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Encyclopedia > Princeton University
Princeton University

Motto: Dei sub numine viget
("Under God's power she flourishes")
Established 1746
Type: Private
Endowment: US$15.8 billion[1]
President: Shirley M. Tilghman
Staff: 1,103
Undergraduates: 4,923[2]
Postgraduates: 1,975
Location Borough of Princeton,
Princeton Township,
and West Windsor Township
, New Jersey, USA
Campus: Suburban, 600 acres (2.4 km²)
(Princeton Borough and Township)
Athletics: 38 sports teams
Colors: Orange and Black            
Mascot: Tigers
Website: www.princeton.edu

Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. It is one of eight universities that belong to the Ivy League. Princeton University shield This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... A private university is a university that is run without the control of any government entity. ... A financial endowment is a transfer of money or property donated to an institution, with the stipulation that it be invested, and the principal remain intact. ... USD redirects here. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... University President is the title of the highest ranking officer within a university, within university systems that prefer that appellation over other variations such as Chancellor or rector. ... Shirley Tilghman (born September 17, 1946) (photo) succeeded Harold Shapiro as President of Princeton University in 2001. ... This article is about work. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... Degree ceremony at Cambridge. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Borough of Princeton is a borough and is one of the two municipalities making up Princeton, New Jersey. ... See also: the Borough of Princeton, New Jersey Princeton Township highlighted in Mercer County. ... West Windsor Township highlighted in Mercer County. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... “km” redirects here. ... School colors are the colors chosen by a school to represent it on uniforms and other items of identification. ... Millie, once mascot of the City of Brampton, is now the Brampton Arts Councils representative. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... A private university is a university that is run without the control of any government entity. ... Coeducation is the integrated education of men and women. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Ivy League (disambiguation). ...


Originally founded at Elizabeth, New Jersey, in 1746 as the College of New Jersey, it relocated to Princeton in 1756 and was renamed “Princeton University” in 1896.[3] Princeton was the fourth institution of higher education in the U.S. to conduct classes.[4][5] Princeton has never had any official religious affiliation, rare among American universities of its age. At one time, it had close ties to the Presbyterian Church, but today it is nonsectarian and makes no religious demands on its students.[6][7] The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University.[8] Union County Court House Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. ... one of the earlier names for Princeton University Trenton State College is now known as The College of New Jersey This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The colonial colleges are nine institutions of higher education chartered in the American Colonies before the American Revolution (1775–1783). ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... Presbyterianism is a tradition shared by a large number of Christian denominations which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, is one of the world’s leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. ... The steeple of Alexander Hall Princeton Theological Seminary is a theological seminary located in the Borough of Princeton, New Jersey in the United States. ... Westminster Choir College is a residential college of music located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. ... Rider University is a private, coeducational, nonsectarian university located chiefly in Lawrenceville, New Jersey, in Mercer County. ...


Princeton has traditionally focused on undergraduate education and academic research, though in recent decades it has increased its focus on graduate education and offers a large number of professional Master's degrees and PhD programs in a range of subjects. The Princeton University Library holds over six million books. Among many others, areas of research include anthropology, geophysics, entomology, and robotics, while the Forrestal Campus has special facilities for the study of plasma physics and meteorology. In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... Quaternary education or postgraduate education is the fourth-stage educational level which follows the completion of an undergraduate degree at a college or university. ...

Contents

History

Sculpture by J. Massey Rhind (1892), Alexander Hall, Princeton University

The History of Princeton University goes back to its establishment by "New Light" Presbyterians, Princeton was originally intended to train Presbyterian ministers. It opened at Elizabeth, New Jersey, under the presidency of Jonathan Dickinson as the College of New Jersey. (A proposal was made to name it for the colonial Governor, Jonathan Belcher, but he declined.) Its second president was Aaron Burr, Sr.; the third was Jonathan Edwards. In 1756, the college moved to Princeton, New Jersey. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 385 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (420 × 653 pixel, file size: 314 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran aka Carptrash 01:37, 1 February 2007 (UTC). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 385 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (420 × 653 pixel, file size: 314 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran aka Carptrash 01:37, 1 February 2007 (UTC). ... J. Massey Rhind was a prolific American sculptor born in Edinburgh, Scotland on July 9, 1860. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The First Great Awakening is the name sometimes given to a period of heightened religious activity, primarily in the southwester belly US during the 1730s and 1740s. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... For the author of the Journal relating shipwreck and captivity by Indians in Florida and later mayor of Philadelphia, see Jonathan Dickinson. ... Jonathan Belcher (1682-1757) was colonial governor of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and New Jersey. ... The Reverend Aaron Burr (January 4, 1716(?) - September 24, 1757) was a notable divine and educator in colonial America. ... For other persons named Jonathan Edwards, see Jonathan Edwards (disambiguation). ...


Between the time of the move to Princeton in 1756 and the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, the college's sole building was Nassau Hall, named for William III of England of the House of Orange-Nassau. The college also got one of its colors, orange, from William III. During the American Revolution, Princeton was occupied by both sides, and the college's buildings were heavily damaged. The Battle of Princeton, fought in a nearby field in January of 1777, proved to be a decisive victory for General George Washington and his troops. Two of Princeton's leading citizens signed the United States Declaration of Independence,[citation needed] and during the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. The much-abused landmark survived bombardment with cannonballs in the Revolutionary War when General Washington struggled to wrest the building from British control, as well as later fires that left only its walls standing in 1802 and 1855. Rebuilt by Joseph Henry Latrobe, John Notman, and John Witherspoon, the modern Nassau Hall has been much revised and expanded from the original designed by Robert Smith. Over the centuries, its role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory, library, and classroom space, to classrooms only, to its present role as the administrative center of the university. Originally, the sculptures in front of the building were lions, as a gift in 1879. These were later replaced with tigers in 1911.[9] Nassau Hall (or Old Nassau) is the oldest building at Princeton University in the Borough of Princeton, New Jersey (USA). ... William III of England, II of Scotland and III of Orange (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702) was a Dutch aristocrat, the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Hugh Mercer†, John Haslet† Charles Mawhood Strength 4,600 1,200 (Rearguard of main force) Casualties 46 killed c. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... Different types of cannon balls recovered from the Vasa, sunk in 1628 Round shot is a type of projectile fired from guns or cannons. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... John Notman (1810-1865), a well known American Architect, was born in Scotland and educated at the Royal Scottish Academy. ... John Witherspoon Dr. John Witherspoon (February 5, 1723 – November 15, 1794), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Jersey. ... The work of Robert Smith (1722-1777) has been part of the Philadelphia skyline for over 200 years. ... A typical American college dorm room Another typical not-so-clean college dorm room Watterson Towers, Illinois State University Potomac Hall, second-largest dormitory at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ...


The Princeton Theological Seminary broke off from the college in 1812, since the Presbyterians wanted their ministers to have more theological training, while the faculty and students would have been content with less.[citation needed] This reduced the student body and the external support for Princeton for some time. The two institutions currently enjoy a close relationship based on common history and shared resources.

Nassau Hall, the university's oldest building. Note the tiger sculptures beside the steps (See discussion above).

The university was becoming an obscure backwater when President James McCosh took office in 1868. During his two decades in power, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, and supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus.[10] McCosh Hall is named in his honor. Nassau Hall at Princeton University. ... Nassau Hall at Princeton University. ... The Reverend James McCosh (April 1, 1811 - November 16, 1894) was a Scottish philosophical writer. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ...


In 1896, the college officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resided. During this year, the college also underwent large expansion and officially became a university. Under Woodrow Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form where small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ...


In 1969, Princeton University first admitted women as undergraduates. In 1887, the university had actually maintained and staffed a sister college in the town of Princeton on Evelyn and Nassau streets, called the Evelyn College for Women, which was closed after roughly a decade of operation. After abortive discussions in 1967 with Sarah Lawrence College to relocate the women's college to Princeton and merge it with the university, the administration decided to admit women and turned to the issue of transforming the school's operations and facilities into a female-friendly campus. The administration barely finished these plans by April 1969 when the admission's office began mailing out its acceptance letters. Its five-year coeducation plan provided $7.8 million for the development of new facilities that would eventually house and educate 650 women students at Princeton by 1974. Ultimately, 148 women, consisting of 100 freshwomen and transfer students of other years, entered Princeton on September 6, 1969 amidst much media attention. (Princeton enrolled its first female graduate student, Sabra Follett Meserve, as a Ph.D. candidate in Turkish history in 1961. A handful of women had studied at Princeton as undergraduates from 1963 on, spending their junior year there to study subjects in which Princeton's offerings surpassed those of their home institutions. They were considered regular students for their year on campus, but were not candidates for a Princeton degree.) Pairs of schools, especially when they are close to each other either geographically or in their areas of specialization, establish a school rivalry with each other over the years. ... Evelyn College for Women, often shortened to Evelyn College, was the coordinate womens college of Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey between 1887 and 1897. ... Sarah Lawrence College is a private liberal arts college located in metropolitan New York City, about a thirty-minute train ride north of Manhattan. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


Campus

Many campus buildings have neo-Gothic archways and lanterns. Seen here is Blair Arch, the largest and most famous archway on campus.

Princeton's campus features buildings designed by noted architects such as Benjamin Latrobe, Ralph Adams Cram, McKim, Mead & White, Robert Venturi, and Nick Yeager. The campus, located on 2 km² of landscaped grounds, features a large number of Neo-gothic-style buildings, most dating from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is situated about one hour from New York City and Philadelphia. The first Princeton building constructed was Nassau Hall, situated in the north end of Campus on Nassau Street. Stanhope Hall (once a library, now home of the University's Center for African-American Studies) and East and West College, both dormitories, followed. While many of the succeeding buildings—particularly the dormitories of the Northern campus—were built in a Collegiate Gothic style, the university is something of a mixture of American architectural movements. Greek Revival temples (Whig and Clio Halls) abut the lawn south of Nassau Hall, while a crenellated theater (Murray-Dodge) guards the route west to the library. Modern buildings are confined to the east and south of the campus, a quarter overlooked by the 14-story Fine Hall. Fine, the Math Department's home, designed by Warner, Burns, Toan and Lunde and completed in 1970, is the tallest building at the university.[11] Contemporary additions feature a number of big-name architects, including IM Pei's Spelman Halls, Robert Venturi's Frist Campus Center, Rafael Vinoly's Carl Icahn Laboratory, the Hillier Group's Bowen Hall, and Demetri Porphyrios' Whitman College. A chemistry library by Frank Gehry is under construction. Much sculpture adorns the campus, including pieces by Henry Moore (Oval with Points, also nicknamed "Nixon's Nose"), Clement Meadmore (Upstart II), and Alexander Calder (Five Disks: One Empty). At the base of campus is the Delaware and Raritan Canal, dating from 1830, and Lake Carnegie, a man-made lake donated by the steel magnate Andrew Carnegie, used for crew (rowing) and sailing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 308 KB) Summary Some of the campus building have beautifully decoraded archways and lanterns. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 308 KB) Summary Some of the campus building have beautifully decoraded archways and lanterns. ... Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe (May 1, 1764 - September 3, 1820) was a British-born American architect best known for his design of the United States Capitol. ... Ralph Adams Cram, circa 1890 Ralph Adams Cram, (December 16, 1863 - September 22, 1942), was an American architect of collegiate and ecclesiastical buildings, often in the gothic style. ... McKim, Mead, and White was the premier architectural firm in the eastern United States at the turn of the twentieth century. ... Robert Charles Venturi (June 25, 1925 -) is an award winning American architect. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Ieoh Ming Pei (貝聿銘 pinyin Bèi Yùmíng) is a Chinese American architect born in Suzhou, China on April 26, 1917. ... Frist Campus Center is a focal point of social life at Princeton University. ... Rafael Viñoly, a world-famous architect, was born in 1944 in Uruguay. ... Carl Celian Icahn (born February 16, 1936) is an American billionaire financier, corporate raider, and private equity investor. ... Model of Whitman college, neo-Gothic building under construction at Princeton University Demetri Porphyrios (born 1949) is a Greek architect and author. ... This article is about the college in Washington state. ... Frank Owen Gehry, CC (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Reclining Figure (1951) outside the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, is characteristic of Moores sculptures, with an abstract female figure intercut with voids. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Curl, 1968. ... For other persons named Alexander Calder, see Alexander Calder (disambiguation). ... Lake Carnegie in Princeton, New Jersey, also known as Carnegie Lake, is a man made lake that is formed from a dam on the Millstone River in the far northeastern corner of Princeton Township. ... Andrew Carnegie (last name pronounced IPA: )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which later became U.S. Steel. ...


Cannon Green

Cannon Green is located on the south end of the main lawn. Buried in the ground at the center is the "Big Cannon", the top of which protrudes from the earth and is traditionally spray-painted in orange with the current senior class year. A second "Little Cannon" is buried in the lawn in front of nearby Whig Hall. Both were buried in response to periodic thefts by Rutgers students. The "Big Cannon" is said to have been left in Princeton by Hessians after the Revolutionary War but moved to New Brunswick during the War of 1812. Ownership of the cannon was disputed and the cannon was eventually taken back to Princeton partly by a military company and then by 100 Princeton students. The "Big Cannon" was eventually buried in its current location behind Nassau Hall in 1840. In 1875, Rutgers students attempting to recover the original cannon stole the "Little Cannon" instead. The smaller cannon was subsequently recovered and buried as well. The protruding cannons are occasionally painted scarlet by Rutgers students who continue the traditional dispute.[12] The American Whig-Cliosophic Society (short form: Whig-Clio) is the oldest college political, literary, and debating society in continual existence in the world. ... “Rutgers” redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ...


The Academy Award-winning movie, A Beautiful Mind, contains a scene on Cannon Green. John Nash plays Go with his college rival while sitting on stone benches in the middle of the green. (The benches do not exist; like many elements of the Princeton setting, they were introduced for the film.) Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... A Beautiful Mind is a 2001 American biographical film about John Forbes Nash, the Nobel Laureate (Economics) mathematician. ... John Forbes Nash, Jr. ... Go is a strategic board game for two players. ...


Buildings

McCarter Theater

McCarter Theater

The Tony-award-winning[13] McCarter Theatre was built by the Princeton Triangle Club using club profits and a gift from Princeton University alumnus Thomas McCarter. Today the Triangle Club is an official student group and performs its annual freshmen revue and fall musicals in McCarter. The McCarter is also recognized as one of the leading regional theaters in the United States. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1280 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Princeton University Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1280 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Princeton University Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... McCarter Theatre is a not-for-profit, professional company on the campus of Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey. ... The Princeton Triangle Club is a theatre troupe at Princeton University. ...

Art Museum

The Princeton University Art Museum was established to give students direct, intimate, and sustained access to original works of art to complement and enrich instruction and research at the university, and this continues to be its primary function. The Princeton University Art Museum The Princeton University Art Museum is the Princeton Universitys gallery on art located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...


Numbering nearly 60,000 objects, the collections range chronologically from ancient to contemporary art, and concentrate geographically on the Mediterranean regions, Western Europe, China, the United States, and Latin America. There is a collection of Greek and Roman antiquities, including ceramics, marbles, bronzes, and Roman mosaics from Princeton University’s excavations in Antioch. Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture, metalwork, and stained glass. The collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the nineteenth century, and there is a growing collection of twentieth-century and contemporary art. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


Among the strengths in the museum are the collections of Chinese art, with important holdings in bronzes, tomb figurines, painting, and calligraphy; and pre-Columbian art, with examples of the art of the Maya. The museum has collections of old master prints and drawings and a comprehensive collection of original photographs. African art is represented as well as Northwest Coast Indian art. Other works include those of the John B. Putnam, Jr., Memorial Collection of twentieth-century sculpture, including works by such modern masters as Alexander Calder, Jacques Lipchitz, Henry Moore and Pablo Picasso. The Putnam Collection is overseen by the Museum but exhibited outdoors around campus. Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Birth of the Muses, bronze, 1944-1950. ... Picasso redirects here. ...


University Chapel

Princeton University Chapel

Princeton University Chapel is the third-largest university chapel in the world. Known for its gothic architecture, the chapel houses one of the largest and most precious stained glass collections in the country. Both the Opening Exercises for entering freshmen and the Baccalaureate Service for graduating seniors take place in the University Chapel. Construction on the Princeton University Chapel began in 1924 was completed in 1927, at a cost of $2.4 million. Princeton's Chapel is the world's third-largest university chapel, behind those of Valparaiso University and King's College, Cambridge, England.[14] It was designed by the University's lead consulting architect, Ralph Adams Cram, previously of Boston's architectural firm Cram, Goodhue and Ferguson, leading proponents of the Gothic revival style. The vaulting was built by the Guastavino Company, whose thin Spanish tile vaults can be found in Ellis Island, Grand Central Station, and hundreds of other significant works of 20th century architecture. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 483 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 483 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Construction of the Princeton University Chapel began in 1924 and the structure was completed in 1928, at a cost of $2. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Valparaiso University, known colloquially as Valpo, is a private university located in the city of Valparaiso, Indiana. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ...


The 270-foot-long, 76-foot-high, cruciform church is in the collegiate Gothic style, and is made largely from Pennsylvania sandstone and Indiana limestone. It seats 2000 people, many in pews made from wood salvaged from Civil War-era gun carriages. Seats in the chancery are made from oak from Sherwood Forest. The 16th Century pulpit was brought from France and the primary pipe organ has 8000 pipes and 109 stops. This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... visitor centre Birch trees in the Sherwood Forest The legendary Major Oak Major Oak in December 2006 View of the Forest looking Northeast Sherwood Forest is a 4. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ...


One of the most prominent features of the chapel is its stained glass windows which have an unusually academic leaning. Three of the large windows have religious themes: the north aisle windows shows the life of Jesus, the north clerestory shows the spirtual development of the Jews, while the south aisle has the teachings of Jesus. The stained glass in the south clerestory portrays the evolution of human thought from the Greeks to modern times. It has windows on such topics as Science, Law, Poetry and War. Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ...


Organization

Princeton is among the wealthiest universities in the world, with an endowment of US$15.8 billion. Ranked fourth largest in the United States, the university has the largest per-student endowment in the world. This is sustained through the continued donations of its alumni and is maintained by investment advisors.[15] Some of Princeton's wealth is invested in its art museum, which features works by Claude Monet and Andy Warhol, among other prominent artists. One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... This list of US and colleges and universities by endowment contains the 56 universities in the United States that have an endowment of at least 1 billion US dollars (at fiscal year-end 2005). ... Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ...

This watercolor shows Cleveland Tower as seen from just outside Procter Hall at the Old Graduate College in the noon autumn sun. The tower was built in 1913 as a memorial to former United States President Grover Cleveland, who also served as a university trustee. One of the largest carillons in the world, the class of 1892 bells, was installed in 1927. The Chapel Music program plays the bells Sunday afternoons during each semester, except during exam periods.

University housing is guaranteed to all undergraduates for all four years, and more than 95 percent of students live on campus in dormitories. Freshmen and sophomores live in residential colleges. Juniors and seniors have the option to live off-campus, but high rent in the Princeton area encourages almost all students to live in dorms. Undergraduate social life revolves around the residential colleges and a number of coeducational "eating clubs", which students may choose to join at the end of their sophomore year, and which host a number of social events throughout the academic year. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1567 KB) Summary An autumn view of Cleveland tower at the graduate college, Princeton University. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1567 KB) Summary An autumn view of Cleveland tower at the graduate college, Princeton University. ... Cleveland Tower is a prominent landmark of Princeton University. ... The Graduate College at Princeton University is a residential college housing mostly first-year graduate students. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908), the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States, was the only President to serve non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... For the University of Regina student newspaper, see The Carillon. ... Princeton University, located in Princeton, New Jersey, is one of the eight Ivy League universities, and is widely recognized as one of the most prestigious institutions in the world. ... The majority of upperclassmen at Princeton University take their meals in one of eleven eating clubs, which are an amalgamation of dining halls and Greek-letter fraternities. ...


Princeton has six undergraduate residential colleges, each housing approximately 500 freshmen, sophomores, and a handful of junior and senior resident advisers. Each college consists of a set of dormitories, a dining hall, a variety of other amenities — such as study spaces, libraries, performance spaces, and darkrooms — and a collection of administrators and associated faculty. Two colleges, Wilson College and Forbes College (formerly Princeton Inn College), date to the 1970s; three others, Rockefeller, Mathey, and Butler Colleges, were created in 1983 following the Committee on Undergraduate Residential Life (CURL) report suggesting colleges as a solution to a perception of fragmented campus social life. The construction of Whitman College, the university's sixth, was completed in 2007. A residential college is an organisational pattern for a division of a university that places academic activity in a community setting of students and faculty, usually at a residence and with shared meals, the college having a degree of autonomy and a federated relationship with the overall university. ... A resident assistant, commonly shortened to RA is a trained student leader, within a college or university, charged with supervising students living in a residence hall. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson College, the first of Princetons five residential colleges, was developed in the late fifties when a group of students formed the Woodrow Wilson Lodge as an alternative to the eating clubs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Princeton University. ...


Rockefeller College and Mathey College are located in the northwest corner of the campus; their Collegiate Gothic architecture often graces University brochures. Like most of Princeton's Gothic buildings, they predate the residential college system and were fashioned into colleges from individual dormitories. John D. Rockefeller III College, or Rocky, is one of five residential colleges at Princeton University. ... Mathey College is one of five underclass residential colleges at Princeton University. ...


Wilson College and Butler College, located south of the center of the campus, were built in the 1960s, with Wilson serving as an early experiment in Residential Colleges. Butler, like Rockefeller and Mathey, was a collection of ordinary dorms (called the "New New Quad") before the addition of a dining hall made it a residential college. Widely disliked for its edgy modernist design, the dormitories on the Butler Quad were demolished in 2007, and the college is being partially housed in converted upperclass dormitories until its reconstruction is completed. Butler College is a name reported to have recently been announced for the newest college at the University of Durham, due to open in September 2006. ...


Forbes College, located slightly beyond the southwest corner of the campus, is a former hotel, purchased by the university and expanded to form a residential college. The "Princeton Inn College" was one of the first residential colleges in the 1970s along with Wilson College. Butler and most of Forbes are in a different municipality, Princeton Township, from the rest of the main campus, which is in Princeton Borough. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... The Borough of Princeton is a borough and is one of the two municipalities making up Princeton, New Jersey. ...


In 2003, Princeton broke ground for a sixth college, named Whitman College after its principal sponsor, Meg Whitman, the CEO of eBay and a member of the Princeton Class of 1977. The new dormitories were constructed in the neo-Gothic architectural style and were designed by renowned architect Demetri Porphyrios. Construction finished in 2007, and Whitman College was inaugurated as Princeton's sixth residential college that year. Whitman College is currently under construction, but it is set to become the sixth and newest residential college of Princeton University in the fall of 2007. ... Margaret C. Meg Whitman (born August 4, 1956) has been the President and CEO of the online marketplace eBay since March 1998. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... This article is about the online auction center. ... Neo-gothic architecture is an American branch of the Gothic revival style that was imported from England in the 1830s. ...


A variant on the present college system was originally proposed by University President Woodrow Wilson in the early twentieth century. Wilson's model was much closer to Yale's present system, which features four-year colleges. Lacking the support of the Trustees, the plan languished until 1968, when Wilson College was established, capping a series of alternatives to the eating clubs. A series of often fierce debates raged before the present underclass-college system emerged. The plan was first attempted at Yale, but the administration was initially uninterested; an exasperated alum, Edward Harkness, finally paid to have the college system implemented at Harvard in the 1920s, leading to the oft-quoted aphorism that the college system is a Princeton idea done at Harvard with Yale's money. Yale redirects here. ... The Trustees of Princeton University, a 40 member board, are responsible for the long term stewardship and vision for the University. ... Edward Stephen Harkness (1874 - 1940) was an American philanthropist. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ...


Princeton has one graduate residential college, known simply as the Graduate College, located beyond Forbes College at the outskirts of campus. The far-flung location of the G.C. was the spoil of a squabble between Woodrow Wilson and then-Graduate School Dean Andrew Fleming West, which the latter won.[16] (Wilson preferred a central location for the College; West wanted the graduate students as far as possible from the campus.) The G.C. is composed of a large Collegiate Gothic section crowned by Cleveland Tower, a local landmark that also houses a world-class carillon. The attached New Graduate College houses more students. Its design departs from collegiate gothic, and is reminiscent of Butler College, the newest of the five pre-Whitman undergraduate colleges. Cleveland Tower is a prominent landmark of Princeton University. ...


Academics

The courtyard of East Pyne

Princeton offers two main undergraduate degrees: the Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) and the Bachelor of Science in engineering (B.S.E.). Courses in the humanities are traditionally either seminars or semi-weekly lectures with an additional discussion seminar, called a "precept" (short for "preceptorial"). To graduate, all A.B. candidates must complete a senior thesis and one or two extensive pieces of independent research, known as "junior papers" or "J.P.s." They must also fulfill a two-semester foreign language requirement and distribution requirements with a total of 31 classes. B.S.E. candidates follow a parallel track with an emphasis on a rigorous science and math curriculum, a computer science requirement, and at least two semesters of independent research including an optional senior thesis. All B.S.E. students much complete at least 36 classes. A.B. candidates typically have more freedom in course selection than B.S.E. candidates because of the fewer number of required classes, though both enjoy a comparatively high degree of latitude in creating a self-structured curriculum. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 306 KB) Summary In the cortyard of one of Princeton Halls. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 306 KB) Summary In the cortyard of one of Princeton Halls. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... B.S. redirects here. ...


Undergraduates at Princeton University agree to conform to an academic honesty policy called the Honor Code. Students write and sign the honor pledge, "I pledge my honor that I have not violated the Honor Code during this examination," on every in-class exam they take at Princeton. (The form of the pledge was changed slightly in 1980; it formerly read, "I pledge my honor that during this examination, I have neither given nor received assistance.") The Code carries a second obligation: upon matriculation, every student pledges to report any suspected cheating to the student-run Honor Committee. Because of this code, students take all tests unsupervised by faculty members. Violations of the Honor Code incur the strongest of disciplinary actions, including suspension and expulsion. Out-of-class exercises are outside the Honor Committee's jurisdiction. In these cases, students are often expected to sign a pledge on their papers that they have not plagiarized their work ("This paper represents my own work in accordance with University regulations."), and allegations of academic violations are heard by the University Committee on Discipline. For other uses, see Plagiarism (disambiguation). ...


Princeton offers postgraduate research degrees in mathematics, physics, astronomy and plasma physics, economics, history, political science, philosophy, and English. Although Princeton offers professional graduate degrees in engineering, architecture, and finance, it has no medical school, law school, or business school like other research universities.[17] Its most famous professional school is the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (known as "Woody Woo" to students), founded in 1930 as the School of Public and International Affairs and renamed in 1948. Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in Business Administration. ... Robertson Hall, which houses the Woodrow Wilson School. ...


The university's library system houses over eleven million holdings[18] including six million bound volumes;[19] The main university library, Firestone Library, housing almost four million volumes, is one of the largest university libraries in the world[citation needed] (and among the largest "open stack" libraries in existence).[citation needed] Its collections include the Blickling homilies. In addition to Firestone, many individual disciplines have their own libraries, including architecture, art history, East Asian studies, engineering, geology, international affairs and public policy, and Near Eastern studies. Seniors in some departments can register for enclosed carrels in the main library for workspace and the private storage of books and research materials. In February 2007, Princeton became the 12th major library system to join Google's ambitious project to scan the world's great literary works and make them searchable over the Web.[20] The Harvey S. Firestone Memorial Library is the main library at Princeton University. ... The Blickling Homilies are a collection of eighteen Old English prose homilies and sermons by anonymous writer(s). ...


Princeton is one of the most selective colleges in the United States, admitting only 9.5% of undergraduate applicants in 2007.[21] In September 2006, Princeton University announced that all applicants for the Class of 2012 would be considered in a single pool, effectively ending the Early Decision program.[22] In 2001, Princeton was the first university to eliminate loans for all students who qualify for aid, expanding on earlier reforms. U.S. News & World Report and Princeton Review both cite Princeton as having the fewest number of students graduating with debt even though 60% of incoming students are on some type of financial aid.[citation needed] The Office of Financial Aid estimates that Princeton seniors on aid will graduate with average indebtedness of $2,360, compared to the national average of about $20,000. Early decision is a common early admission policy used in college admissions in the United States for admitting freshmen to undergraduate programs. ... A loan is a type of debt. ... Look up Aid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... The Princeton Review (TPR) is a for-profit U.S. company that offers private instruction and tutoring for standardized achievement tests, in particular those offered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS), such as the SAT, GRE, LSAT, GMAT, and MCAT. The company was founded in 1982 and is based in... Financial aid refers to funding intended to help students pay tuition or other costs, such as room and board, for education at a college, university, or private school. ... Financial aid refers to funding intended to help students pay tuition or other costs, such as room and board, for education at a college, university, or private school. ...


Rankings

From 2001 to 2008, Princeton University has been ranked first among national universities by U.S. News and World Report (USNWR).[23] Among other outlets, Princeton ranked eighth among world universities by Shanghai Jiao Tong University,[24] sixth among world universities and third in North America by THES - QS World University Rankings.[25][26] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... Shanghai Jiao Tong University (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; abbreviated Jiao Da (交大) or SJTU), located in Shanghai, is one of the oldest and most influential universities in China. ... The THES - QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings around the world, published by The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) and Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). ...

Clio Hall

Princeton University also participates in the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities (NAICU)'s University and College Accountability Network (U-CAN). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1169 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Princeton University Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1169 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Princeton University Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Founded in 1976, the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities (NAICU) is an organization of private US colleges and universities. ... The University and College Accountability Network (U-CAN) is a network planned to compare private colleges and universities across a wide variety of characteristics. ...

Fine Hall, the home of the Department of Mathematics. It is the tallest building on campus, although its height above sea level is not higher than the University Chapel, significantly uphill from Fine.

See also List of Princeton University people#Notable Princeton professors. Princeton University also recently purchased a supercomputer, Orangena, from IBM, as of 11/2005 the 79th fastest in the world (LINPACK performance of 4713; compare up to 12250 for other U. S. universities and 280600 for the top-ranked supercomputer, belonging to the U. S. Department of Energy).[27] Image File history File links fine hall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links fine hall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is a table of notable people affiliated with Princeton University, including graduates of the undergraduate college and all graduate programs, former students, and former professors. ... LINPACK is a software library for performing numerical linear algebra on digital computers. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ...


Student life and culture

Princeton hosts two Model United Nations conferences, PMUNC[28] in the fall for high school students and PICSim[29] in the spring for college students. A Model United Nations Conference in Stuttgart, Germany in action. ...


Princeton also runs Princeton Model Congress, held once a year in mid-November. The 4-day conference is for high schoolers from around the country and the fierce competition gives the conference its prestige.

Cuyler, Class of 1903, and Walker Halls are Princeton dormitories in the Collegiate Gothic style.

Each residential college hosts social events and activities, guest speakers (such as Edward Norton, who showed a special sneak-preview of Fight Club on campus), and trips. The residential colleges are best known for their performing arts trips to New York City. Students sign up to take trips to see the ballet, the opera, and Broadway shows. Image File history File links Walker, 1903, & Cuyler Halls, Princeton. ... Image File history File links Walker, 1903, & Cuyler Halls, Princeton. ... Ed Norton redirects here. ... Fight Club[1] (1996) is the first published novel by American author Chuck Palahniuk. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ...


The eating clubs are co-ed organizations for upperclassmen located on the east end of campus. Most upperclassmen eat their meals at one of the 10 eating clubs, whose houses also serve as evening and weekend social venues for members and guests.


Although the school's admissions policy is "need-blind" Princeton was ranked last (based on the proportion of students receiving Pell Grants) in economic diversity among all national universities ranked by U.S. News & World Report.[30] However, this statistic is potentially misleading, as the university offers its own aid in the form of grants. The rankings article cautions, "the proportion of students on Pell Grants isn't a perfect measure of an institution's efforts to achieve economic diversity." This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...

  • Arch Sings - Free late-night concerts in one of the larger arches on campus offered by one or several of Princeton's thirteen undergraduate a cappella groups. Most often held in Blair Arch or Class of 1879 Arch.
  • Bonfire - ceremonial bonfire on Cannon Green behind Nassau Hall, held only if Princeton beats both Harvard and Yale at football in the same season; the most recent bonfire was lit November 17, 2006, after a 12-year drought.
  • Bicker - Selection process for new-members employed by selective eating clubs
  • Cane Spree - an athletic competition between freshmen and sophomores held in the fall
  • The Clapper or Clapper Theft - climbing to the top of Nassau Hall and stealing the bell clapper so as to prevent the bell from ringing and, thus, from starting class on the first day of the school year. For safety reasons, the clapper has now been removed permanently.
  • Class Jackets (Beer Jackets) - Each graduating class (and each class at its multiple-of-5 reunion thereafter—5th, 10th, etc.) designs a Class Jacket featuring their class year. The artwork is almost invariably dominated by the school colors and tiger motifs.
  • Communiversity - an annual street fair with performances, arts and crafts, and other activities in an attempt to foster interaction between the university and residents of the Princeton community
  • Dean's Date Theater - tradition of gathering late in the afternoon on the final deadline for written work for the semester ("Dean's Date") outside McCosh Hall to watch other students run to hand in their papers. Some students perform cartwheels and other antics (if they are not running too late).[citation needed]
  • FitzRandolph Gate - at the end of Princeton's graduation ceremony, the new graduates process out through the main gate of the university as a symbol of their leaving college and entering the real world. According to tradition, anyone who leaves campus through FitzRandolph Gate before his or her own graduation date will not graduate (though entering through the gate is fine).
  • Holder Howl - The midnight before Dean's Date (when most final papers and assignments are due) students from Holder Hall and elsewhere come to the Holder courtyard and "howl" to release the frustration of last-minute work on their assignments.[citation needed]
  • Houseparties - formal parties thrown simultaneously by all of the eating clubs at the end of the spring term
  • Lawnparties - parties with live bands thrown simultaneously by all of the eating clubs at the start of classes and conclusion of the year
  • Newman's Day - Students attempt to drink 24 beers in the 24 hours of April 24. According to the New York Times, "the day got its name from an apocryphal quote attributed to Mr. Newman: '24 beers in a case, 24 hours in a day. Coincidence? I think not.'"[31] Newman has spoken out against the tradition, however.[32]
  • Nude Olympics - annual (nude and partially nude) frolic in Holder Courtyard during the first snow of the winter. Started in the early 1970s, the Nude Olympics went co-ed in 1979 and gained much notoriety with the American press. For safety reasons, the administration banned the Olympics in 2000.
  • Prospect 11 - referring to the act of drinking a beer at all eleven eating clubs on The Street in one night. With the recent closure of Campus Club, this has become impossible; however, the historical Cannon Club is due to reopen in Spring 2008, and the Prospect 11 will return.
  • P-rade - traditional parade of alumni and their families, who process by class year, during Reunions
  • Reunions - annual gathering of alumni, held the weekend before graduation
  • Robo - commonly played team drinking game at Princeton University, thought to have originated there. Beirut is equally popular.
  • The Phantom of Fine Hall - a former tradition - before 1993, this was the legend of an obscure, shadowy figure that would infest Fine Hall (the Mathematics department's building) and write complex equations on blackboards. Although mentioned in Rebecca Goldstein's 1980s book The Mind-Body Problem about Princeton graduate student life (Penguin, reissued 1993), the legend self-deconstructed in the 1990s when the Phantom turned out to be in reality the inventor, in the 1950s, of the Nash equilibrium result in game theory, John Forbes Nash. The former Phantom, by then also haunting the computation center where courtesy of handlers in the math department he was a sacred monster with a guest account, shared the 1994 Nobel Prize and is now a recognized member of the University community. (Unlike the book, the film version of A Beautiful Mind does not attempt to be factual; its screenwriter called it "a stab at the truth… but not by way of the facts.")

This article is about the vocal technique. ... Harvard redirects here. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The majority of upperclassmen at Princeton University take their meals in one of ten eating clubs, which are private organizations resembling both dining halls and social houses. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Prospect Avenue is the street in Princeton, New Jersey on which ten of the eleven eating clubs at Princeton University are located. ... Campus Club is one of the undergraduate eating clubs at Princeton University. ... For the similar drinking game involving table tennis paddles, see beer pong (paddles). ... Incompleteness: The Proof and Paradox of Kurt Gödel by Rebecca Goldstein Rebecca Goldstein (née Newberger, born 1950) is an American novelist, philosopher and teacher. ... In game theory, the Nash equilibrium (named after John Forbes Nash, who proposed it) is a kind of solution concept of a game involving two or more players, where no player has anything to gain by changing only his or her own strategy unilaterally. ...

Athletics

The Princeton Review (unaffiliated with the university) declared Princeton the 10th strongest "jock school" in the nation. It has also consistently been ranked at the top of the Time Magazine's Strongest College Sports Teams lists. Most recently, Princeton was ranked as a top 10 school for athletics by Sports Illustrated. Princeton is best known for its men and women's crews, winning several NCAA and Eastern Sprints titles in recent years. (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... The first issue of Sports Illustrated, August 16, 1954, showing Milwaukee Braves star Eddie Mathews at bat in Milwaukee County Stadium. ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A or N-C-Two-A ) is a voluntary association of about 1,200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ...


Princeton won a record 21 conference titles from 2000–2001. By the end of 2004, Princeton had garnered 36 Ivy League conference titles from 2001–2004 sports seasons. In 2005, its women's soccer team made the NCAA Final Four, the first Ivy League team to do so. The Tigers have taken every field hockey conference title since 1994. Soccer redirects here. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ...


Princeton's basketball team is perhaps the best-known team within the Ivy League, nicknamed the "perennial giant killer" which it acquired during Pete Carril's coaching career from 1967–1996. Its most notable upset was the defeat of defending NCAA basketball champion, UCLA, in its opening round and Carril's final collegiate victory in that season's collegiate basketball playoffs. During that 29 year span, Pete Carril won 13 Ivy League championships and received 11 NCAA berths and 2 NIT bids. Princeton won the NIT championship in 1975. A legacy of his coaching career is the deliberate "Princeton offense" employed by a number of other collegiate basketball teams, including Georgetown in their Final Four appearance. Game between Illinois State Redbirds & Ball State Cardinals, February 17, 2007 in an ESPN Bracketbuster contest. ... Peter Carril (born July 10, 1930 in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States) is a former professional and collegiate basketball coach. ... Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... The Princeton offense is an offensive basketball strategy that was used and perfected at Princeton University by Pete Carril. ... Georgetown University is a Jesuit private university located in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. Bishop John Carroll founded the school in 1789, though its roots extend back to 1634. ... // Final four redirects here. ...


From 1992–2001, a nine year span, Princeton's men's basketball team had entered the NCAA tournament 6 times—from a conference that has never had an at-large entry in the NCAA tournament. For the last half-century, Princeton and Penn have traditionally battled for men's basketball dominance in the Ivy League; Princeton had its first losing season in 50 years of Ivy League basketball in 2005. Princeton tied the record for fewest points in a Division I game since the 3-point line started in 1986–87 when they scored 21 points in a loss against Monmouth University on December 14, 2005. Each year the NCAA Committee selects at-large berths. ... Monmouth University is a private university located in West Long Branch, New Jersey. ...


Princeton's men's lacrosse team has enjoyed much success since the early 1990s and is widely recognized as a perennial powerhouse in the Division I ranks. The team has won thirteen Ivy League titles (1992, 1993, 1995–2004, 2006) and six national titles (1992, 1994, 1996–1998, 2001).[33]


The Princeton women's volleyball team has won 13 Ivy League titles, and its men's volleyball team in 1998 became the first non-scholarship school to make the NCAA Final Four in 25 years.


On November 6, 1869, Princeton fielded a team of twenty-five undergraduates to compete against Rutgers College in the first intercollegiate soccer game, held on the Rutgers campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey. This game has been claimed by some to be the first game of American Football, but in fact it more closely resembled 'soccer'. Rutgers won with a score of six runs to Princeton's four. However, Princeton won every subsequent game through its evolution into forms more recognizable as American football through 1938. The two schools, which compete in other NCAA events, have not met in football since 1980. Princeton's rivalry with Yale, active since 1873, is the second oldest in American football (counting years when the game was played under rules which resembled soccer and not American football). In more recent years, Princeton has excelled in both men's and women's lacrosse, and both men's and women's crew. Nickname: Location of New Brunswick in Middlesex County Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Established December 30, 1730 Incorporated September 1, 1784 Government  - Type Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)  - Mayor James Cahill Area  - City  5. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Old Nassau

This phrase can refer to: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

  • Princeton's alma mater since 1859, with words by then-freshman Harlan Page Peck and music by Karl A. Langlotz. Before the Langlotz tune was written, the song was sung to the melody of "Auld Lang Syne", which also fits. The text of Old Nassau is available from Wikisource.
  • Nassau Hall, to which the song refers, built in 1756 and named after William III of England, of the House of Orange-Nassau. When built, it was the largest college building in North America. It served briefly as the capitol of the United States when the Continental Congress convened there in the summer of 1783.
  • By metonymy, Princeton University as a whole.
  • A chemical reaction, an example of a "clock reaction", dubbed "Old Nassau" because the solution turns first orange and then black, the Princeton colors. It is also known as the "Hallowe'en reaction".
  • List of Princeton University people
  • List of presidents of Princeton University

Princeton University has been home to scholars, scientists, writers, and statesmen, including four United States presidents, two of whom graduated from the university. James Madison and Woodrow Wilson graduated from Princeton, Grover Cleveland was not an alumnus but served as a trustee of Princeton university for some time while spending his retirement in the town of Princeton, and John F. Kennedy spent his freshman fall at the university before leaving due to illness and transferring to Harvard. For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... Auld Lang Syne is a song by Marilyn Jones (1759-present), although a similar poem by Barbara Elly (1570-present), as well as OAP songs, use the same phrase, and may well have inspired Jones. ... In rhetoric, metonymy is the substitution of one word for another word with which it is associated. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... This is a table of notable people affiliated with Princeton University, including graduates of the undergraduate college and all graduate programs, former students, and former professors. ... ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), was an American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... The Trustees of Princeton University, a 40 member board, are responsible for the long term stewardship and vision for the University. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


Notable alumni and faculty

This is a table of notable people affiliated with Princeton University, including graduates of the undergraduate college and all graduate programs, former students, and former professors. ...

In fiction

See also: List of Princeton University people#Fictional
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald's literary debut, This Side of Paradise, is a loosely autobiographical story of his years at Princeton. A Princeton Alumni Weekly article on Princeton fiction called it the "Ur novel of Princeton life." [6]
  • In Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises, the character Robert Cohn attended Princeton.
  • Geoffrey Wolff's The Final Club is a coming-of-age book about Nathaniel Auerbach Clay, a fictional member of the Princeton Class of 1960 (Wolff was an actual member of this class). The Final Club is written as homage to F. Scott Fitzgerald's This Side of Paradise and The Great Gatsby.
  • Mohsin Hamid's The Reluctant Fundamentalist is partly set at Princeton and the characters Changez and Erica are fictional members of the Princeton Class of 2001 (Hamid was an actual member of the Princeton Class of 1993).
  • A Beautiful Mind, the Academy Award-winning film about the famous mathematician John Forbes Nash features a major part depicting Nash's initial days at Princeton University. [7] Although the film is a fictionalized biography, in real life Nash did receive his doctorate from Princeton and is a Princeton professor. (The book of the same title by Sylvia Nassar, on which the movie is very loosely based with a great deal of artistic license, is a totally non-fictional biography and thus ineligible for a listing in this section.)
  • The movie I.Q., starring Meg Ryan and Tim Robbins with Walter Matthau as Albert Einstein takes place in Princeton. [8] A scene where Tim Robbins' character gives a lecture is in Room 302 of the Palmer Physics Laboratory, which is now the Frist Campus Center.
  • The book The Rule of Four, as well as a series of mystery books by Ann Waldron, including The Princeton Murders, Death of a Princeton President, Unholy Death in Princeton, A Rare Murder in Princeton, and newest The Princeton Impostor are set on Princeton's campus and the campus of neighboring Princeton Theological Seminary. [9]
  • In Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle, Princeton is one of their destinations.[10] However, the film was not shot on the undergraduate campus (where the movie implies the protagonists are) but rather in the graduate dormitories.
  • In the film Risky Business, Tom Cruise as Joel Goodson proves himself Princeton material by becoming a pimp, leading to his interviewer's sexual gratification. [11]
  • The movie Spanglish is presented as an essay on a fictional Princeton application. [12]
  • In the movie "A Cinderella Story," a major part of the storyline revolves around Chad Michael Murray's and Hilary Duff's characters both aiming to attend Princeton to study writing.

See also

For other uses, see Ivy League (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Princeton University Band is the number one band in America and serves as the marching band and pep band of Princeton University. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... The Princeton Glacier is a glacier in the Sargent Icefield, Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. ... The Daily Princetonian is the daily student newspaper of Princeton University. ... Dickinson St. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.dailyprincetonian.com/archives/2007/10/18/news/19047.shtml
  2. ^ US News[1]. America's Best Colleges. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  3. ^ "Princeton's History" — Parent's Handbook, 2005–06. Princeton University (August 2005). Retrieved on 2006-09-20.
  4. ^ Princeton's own phrasing is that it was "the fourth college to be established in British North America."Princeton University, Office of Communications. Princeton in the American Revolution. Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  5. ^ Princeton appears to be the fourth institution to conduct classes, based on dates that do not seem to be in dispute. Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania both claim the fourth oldest founding date; the University of Pennsylvania once used 1749 as its founding date, making it fifth, but in 1899, its trustees adopted a resolution that asserted 1740 as the founding date. For the details of Penn's claim, see University of Pennsylvania; and “Building Penn's Brand” for background, and “Princeton vs. Penn: Which is the Older Institution?” for Princeton's view. A Log College was operated by William and Gilbert Tennent, the Presbyterian ministers, in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, from 1726 until 1746; it was once common to assert a connection between it and the College of New Jersey, which would justify Princeton pushing its founding date back to 1726. Princeton, however, has never done so and a Princeton historian says that the facts “do not warrant” such an interpretation. [2]. Columbia University and Rutgers began classes in 1754 and 1766; their continuity was severely shaken during the American Revolution.
  6. ^ Compulsory chapel attendance was reduced from twice a day in 1882 and abolished in 1964: http://etcweb1.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/mfs/05/Companion/university_chapel.html?15#mfs
  7. ^ Princeton University, Office of Communications. Princeton in the American Revolution. Retrieved on 2007-05-07.: "The charter was issued to a self-perpetuating board of trustees who were acting in behalf of the evangelical or New Light wing of the Presbyterian Church, but the College had no legal or constitutional identification with that denomination. Its doors were to be open to all students, "any different sentiments in religion notwithstanding." The announced purpose of the founders was to train men who would become "ornaments of the State as well as the Church."
  8. ^ Both Princeton Theological Seminary and Westminster Choir College maintain cross-registration programs with Princeton.
  9. ^ Princeton Companion
  10. ^ Princeton Companion
  11. ^ Emporis: Fine Hall
  12. ^ Orange Key Virtual Tour - Princeton-Rutgers Cannon War
  13. ^ [3]
  14. ^ [4]
  15. ^ Endowment Climbs Past $13 Billion. The Daily Princetonian (2006).
  16. ^ Andrew Fleming West
  17. ^ A short-lived Princeton Law School folded in 1852.
  18. ^ Firestone Library. Princeton University. Retrieved on 2006-07-30.
  19. ^ The Nation's Largest Libraries: A Listing By Volumes Held: ALA Library Fact Sheet Number 22. American Library Association (August , 2005). Retrieved on 2006-07-30.: 6,224,270 volumes reported in August, 2005 fact sheet; 6,495,597 reported by Princeton to the Association of Research Libraries in ARL STATISTICS 2004‐05. Association of Research Libraries, 21 Dupont Circle, NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036, Telephone: (202) 296‐2296, FAX: (202) 872‐0884, email: pubs@arl.org (2006).
  20. ^ "Princeton University Joins Google Literature-Scan Project". Reuters, February 6, 2007.
  21. ^ http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S17/55/23Q27
  22. ^ http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S15/86/07G08/
  23. ^ America's Best Colleges 2007. U.S. News & World Report (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
  24. ^ Academic Ranking of World Universities 2007. Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
  25. ^ World University Rankings. The Times Higher Educational Supplement (2006). Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
  26. ^ [5] — A 2006 ranking from the THES - QS of the world’s research universities.
  27. ^ TOP500 Supercomputing Sites. Retrieved on 2006-06-25.
  28. ^ Princeton Model United Nations Conference (PMUNC). Retrieved on 2006-06-25.
  29. ^ Princeton Interactive Crisis Simulation (PICSIM). Retrieved on 2006-06-25.
  30. ^ Economic Diversity Among All National Universities. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  31. ^ Cheng, Jonathan (2004-04-22), "Film Legend Bothered by Use of Name in Stunt at Princeton", New York Times, <http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/22/education/22princeton.html>
  32. ^ News-Medical.Net: "Paul Newman urges Princeton to stop tradition of alcohol abuse in honour of his name"
  33. ^ http://www.princeton.edu/~lacrosse/

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... The Log College was a very early American theological seminary located in what is now Warminster, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the 18th-century American minister. ... Gilbert Tennent (February 5, 1703, County Armagh, Ireland - July 23, 1764, Philadelphia) was a religious leader. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Rutgers University Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is located in New Brunswick, Piscataway, Camden and Newark, New Jersey. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cross-registration in United States higher education is a system allowing students at one university, college, or faculty within a university to take individual courses for credit at another institution or faculty, typically in the same region. ... The law school at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) began instruction in 1847 as a modest effort consisting of three professors. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with The Times Higher Education Supplement. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

External links

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The Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges is a sports conference of fifteen college crew teams. ... For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Dartmouth College is a private, coeducational university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. Incorporated as Trustees of Dartmouth College,[6][7] it is a member of the Ivy League and one of the nine colonial colleges founded before the American Revolution. ... Georgetown University is a Jesuit private university located in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. Bishop John Carroll founded the school in 1789, though its roots extend back to 1634. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Holy Cross College (Indiana) or other similarly named Holy Cross Colleges. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... “Neu” redirects here. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... “Rutgers” redirects here. ... Crouse College, a 19th-century Romanesque building which houses the universitys visual arts and music programs Syracuse University (SU) is a private research university located in Syracuse, New York, United States the geographic center of the state, about 250 miles northwest of New York City. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... YALE (Yet Another Learning Environment) is an environment for machine learning experiments and data mining. ...


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WordNet - Princeton University Cognitive Science Laboratory (256 words)
The Global WordNet Organization is coordinating and guiding new the development of new wordnets and holding biannual meetings.
A website originating in Ukraine, http://www.synset.com, has posted the data from the Princeton WordNet without acknowledgment and is furthermore claiming copyright of the Princeton data.
Princeton has no connection to the Ukrainian site.
Princeton University - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6169 words)
According to the university, it is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the U.S. and is one of the eight Ivy League universities.
Princeton is among the wealthiest universities in the world, with an endowment just over 11 billion US dollars (#4th largest in the United States) sustained through the continued donations of its alumni and maintained by investment advisors.
Princeton University was named by the Princeton Review (which is, despite the name, unaffiliated with the university) as one of the most affordable colleges in the nation.
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