetting and printing more efficient. For the article on the development of printing in Europe, see History of western typography. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... Pì Shēng (Wade-Giles selling) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; died 1052) was the inventor of the first know movable type printing system. ... Wáng Zhēn (王禎) (fl. ...

"Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Son Masters", the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.

The transition from wood type to metal type occurred during the Goryeo Dynasty of Korea and is credited to Chae Yun-ui (채윤의). Records indicate that by 1234, books were being printed in Korea with movable metal type, though the earliest surviving text is from 1377. In China metal movable type was not pioneered until the work of the printer Hua Sui in 1490 AD. Movable type was widely used in China in both wooden and metal type printing, yet the European-style printing press introduced to China in relatively recent times greatly increased the efficiency and speed of printing. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Goryeo kingdom ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Chae Yun-ui (Korean:우장춘) was a Korean scientist during the Goryeo dynasty; he is credited with introducing metal movable type made from bronze and cast in moulds, sometime in the early decades of the 13th century[1]. This followed on experiments in China on movable type using clay (Bi Sheng... This article is about the year 1234. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Hua Sui (1439-1513 AD) was a Chinese scholar and printer of Wuxi, Jiangsu province during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD). ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ...


East Asian printing technology may possibly have diffused into Europe through the trade routes from China through India or the Arabic world. There is no actual evidence that Gutenberg may have known of the Korean processes for movable type. However, some authors admit this possibility,[8] and argue that movable metal type had been an active enterprise in Korea since 1234 and there was communication between West and East. Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: , arabi) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ...


In Europe

Main article: Movable type

Johannes Gutenberg, of the German city of Mainz, developed European printing technology in 1440, with which the classical age of printing began. Also, Johann Fust and Peter Schöffer experimented with him in Mainz. Genealogically, all modern movable type printing can be traced back to a single source, Gutenberg's printing press which he derived from the design of long known agricultural presses. East Asian style movable type printing, which was based on laborious manual rubbing and which had been scarcely used, practically died out after the introduction of European style printing in the 15th century. A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... This article is about the inventor of printing in Europe; for other uses, see Guttenberg (disambiguation) and Gutenberg. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... The global spread of printing with movable type from its origins in Germany began with the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg, (c. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Yakima press. ...


Gutenberg is also credited with the introduction of an oil-based ink which was more durable than previously used water-based inks. Having worked as a professional goldsmith, Gutenberg made skillful use of the knowledge of metals he had learned as a craftsman. Gutenberg was also the first to make his type from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony, which was critical for producing durable type that produced high-quality printed books, and proved to be more suitable for printing than the clay, wooden or bronze types used in East Asia. To create these lead types, Gutenberg used what some considered his most ingenious invention, a special matrix wherewith the moulding of new movable types with an unprecedented precision at short notice became feasible. Within a year after his B42, Gutenberg also published the first coloured prints. A goldsmith creating a new ring A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with precious metals, usually to make jewelry. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ...


Gutenberg's invention of the printing press revolutionized communication and book production leading to the spread of knowledge. Rapidly, printing spread from Germany by emigrating German printers, but also by foreign apprentices returning home. A printing press was built in Venice in 1469, and by 1500 the city had 417 printers. In 1470 Johann Heynlin set up a printing press in Paris. In 1473 Kasper Straube published the Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474 in Kraków. Dirk Martens set up a printing press in Aalst (Flanders) in 1473. He printed a book about the two lovers of Enea Piccolomini who became pope Pius II.In 1476 a printing press was set up in England by William Caxton. Belarusian Francysk Skaryna printed the first book in Slavic language on August 6, 1517. The Italian Juan Pablos set up an imported press in Mexico City in 1539. The first printing press in Southeast Asia was set up in the Philippines by the Spanish in 1593. Stephen Day was the first to build a printing press in North America at Massachusetts Bay in 1638, and helped establish the Cambridge Press. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Johann Heynlin (variously spelled Heynlein, Henelyn, Henlin, Hélin, Hemlin, Hegelin, Steinlin; and translated as Jean à Lapide, Jean La Pierre (Lapierre, De la Pierre), Johannes Lapideus, Johannes de Lapide) (ca. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The last surviving copy of the Almanach The Almanach Cracoviense ad annum 1474 (Cracovian Almanac for the year 1474) is a single-sheet astronomical calendar for the year 1474 and the oldest known Polish print. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Dirk Martens (latin: Theodoricus Martinus) (Aalst 1446 or 1447 - 2 may 1534) was a printer and editor in Flanders. ... Aalst is a municipality on the Dender River, 19 miles northwest from Brussels. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Latin Aeneas Sylvius), (October 18, 1405 – August 14, 1464) was Pope from 1458 until his death in 1464. ... Pope Pius II. Pius II, né Enea Silvio Piccolomini, in Latin Aeneas Sylvius (October 18, 1405 - August 14, 1464) was pope from 1458 to 1464. ... “Caxton” redirects here. ... FranciÅ¡ak Skaryna (or Skoryna; the first name also spelled as Francis, Franciszak, Frantsiszak, Francisk, Frantzisk, Francysk; Belarusian: ) was a Belarusian famous for being the printer of the first book in an Eastern Slavic language. ... Nickname: Motto: Ciudad en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... Map of Massachusetts Bay. ...


Printing houses

Early printing houses (near the time of Gutenberg) were run by "master printers." These printers owned shops, selected and edited manuscripts, determined the sizes of print runs, sold the works they produced, raised capital and organized distribution. Some master printing houses became the cultural centre for literati such as Erasmus. An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ...

  • Print shop apprentices: Apprentices, usually between the ages of 15 and 20, worked for master printers. Apprentices were not required to be literate, and literacy rates at the time were very low, in comparison to today. Apprentices prepared ink, dampened sheets of paper, and assisted at the press. An apprentice who wished to learn to become a compositor had to learn Latin and spend time under the supervision of a journeyman.
  • Journeyman printers: After completing their apprenticeships, journeyman (so called from the French "journée" for day) printers were free to move employers. This facilitated the spread of printing to areas that were less print-centred.
  • Compositors: Those who set the type for printing.
  • Pressmen: the person who worked the press. This was physically labour intensive.

The earliest-known image of a European, Gutenberg-style print shop is the Dance of Death by Matthias Huss, at Lyon, 1499. This image depicts a compositor standing at a compositor's case being grabbed by a skeleton. The case is raised to facilitate his work. The image also shows a pressman being grabbed by a skeleton. At the right of the printing house a bookshop is shown.


Financial aspects

Court records from the city of Mainz document that Johannes Fust was, for some time, Gutenberg's financial backer.


By the sixteenth century jobs associated with printing were becoming increasingly specialized. Structures supporting publishers were more and more complex, leading to this division of labour. In Europe between 1500 and 1700 the role of the Master Printer was dying out and giving way to the bookseller – publisher. Printing during this period had a stronger commercial imperative than previously. Risks associated with the industry however were substantial, although dependent on the nature of the publication.


Bookseller publishers negotiated at trade fairs and at print shops. Jobbing work appeared in which printers did menial tasks in the beginning of their careers to support themselves.


1500 – 1700: Publishers developed several new methods of funding projects.

  1. Cooperative associations/publication syndicates—a number of individuals shared the risks associated with printing and shared in the profit. This was pioneered by the French.[citation needed]
  2. Subscription publishing—pioneered by the English in the early 17th century.[citation needed] A prospectus for a publication was drawn up by a publisher to raise funding. The prospectus was given to potential buyers who signed up for a copy. If there were not enough subscriptions the publication did not go ahead. Lists of subscribers were included in the books as endorsements. If enough people subscribed a reprint might occur. Some authors used subscription publication to bypass the publisher entirely.
  3. Installment publishing—books were issued in parts until a complete book had been issued. This was not necessarily done with a fixed time period. It was an effective method of spreading cost over a period of time. It also allowed earlier returns on investment to help cover production costs of subsequent installments.

The Mechanick Exercises, by Joseph Moxon, in London, 1683, was said to be the first publication done in installments. [citation needed]


Publishing trade organizations allowed publishers to organize business concerns collectively. Systems of self-regulation occurred in these arrangements. For example, if one publisher did something to irritate other publishers he would be controlled by peer pressure. Such systems are known as cartels, and are in most countries now considered to be in restraint of trade. These arrangements helped deal with labour unrest among journeymen, who faced difficult working conditions. Brotherhoods predated unions, without the formal regulations now associated with unions. A cartel is a group of formally independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices. ...


In most cases, publishers bought the copyright in a work from the author, and made some arrangement about the possible profits. This required a substantial amount of capital in addition to the capital for the physical equipment and staff, Alternatively, an author who had sufficient money would sometimes keep the copyright himself, and simply pay the printer for the production of the book. For further developments, see main article:copyright Not to be confused with copywriting. ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ...


As described in Prints and Visual Communication, by William Ivins, William Ivins, Jr. ...

Eighteenth century innovations

At the end of the eighteenth century there were several remarkable innovations in the graphic techniques and those that were utilized to make their materials. Bewick developed the method of using engraving tools on the end of the wood. Senefelder invented lithography. Blake made relief etchings. Thomas Bewick (August 1753 - November 8, 1828) was an English wood engraver and ornithologist. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Alois Senefelder (November 6, 1771 _ February 26, 1834) was a German inventor. ... Lithography stone and mirror-image print of a map of Munich. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ...

Nineteenth century innovations

Early in the nineteenth century Stanhope, George E. Clymer, Koenig and others introduced new kinds of type presses, which for strength surpassed anything that had previously been known. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope (August 3, 1753 – December 15, 1816) was a British statesman and scientist. ... George E. Clymer (1752-1834) was the inventor of the Columbian Printing Press. ... Friedrich Gottlob Koenig (1774-1833) was a German inventor best-known for his high-speed printing press, which he built together with watchmaker Andreas Friedrich Bauer. ...

Bryan Donkin developed a commercial application of the Fourdrinier machine and invented the composition roller.

Bryan Donkin (March 22, 1768 - February 27, 1855) was a British engineer and industrialist. ... ...

Modern printing technology

In 2006 there were approximately 30,700 printing companies in the United States, accounting for $112 billion, according to the 2006 U.S. Industry & Market Outlook by Barnes Reports. Print jobs that move through the Internet made up 12.5% of the total U.S. Printing market last year, according to research firm InfoTrend/CAP Ventures.


Books and newspapers are printed today using the technique of offset lithography. Other common techniques include: For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... Offset lithography printing process Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or offset) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. ...

  • flexography used for packaging, labels, newspapers
  • relief print, (mainly used for catalogues),
  • screen printing from T-shirts to floor tiles
  • rotogravure mainly used for magazines and packaging,
  • inkjet used typically to print a small number of books or packaging, and also to print a variety of materials from high quality papers simulate offset printing, to floor tiles; Inkjet is also used to apply mailing addresses to direct mail pieces
  • hot wax dye transfer
  • laser printing mainly used in offices and for transactional printing (bills, bank documents). Laser printing is commonly used by direct mail companies to create variable data letters or coupons, for example.
  • pad printing for applying a flat image on a curved substrate.

A flexographic printing plate. ... A relief print is an image created by a printmaking process, such as woodcut, where the areas of the matrix (plate or block) that are to show printed black (typically) are on the original surface; the parts of the matrix that are to be blank (white) having been cut themselves... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mail order. ... Silkscreen redirects here. ... Diagram of rotogravure process Rotogravure (gravure for short) is a type of intaglio printing process, in that it involves engraving the image onto an image carrier. ... Ink jet printers are the most common type of computer printer; and industry and commerce also use them extensively for special-purpose applications. ... The dye transfer process is a kind of continuous-tone color photographic printing process, popularized by the Eastman Kodak Company in the early 1940s. ... Laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that produces high quality printing, and is able to produce both text and graphics. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Gravure

Gravure printing is an intaglio printing technique, where the image to be printed is made up of small depressions in the surface of the printing plate. The cells are filled with ink and the excess is scraped off the surface, then a rubber-covered roller presses paper onto the surface of the plate and into contact with the ink in the cells. The printing plates are usually made from copper and may be produced by digital engraving or laser etching. Diagram of rotogravure process Rotogravure (gravure for short) is a type of intaglio printing process, in that it involves engraving the image onto an image carrier. ... For other uses, see Intaglio. ... Experiment with a laser (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. ...


Gravure printing is used for long, high-quality print runs such as magazines, mail-order catalogues, packaging, and printing onto fabric and wallpaper. It is also used for printing postage stamps and decorative plastic laminates, such as kitchen worktops.


Digital printing

Printing at home or in an office or engineering environment is subdivided into: This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

  • small format (up to ledger size paper sheets), as used in business offices and libraries
  • wide format (up to 3' or 914mm wide rolls of paper), as used in drafting and design establishments.

Some of the more common printing technologies are

  • line printing — where pre-formed characters are applied to the paper by lines
  • daisy wheel — where pre-formed characters are applied individually
  • dot-matrix — which produces arbitrary patterns of dots with an array of printing studs
  • heat transfer — like early fax machines or modern receipt printers that apply heat to special paper, which turns black to form the printed image
  • blueprint — and related chemical technologies
  • inkjet — including bubble-jet — where ink is sprayed onto the paper to create the desired image
  • laser — where toner consisting primarily of polymer with pigment of the desired colours is melted and applied directly to the paper to create the desired image.

Vendors typically stress the total cost to operate the equipment, involving complex calculations that include all cost factors involved in the operation as well as the capital equipment costs, amortization, etc. For the most part, toner systems beat inkjet in the long run, whereas inkjets are less expensive in the initial purchase price. Fragment of lineprinter cylinder with the type of % The line printer is a form of high speed impact printer in which one line of type is printed at a time. ... A daisy wheel printer is a type of computer printer that produces high-quality type, and is often referred to as a letter quality printer (this in contrast to high-quality dot-matrix printers, capable of near-letter-quality, or NLQ, output). ... A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer refers to a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. ... A thermal printer (or direct thermal printer) produces a printed image by selectively heating coated thermochromic paper, or thermal paper as it is commonly known, when the paper passes over the thermal print head. ... Modern blueprint of the French galleon La Belle. ... Ink jet printers are the most common type of computer printer; and industry and commerce also use them extensively for special-purpose applications. ... Laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that produces high quality printing, and is able to produce both text and graphics. ...


Professional digital printing (using toner) primarily uses an electrical charge to transfer toner or liquid ink to the substrate it is printed on. Digital print quality has steadily improved from early color and black & white copiers to sophisticated colour digital presses like the Xerox iGen3, the Kodak Nexpress and the HP Indigo Digital Press series. The iGen3 and Nexpress use toner particles and the Indigo uses liquid ink. All three are made for small runs and variable data, and rival offset in quality. Digital offset presses are called direct imaging presses; although these receive computer files and automatically turn them into print-ready plates, they cannot insert variable data. Digital printing is the reproduction of digital images on physical surface, such as common or photographic paper, film, cloth, plastic, etc. ... A color toner bottle Toner is a powder used in laser printers and photocopiers to form the text and images on the printed paper. ... // Indigo is the name given to a series of Digital Offset Printing Presses made by Hewlett-Packard in Israel. ...


Small press and fanzines generally use digital printing or more rarely xerography. Prior to the introduction of cheap photocopying the use of machines such as the spirit duplicator, hectograph, and mimeograph was common. Digital printing is the reproduction of digital images on physical surface, such as common or photographic paper, film, cloth, plastic, etc. ... Chester F. Carlson Xerography (or Electrophotography) is a photocopying technique developed by Chester Carlson in 1938 and patented on October 6, 1942. ... A spirit duplicator (also referred to as a Ditto machine or Banda machine) was a low-volume printing method used mainly by schools and churches. ... The hectograph or gelatin duplicator is a printing process which involves transferring from an original sheet prepared with special inks to a gelatin pad. ... Mimeograph machine The Mimeograph machine (commonly abbreviated to Mimeo), or stencil duplicator was a printing machine that was far cheaper per copy than any other process in runs of several hundred to several thousand copies. ...


See also

Color printing is the reproduction of an image or text in color (as opposed to simpler black and white or monochrome printing). ... Converters are companies that specialize in combining raw materials such as polyesters, adhesives, tapes, foams, plastics, felts, rubbers, liners and metals, as well as other materials, to create new products. ... A flexographic printing plate. ... In art, foil imaging is a unique printmaking technique made possible by the invention of the Iowa Foil Printer, which makes use of the commercial foil stamping process. ... Foil stamping, Typically a commercial print process, is the application of foil, a special film-backed material, to paper where a heated die is stamped onto the foil, making it adhere to the surface leaving the design of the die on the paper. ... In-Mould Decoration, a special type of plastic-moulding, is used for decorating plastic surfaces with color and/or with an abrasion resistant coat. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Intaglio printing. ... Jang Yeong-sil was a Korean scientist and inventor during the Joseon Dynasty under King Sejong. ... This article is about the inventor of printing in Europe; for other uses, see Guttenberg (disambiguation) and Gutenberg. ... Letterpress printing is the oldest printing technique, in which a raised surface is inked and then pressed against a smooth substance to obtain an image in reverse. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... Offset lithography printing process Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or offset) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. ... Print on demand (POD), sometimes mistakenly referred to as publish on demand, is a printing technology employed by publishers in which new copies of a book (or other document) are not printed until after an order for them has been received. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The global spread of printing with movable type from its origins in Germany began with the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg, (c. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ...

External links

Look up Printing in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • American Printing History Association - numerous links to online resources and other organizations
  • The development of book and printing. English website of the Gutenberg-Museum Mainz (Germany)
  • Planet Typography - history of printing - selection of international sites dedicated to the history of printing
  • Aspects of the Mass Media. Short essay on the mass media; its history and development.
  • Learn about printing — International Paper
  • Glossary of printing terms — International Paper
  • List of Printing Companies - List of Canada & USA printing companies
  • BPSnet - The website of the British Printing Society
  • - Children of the Code - Online Video: The DNA of Science, The Alphabet and Printing

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

References

  1. ^ Shelagh Vainker in Anne Farrer (ed), "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas" , 1990, British Museum publications, ISBN 0 7141 1447 2
  2. ^ a b An Introduction to a History of Woodcut, Arthur M. Hind,p , Houghton Mifflin Co. 1935 (in USA), reprinted Dover Publications, 1963 ISBN 0-486-20952-0
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2].
  5. ^ Master E.S., Alan Shestack, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1967
  6. ^ Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). "part one, vol.5", in Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China,: Paper and Printing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  7. ^ http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/literature/printing.htm
  8. ^ Thomas Christensen (2007). Did East Asian Printing Traditions Influence the European Renaissance?. Arts of Asia Magazine (to appear). Retrieved on 2006-10-18.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Saunders, Gill; Miles, Rosie (2006-05-01). Prints Now: Directions and Definitions. Victoria and Albert Museum. ISBN 1-85177-480-7. 
  • Nesbitt, Alexander (1957). The History and Technique of Lettering. Dover Books. 
  • Steinberg, S.H. (1996). Five Hundred Years of Printing. London and Newcastle: The British Library and Oak Knoll Press. 
  • Tam, Pui-Wing The New Paper Trail, The Wall Street Journal Online, February 13, 2006 Pg.R8
  • Woong-Jin-Wee-In-Jun-Gi #11 Jang Young Sil by Baek Sauk Gi. Copyright 1987 Woongjin Publishing Co., Ltd. Pg. 61.

On the effects of Gutenberg's printing

  • Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, Cambridge University Press, September 1980, Paperback, 832 pages, ISBN 0-521-29955-1
  • Marshall McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1962) Univ. of Toronto Press (1st ed.); reissued by Routledge & Kegan Paul ISBN 0-7100-1818-5.

Early printers manuals “McLuhan” redirects here. ...

The classic manual of early hand-press technology is
  • Moxon, Joseph (1683-84), Mechanick Exercises on the Whole Art of Printing (ed. Herbert Davies & Harry Carter. New York: Dover Publications, 1962, reprint ed.)
A somewhat later one, showing 18th century developments is
  • Stower, Caleb (1808), The Printer's Grammar (London: Gregg Press, 1965, reprint ed.)

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