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Encyclopedia > Princely state

A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. The term refers not only to sovereign nations ruled by monarchs but also to lower polities ruled by various high nobles (often vassals in a feudal system). The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for the member of the highest aristocracy. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polity is a general term that refers to political organization of a group. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


Such states may be sovereign or not and their reigning 'princes' may actually rule or be reduced in power, as under colonial indirect rule, sometimes becoming mere figureheads. Indirect rule is a type of European colonial policy as practiced in large parts of British India (see Princely states) and elsewhere in the British Empire (including Malaya), in which the traditional local power structure, or at least part of it, is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure. ...


Specifically, the term "Princely States" (also called "Native States" or "Indian States") was used to refer to sovereign entities of British India that were not under the direct control of the British government but instead entered into treaties directly with the British monarch. British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ...

Contents

Main use

In English, the term "princely state" generally refers to a historical native state of the British Empire under an autochthonous princely house, while the term principality is preferred for analogous western feudal units. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ...


Historically there were hundreds of native states in British India and in some other parts of the British Empire (mainly under the chartered British East India Company). These states were mostly brought into the British colonial sphere of influence by the East India Company, and after 1858 formally under the British crown, which assumed the role of paramount ruler and the title of "Emperor of India" as political (not dynastic) self-declared heir to the Padshah i-Hind of the former Mughal dynasty. British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock company (preceded only by the Dutch East India Company) which was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. ... The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount King, is a generic description, rarely an actual title, for a number of rulers position in relative terms, as the summit of a feudal-type pyramid of rulers of lesser polities (such as vassal princes) in a given historical and geographical context, often... Padishah, Badishah, or Badshah is a title sometimes applied to to a several historic monarchs, notably the rulers of Iran, the Ottoman Empire, and the Moghul Empire. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ...


Unlike the British Provinces of India such as Bengal, Bombay, Madras, Central Provinces, United Provinces, which were ruled directly by the British government, rulers of princely states had treaty arrangements directly with their personal suzerain, the British Monarch. These treaties allowed a degree of local autonomy, and each state had its own laws, languages, holidays, ministers and princely ruler. Each was still under British protection and was thus essentially a vassal state. Provinces of India or more correctly, the Provinces of British India were formed in 1858 when the British Crown took direct control of India. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... A British Raj province comprising British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), and Kanpur is the most populated city in the uttar pradesh also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P., is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


At the time of independence in 1947 a few hundred[1] such states existed in British India. 565 states were represented in a special chamber of the Indian legislative assembly called the Chamber of Princes. Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ...


Princely status and titles

The Indian rulers bore various titles — including Maharaja ("great king"), Badshah ("emperor"), Raja ("king"), Nawab ("governor"), Nizam, Wali, and many others. Whatever the literal meaning and traditional prestige of the ruler's actual title, the British government translated them all as "prince," in order to avoid the implication that the native rulers could be "kings" with status equal to that of the British monarch. The word Maharaja (also spelled maharajah) is Hindi as well as ancient Sanskrit for high king (a karmadharaya from maha great and rajan king). Its use is primarily for Hindu potentates (ruler or sovereign). ... Padishah, Badishah, or Badshah is a title sometimes applied to to a several historic monarchs, notably the rulers of Iran, the Ottoman Empire, and the Moghul Empire. ... A Raja (Sanskrit ) is a king, or princely ruler from the Kshatriya / Rajput lineages. ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... The Nizams Coat of Arms Nizam-ul-Mulk was the title of the ruler of Hyderabad state from 1724 to 1949. ... Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ...


The least prestigious Hindu rulers often used the title Thakur or its variant Thakore. Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... ...


More prestigious Hindu rulers -mostly existing before the Mughal Empire, or having split from such old states- often used the title "Raja," or a variant such as "Rana," "Rao," "Rawat" or "Rawal." Also in this 'class' were several Thakur sahibs and a few particular titles, such as Sar Desai. A Raja (Sanskrit ) is a king, or princely ruler from the Kshatriya / Rajput lineages. ... ...


The most prestigious Hindu rulers usually had the prefix "maha" ("great", compare for example Grand duke) in their titles, as in Maharaja, Maharana, Maharao, etc. The state of Travancore-Cochin had queens regnant who were called Maharani. Thiru-Kochi, formerly known as Travancore-Cochin, is a former state of India. ... A queen regnant is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


There were also compound titles, such as (Maha)rajadhiraj, Raj-i-rajgan, often relics from an elaborate system of hierarchical titles under the Mughal emperors. For example, the addition of the adjective Bahadur raised the status of the titleholder one level. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


Furthermore most dynasties used a variety of additional titles, such as, mainly? in South India: Varma. This should not be confused with various titles and suffixes not specific to princes but used by entire (sub)casts. Varma or Varman (Hindi वर्मा varmā [Sanskrit वर्म+कः]) is a honorific title, literally meaning To be or become swollen or inflamed;--to be distended (with rage, &c. ...


The Sikh princes usually adopted Hindu type titles when attaining princely rank; at a lower level Sardar was used. A Sikh (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent of Sikhism. ... Sardar, in some senses also Sirdar (Persian: سردار ) (, IPA ) is a Persian word meaning commander. ...


Muslim rulers almost all used the title "Nawab" (originally the title of an amovable governor under real Mughal rule, but soon tending to hereditary succession whenever Delhi/Agra lost effective control over the province) with the prominent exceptions of the Nizam of Hyderabad & Berar, the Wali/Khan of Kalat, and the Wali of Swat. Bhopal was ruled by four formidable women in succession, who were addressed by the title of Begum. Other less usual titles included Darbar Sahib, Dewan, Jam, Mehtar (unique to Chitral) and Mir (from Emir). Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Nizams Coat of Arms Nizam-ul-Mulk was the title of the ruler of Hyderabad state from 1724 to 1949. ... Hyderabad and Berar, 1903 Hyderābād was an autonomous princely state of south-central India from 1724 until 1948, ruled by a hereditary Nizam, and an Indian state from 1948 to 1956. ... Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han) is a title with many meanings. ... The city of Kalat is located roughly in the center of Balochistan, Pakistan, south and slightly west of the provincial capital Quetta. ... Swat is presently a district, but historically a Muslim princely state, in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Bhopāl   (Hindi: भोपाल, Urdu: بھوپال, IPA: ) is a city in central India. ... Begum is a title given to women of rank in South Asia. ... A typical layout for the Darbar Sahib. ... This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Jam from berries Jam is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with certain fruits or vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin. ... Chitral Valley and Tirich Mir, 7,708 m (25,289 ft) Chitral, or Chitrāl (Urdu: چترال), is the name of a town , valley, river, district, and former princely state in the former Malakand Division of the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Mir (Мир, which can mean both world and peace in Russian) was a Soviet (and later Russian) orbital station. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ...


Precedence and prestige

However, the actual importance of a princely state cannot be read from the title of its ruler, which was usually granted (or at least recognised) as a favour, often in recognition for loyalty and services rendered historically by the Mughal emperor, and later by the British rulers succeeding it as paramount power (first the HEIC, de facto; later the British crown, and ultimately assuming the style Emperor of India as successor to the emperor of the abolished Mughal realm). Although some titles were raised once or even repeatedly, there was no automatic updating when a state gained or lost real clout. In fact, princely titles were even awarded to holders of domains (mainly jagirs) and even zamindars (in principle tax collectors), which were not states at all. Various sources give significantly different numbers of states and domains of the various types. Even in general, the definition of titles and domains are clearly not well-established. There is also no strict relation between the levels of the titles and the classes of gun salutes, the real measure of precedence, but merely a growing percentage of higher titles in classes with more guns. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favour trade privileges in India. ... A Jagir is a small territory granted by a ruler to an army chieftain (called a sardar in Marathi language) in recognition of his military service. ... Zamindar, also known as Zemindar, Zamindari, or the Zamindari System (Persian: زمیندار) were employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ...


The gun-salute system was used to set unambiguously the precedence of the major rulers in the area in which the British East India Company was active, or generally of the states and their dynasties. Princely rulers were entitled to be saluted by the firing of an odd number of guns between three and 21, with a greater number of guns indicating greater prestige. (There were many minor rulers who were not entitled to any gun salutes, and as a rule the majority of gun-salute princes had at least nine, with numbers below that usually the prerogative of Arab coastal Sheikhs also under British protection.) Generally, the number of guns remained the same for all successive rulers of a particular state, but individual princes were sometimes granted additional guns on a personal basis. Furthermore, rulers were sometimes granted additional gun salutes within their own territories only, constituting a semi-promotion.


While the states of all these rulers (about 120) were known as salute states, there were far more so-called non-salute states of lower prestige, and even more princes (in the broadest sense of the term) not even acknowledged as such. On the other hand, the dynasties of certain defunct states were allowed to keep their princely status — they were known as Political Pensioners. Though none of these princes were awarded gun salutes, princely titles in this category were recognised as among certain vassals of salute states, and were not even in direct relation with the paramount power. A Salute state is a princely state (i. ... A pension is a steady income paid to a person (usually after retirement). ...


After independence, the (Hindu) Maharana of Udaipur displaced the Nizam of Hyderabad as the most senior prince in India, and the style Highness was extended to all rulers entitled to 9-gun salutes. When these dynasties had been integrated into the Indian Union they were promised continued privileges and an income, known as the Privy Purse, for their upkeep. Subsequently, when the Indian government abolished the Privy Purse in 1971, the whole princely order ceased to exist under Indian law, although many families continue to retain their social prestige informally; some descendents are still prominent in regional or national politics, diplomacy, business and high society. Udaipur   (उदयपुर) is a city and a municipal council in Udaipur district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... The Nizams Coat of Arms Nizam-ul-Mulk was the title of the ruler of Hyderabad state from 1724 to 1949. ... In the past, the UKs Civil Government day-to-day costs were paid for by the Sovereign under normal circumstances, the monies in this Public Purse being raised by from the income of the Crown Estate lands and holdings. ... In the past, the UKs Civil Government day-to-day costs were paid for by the Sovereign under normal circumstances, the monies in this Public Purse being raised by from the income of the Crown Estate lands and holdings. ...


At the time of Indian independence, only five rulers — the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maharaja of Mysore, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda and the Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior — were entitled to a 21-gun salute. Five more rulers — the Nawab of Bhopal, the Maharaja Holkar of Indore, the Maharana of Udaipur, the Maharaja of Kolhapur and the Maharaja of Travancore — were entitled to 19-gun salutes. The most senior princely ruler was the (Muslim) Nizam of Hyderabad, who was entitled to the unique style Exalted Highness. Other princely rulers entitled to salutes of 11 guns (soon 9 guns too) or more were entitled to the style Highness. No special style was used by rulers entitled to lesser gun salutes. Flag of the State of Hyderabad. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... Jammu and Kashmir   (IPA: , Kashmiri:ज्वम त॒ कॅशीर جۄم تٕہ کٔشِیر, Hindi:जम्मू और कश्मीर, Urdu:جموں Ùˆ کشمیر) (often abbreviated as Kashmir), is the northern-most state of India, lying mostly in the Himalayan mountains. ... The Gaekwad (or Gaekwar) were a Maratha dynasty that ruled as Maharajas of Baroda (Vadodara) from the mid-eighteenth century to 1947. ... Vadodara (Gujarati: વડોદરા, Hindi Marathi: बडोदा),  , also known as Baroda, is the third most-populated town in the Indian state of Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scindia Family of India. ... Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... Bhopāl   (Hindi: भोपाल, Urdu: بھوپال, IPA: ) is a city in central India. ... This article is about Indore city. ... Udaipur   (उदयपुर) is a city and a municipal council in Udaipur district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... Kolhapur   (Marathi:कोल्हापुर) is a city situated in the south west corner of Maharashtra, India. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ...


As paramount ruler, and successor to the Mughals, the British King-Emperor of India, for whom the style of Majesty was reserved, was entitled to an 'imperial' 101-gun salute — in the European tradition also the number of guns fired to announce the birth of a (male) heir to the throne. Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ...


All princely rulers were eligible to be appointed to certain British orders of chivalry associated with India, The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India and The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire. Even women could be appointed as "Knights" (instead of Dames) of these orders. Rulers entitled to 21-gun and 19-gun salutes were normally appointed to the highest rank possible (Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India). Insignia of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India. ... The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1877. ...


Many Indian princes served in the British army (as others in local guard or police forces), often rising to the high official ranks; some even served while on the throne. Many of these were appointed as ADC etc., either to the ruling prince of their own house (in the case of relatives of such rulers) or indeed to the British King-Emperor. Many also saw action, both on the subcontinent and on other fronts, during both World Wars.


It was also not unusual for members of princely houses to be appointed to various colonial offices, often far from their native state, or to enter the diplomatic corps.


The doctrine of lapse

Until 1858, the East India Company maintained that it could assume the sovereignty of a state whose ruler was deemed incompetent or who died without a direct heir. This policy contradicted the traditional right of Indian rulers to adopt an heir when they had no progeny. The doctrine of lapse was pursued most vigorously by the Governor-General Sir James Ramsay and the 10th Earl Dalhousie. Dalhousie annexed seven states, including the Maratha states of Nagpur, Jhansi, Satara, and Awadh (Oudh), whose nawabs he had accused of misrule. Resentment over the annexation of these states, which turned to indignation when the heirlooms of the maharajas of Nagpur were auctioned off in Calcutta by the East India Company, contributed to the rising discontent which exploded in the Indian rebellion of 1857 (the "Indian Mutiny"). The last Mughal emperor, who was accused of aiding the rebellion, was deposed. The doctrine of lapse was discontinued in the aftermath of the rebellion, as was rule by the East India Company. Although none of the states were restored, no more princely states were annexed. The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General of India between 1848 and 1856. ... James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess and 10th Earl of Dalhousie (April 22, 1812–December 19, 1860) was a British statesman, and a colonial administrator in India. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: मराठा)is a collective term referring to an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a substantial empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries AD. The Marathas... Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: Detailed information on the citys localities and urban economy (See discussion page). ... Jhansi   झांसी is a city of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. ... Satara   (Marathi:सातारा) is a town located in the Satara District of Maharashtra state of India. ... Location of Awadh Awadh (Devanagari अवध) (also known in various British historical texts as Oudh, Oundh or Oude) is a region in the center of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before Independence known as the United Provinces of Oudh and Agra. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a strictly British perspective. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


Colonial governance

By the beginning of the 20th century, the four largest states — Hyderabad, Mysore, Jammu and Kashmir, and Baroda — were directly under the authority of the governor-general, in the person of a resident. Two agencies, Rajputana Agency and Central India Agency, oversaw 20 and 148 princely states, respectively. The remaining princely states had political officers, or agents, who answered to the administrators of India's provinces. Five princely states were under the authority of Madras, 354 of Bombay, 26 of Bengal, 2 of Assam, 34 of Punjab, 15 of Central Provinces and Berar; and 2 of United Provinces. Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... Baroda was one of the residencies of British India. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... Rajputana, which means Land of the Rajputs is a region of western India, which now makes up the greater part of Rajasthan state. ... The Central India Agency was a political unit of British India, which covered the northern half of present-day Madhya Pradesh state. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur - now a part of Guwahati. ... The Punjab/ پنجاب province of Pakistan is part of the larger Punjab region. ... The Central Provinces and Berar was a province of British India. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), and Kanpur is the most populated city in the uttar pradesh also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P., is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ...


In the early 1930s, most of the princely states under the authority of India's provinces were organised into agencies answerable to the governor-general, on the model of the Central India and Rajputana agencies. The new agencies were the Eastern States Agency, Punjab States Agency, Baluchistan Agency, Deccan States Agency, Madras States Agency, and the Northwest Frontier States Agency. The Baroda residency was combined with the princely states of northern Bombay Presidency into the Baroda, Western States, and Gujarat Agency. Gwalior was separated from the Central India Agency and placed under its own resident, and the states of Rampur and Benares, formerly under the authority of the United Provinces, were placed under the Gwalior Residency in 1936. The princely states of Sandur and Banganapalle in Mysore Presidency were transferred to the authority of the Mysore resident in 1939. The Eastern States Agency was an administrative unit of British India. ... The Punjab States Agency was an administrative unit of British India. ... Baluchistan Agency was one of the agencies of British India. ... The Deccan States Agency was an administrative unit of British India. ... The Madras States Agency was an administrative unit of British India. ... This article details the historical North-West Frontier Province. ... Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... Rampur is a city located in the Northern part of Uttar Pradesh between Moradabad and Bareilly, not far from Delhi. ... Benares (also known as Banaras, Kashi, Kasi and Varanasi (वाराणसी)) is a Hindu holy city on the banks of the river Ganga or Ganges in the modern north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Gwalior Residency was a political charge in British India, which existed from 1782 until Indian Independence in 1947. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sandur is a town in Bellary district of Karnataka state, India. ... Banganapalle is a town in Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Accession

After independence in 1947, the princely states were forced to accede — and thus sign away their political autonomy — either to the mainly Hindu dominion of India or the new Islamic dominion called Pakistan (consisting of West Pakistan and East Pakistan; the latter would later break away as Bangladesh, separated by the whole north of India). The accession was to be chosen by its ruling Prince, not the residents, akin to the 16th century European principle of cuius regio eius religio. Most acceded peacefully, except for four: Junagadh, Hyderabad, Jammu & Kashmir and Tripura. West Pakistan, sometimes refered to as Old Pakistan, was the popular and sometimes official name of the western wing of UP until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh; Pakistan with its current borders was previously refered to as New Pakistan between the period of (1972... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Cuius regio, eius religio is a phrase in Latin that means, Whose the region is, his religion. ... Junagadh is a city, in Junagadh District, in the Indian state of Gujarat. ... Flag of the State of Hyderabad. ... Jammu and Kashmir is a historic state in Asia which is currently disputed between India, Pakistan, and to a lesser extent, China. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ...


Junagadh, the largest state in the Kathiawar peninsula (now in Gujarat), with a Hindu majority, acceded to Pakistan on the wishes of its Nawab. However, it was was invaded and annexed in 1948 by India and the Nawab fled to Karachi. Junagadh is a city, in Junagadh District, in the Indian state of Gujarat. ... Kathiawar in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... Karachi (Urdu: كراچى, Sindhi: ڪراچي) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the most populated city in Pakistan. ...


A similar fate befell the Nizam of Hyderabad, a Muslim dynasty which had been the highest in rank since the abolition of the Mughals at Delhi and the Kingdom of Oudh. He had chosen to stay independent if not allowed to accede to Pakistan (and, thus, form a landlocked Muslim enclave in India). There followed much political wrangling, which, however, was inconclusive. Nonetheless, India invaded and annexed Hyderabad under the rubric of a "police action." The Nizam was deposed, though allowed to stay in Hyderabad. The Nizams Coat of Arms Nizam-ul-Mulk was the title of the ruler of Hyderabad state from 1724 to 1949. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


Jammu and Kashmir, having a Muslim majority but ruled by a Hindu Raja. The local Muslims, wanting to join Pakistan found sympathetic support from their fellow tribesmen from the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Unable to suppress the revot, the Raja military help from India to repulse them. This was given only after the Raja acceded his state to India as requested by Lord Mountbatten the first Governor General of the Dominion of India. Until that time, the Raja had avoided acceding either to India or to Pakistan, hoping that he could somehow maintain his sovereignty. This has led to one of the most famous territorial disputes of the world. Jammu and Kashmir   (IPA: , Kashmiri:ज्वम त॒ कॅशीर جۄم تٕہ کٔشِیر, Hindi:जम्मू और कश्मीर, Urdu:جموں Ùˆ کشمیر) (often abbreviated as Kashmir), is the northern-most state of India, lying mostly in the Himalayan mountains. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) (commonly known as Sarhad; سرحد) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns and various other groups. ...


Post Independence

India

On accession by a princely state, its territories and administrations merged into the Union of India. The rulers of the princely states were allowed to retain their hereditary titles and official residences. Depending upon their size, importance and revenue they were also allowed to retain additional properties and given privy purses (in compensation of the state's revenue which now would go the new Union). On abolition of the privy purse (and the right to the hereditary titles) by the government in 1975 the princely states ceased to exist as recognised political entities. In India, the Privy Purse was a grant given since 1947 to the rulers of the princely states of the Indian sub-continent as part of their terms of accession to the new republics of India and Pakistan, respectively. ...


His Highness Nawab Mohammed Abdul Ali Azim Jah, the Prince of Arcot, is the only royal in India who was not affected by the abolition of privy purses. In the order of precedence, he enjoys the rank of cabinet minister of the state of Tamil Nadu. Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... Nawabs of the Carnatic (also referred to as the Nawabs of Arcot), ruled the Carnatic region of South India between c. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


The Nawab hails from a family that traces its lineage back to the second caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattāb. The title 'Prince of Arcot', uniquely using the European style prince, was conferred on his ancestor by the British government in 1870 after the post of Nawab of the Carnatic (a title granted by the Mughal emperor) was abolished. Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Nawabs of the Carnatic (also referred to as the Nawabs of Arcot), ruled the Carnatic region of South India between c. ... Nawabs of the Carnatic (also referred to as the Nawabs of Arcot), ruled the Carnatic region of South India between c. ...


Former states sometimes still maintain and observe their ceremonies, forms of address etc. either as family traditions or as popular folk-customs. For example, processions during the popular Gangaur festival in Jaipur begin, as per tradition, from the City Palace, which remains the private residence of its former royal family. Gangaur is an auspicious local festival of Rajasthan and is celebrated with great zeal and devotion particularly in Jaipur. ... Also known as the Pink City, Jaipur has a long, rich and colorful history. ...


Devgadh Baria is one of the princely states in western India which is planned on European town planning principles along with controlled architectural character at selected junctions in the town. The town is surrounded by about 250 mt high hills on three sides which dominate its skyline.


Pakistan

In present-day Pakistan's tribal region in the North-West Frontier Province, the princely frontier states were maintained till 1971 when all states were abolished by merger into the republic, and all princely titles being abolished in 1972. Post independence, a new hereditary salute had been granted in 1966 by President Ayub Khan this being 15 guns for the Wali of Swat, ruler of one of the last princely states to be created (1926). Before Swat was granted a gun salute, there were already four other Gun-Salute States in Pakistan: Bahawalpur, Kalat, Khairpur and Chitral. A few lesser ranking non-salute states also acceded to Pakistan including Dir, Hunza, Kharan, Nagar, and Amb. Abstraction is made here of Kashmir and Punjab, both under Maharajas, which are disputed and/or divided with India. The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) (commonly known as Sarhad; سرحد) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns and various other groups. ... This article is about a Pakistani military officer. ... Swat is presently a district, but historically a Muslim princely state, in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Bahawalpur (also Bhawalpur, Bhawulpore) (Urdu: بہاولپور ) is a city of (1998 pop. ... The city of Kalat is located roughly in the center of Balochistan, Pakistan, south and slightly west of the provincial capital Quetta. ... Khairpur (khīr´poor) is a city in the Sindh province in southeast Pakistan. ... Chitral Valley and Tirich Mir, 7,708 m (25,289 ft) Chitral, or Chitrāl (Urdu: چترال), is the name of a town , valley, river, district, and former princely state in the former Malakand Division of the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Dir or dir may refer to: Computer software an abbreviation for directory dir (DOS Command), an operating system command directory (OpenVMS command), an operating system command =Other Dir is one the four major clans in somalia. ... This article is about the former State of Hunza, for the main article see Hunza Valley Hunza (Urdu: ہنزہ) is a former princely state in the northernmost part of the Northern Areas of Pakistan, which existed until 1974. ... Kharan was an autonomous princely state of both British India and Pakistan, located in the southwest of modern Pakistan. ... The State of Nagar is a former princely state in the northernmost part of the Northern Areas of Pakistan, which existed until 1974. ... Amb was a small princely state in what is today the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ...


Contributions

The princely states and their royal families have made many contributions to India, before independence and since, in diverse fields. They were the ones to have established the game of cricket in India, culminating in the famous tour of England in the 1930s under the captainship of the Maharajkumar (i.e. prince of the blood) of Vizianagaram (Vizzy). Another legendary cricketer was Ranjitsinhji, Jam Saheb (a specific ruler's title) of Nawanagar (Jamnagar). The Gwalior state provided crucial financial support to Jamshedji Tata's Steel venture in its early years. Today, many former royals continue family and military traditions as officers in the armed forces, while others are leading politicians. For the insect, see Cricket (insect). ... The Maharajkumar of Vizianagram, otherwise known as Vijaya Anand but better known as Vizzy, (28 December 1905 – 2 December 1965), was an Indian cricketer, was one of the liveliest characters in Indian cricket in the late 1920s and 1930s. ... Kumar Shri Ranjitsinhji (10 September 1872–2 April 1933) was an Indian prince and Test cricketer who played for the English cricket team. ... Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... Jamshedji Tata (1839-1904) was a pioneer in the field of modern industry. ... Tata Steel, formerly known as TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited), is Indias second largest steel company (slated to become largest after the completion of its ongoing takeover of Corus). ...


Other princely states

  • British Empire: Princely states existed elsewhere in the British Empire. Some of these were considered by the Colonial Office (or earlier by the BHEIC) as satellites of, and usually points of support on the naval routes to, British India, some important enough to be raised to the status of salute states.
    • A number of Arab states around the Persian Gulf, including Oman, the present-day United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait, were British protectorates under native rulers.
    • On the Malay peninsula a number of states, known as the Malay states, were administered by local rulers, who recognized British sovereignty; they still reign, but now constitutionally, in the constitutive states of modern Malaysia.
  • Netherlands: Indirect rule through princely states (or even mere tribal chieftaincies) was also practiced in other European nations' colonial empires. An example is the Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia), which had dozens of local rulers (mainly Malay, and either Muslim, Hindu or animist). The colonial term in Dutch was regentschap 'regency', but did not apply to lower-level fiefs.
  • It is not customary to use the term princely state, although it would be technically correct, for western principalities, neither in the feudal past (there were many, especially in the Holy Roman Empire, see Fürst) nor for the presently independent Principality of Monaco or Principality of Liechtenstein, nor for non-sovereign entities referred to as principalities such as Wales.

The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ... A Salute state is a princely state (i. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Malay states are a group of nine states of Malaysia (all located in West Malaysia) which have hereditary Rulers. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... A regency (kabupaten) is a political subdivision of a province in Indonesia. ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Fürst (plural Fürsten) is a German title of nobility, usually translated into English as Prince; however this translation can be misleading, since a Fürst usually ranks below a Duke. ... This article is about the country. ...

See also

Hundreds of princely states in British India existed prior to the independence of India and Pakistan (including the present Bangladesh) in 1947, ruled by semi-independent potentates. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for the member of the highest aristocracy. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ...

Sources and references

  • Exclusively on Indian princely states and domains.
  • RoyalArk Several general pages, and various states in great detail.
  • Exhaustive lists of rulers and heads of government, and some biographies.
  • WorldStatesmen Exhaustive lists of rulers and heads of government, and many legal dates.

 
 

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