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Encyclopedia > Prince Vorontsov
His portrait from the Military Gallery of the Winter Palace (1825).

Prince Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov (Russian: Михаи́л Семёнович Воронцо́в) (17821856), was a Russian prince and field-marshal, renowned for his success in the Napoleonic wars, and most famous for leading the Russian invasion of the Caucasus from 1844 to 1853. Mikhail Vorontsov by George Dawe, c. ... Mikhail Vorontsov by George Dawe, c. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 340 KB)Photo taken inside the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg by Robert Broadie on 12 April 2005. ... Located between the bank of the Neva River and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace in St. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ...


The son of Count Semon Vorontsov and nephew of the imperial chancellor Alexander Vorontsov, he spent his childhood and youth with his father in London, where he received a brilliant education. During 1803–1804 he served in the Caucasus under Pavel Tsitsianov and Gulyakov, and was nearly killed in the Zakatahko disaster (January 15, 1804). From 1805 to 1807 he served in the Napoleonic wars, and was present at the battles of Pultusk and Friedland. From 1809 to 1811 he participated in the Russo-Turkish War and distinguished himself in nearly every important action. Semyon Romanovich Vorontsov (Семён Романович Воронцов in Russian) (1744 - 1832) was a Russian diplomat and brother of Alexander Romanovich Vorontsov and Ekaterina Dashkova. ... Count Alexander Romanovich Vorontsov (Russian: ) (1741–1805) was the Russian imperial chancellor during the early years of Alexander Is reign. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Pułtusk took place on December 26, 1806 near Pułtusk, Russians with 120 guns under General Bennigsen, and 35,000 French under Marshal Lannes. ... The Battle of Friedland was fought on June 14, 1807 and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against the Russians under General Bennigsen. ... Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812 was one of the several wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire War broke out in 1806, when Turkey deposed the russophile governors of its vassal states Moldavia and Walachia. ...


He commanded the composite grenadiers division in Prince Petr Bagration's Second Western Army during Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812. At the battle of Borodino his division was in the front line and was attacked by three French divisions under Marshal Davout. Vorontsov led several counter-attacks, sword in hand. Of the 4,000 men in his division only 300 survived the battle. Vorontsov was wounded, but recovered to rejoin the army in 1813. He commanded a new grenadiers division and fought at the battle of Dennewitz and the battle of Leipzig. In 1814, at Craonne, he brilliantly held out for a day against Napoléon in person. He was the commander of the corps of occupation in France from 1815 to 1818. Petr Ivanovich Bagration Prince Petr Ivanovich Bagration (Пётр Иванович Багратион) (1765 - September 12, 1812), a descendant of the Georgian Royal family of the Bagratids, served as a Russian general. ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov Strength 134,000 155,000 Casualties 28,000 – 50,000 38,500 – 58,000 The Battle of Borodino (Russian: Бородино) (September 7, 1812, or August 26 in the Julian calendar then used in Russia), also called the Battle of... Davout, Marshal of France Louis Nicolas dAvout (May 10, 1770 – June 1, 1823), better known as Davout, duc dAuerstädt, prince dEckmühl, and a marshal of France. ... Battle of Dennewitz 6 September 1813 Prelude: Marshall Oudinot advanced his corp along 3 separate roads on an advance to Berlin. ... The Battle of Leipzig or the Battle of the Nations (16-19 October 1813) was the largest conflict in the Napoleonic Wars and the most decisive defeat suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte. ...

Vorontsov's Moorish Castle in Alupka, Crimea (1828-46).
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Vorontsov's Moorish Castle in Alupka, Crimea (1828-46).

On 7 May 1823 he was appointed governor-general of New Russia, as the southern provinces of the empire were then called, and namestnik of Bessarabia. He may be said to have been the creator of Odessa and the benefactor of the Crimea, both places being graced with his brilliant residences. He was the first to start steamboats on the Black Sea in 1828. The same year saw the start of the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829 and Vorontsov succeeded the wounded Menshikov as commander of the forces besieging Varna, which he captured on 28 September 1828. In the campaign of 1829 it was through his energetic efforts that the plague, which had broken out in Turkey, did not penetrate into Russia. But perhaps the best remembered of all is his wife's (nee Countess Branicka) liaison with Alexander Pushkin during the latter's stay in Odessa, which resulted in some of the finest poems in Russian language. Alupka is a resort town in the Crimea, Ukraine, situated 17 km to the west of Yalta. ... The Crimea /kraɪˈmia/ is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Novorossiya (Russian: , literally New Russia) is a historic area now mostly located in southern Ukraine, and partially in southern Russia. ... Namestnik (Russian: ) was an office position in the history of Russia. ... Old map of Bessarabia Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish) was the name by which the Imperial Russia designated the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia annexed by Russia in 1812. ... ODESSA (German Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen; The Organization of Former SS-Members) was an alleged Nazi-German fugitive network set up towards the end of World War II by a group of SS officers, among whom Martin Bormann and Heinrich Himmler. ... The Crimea /kraɪˈmia/ is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... The Greeks struggle for independence sparked the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829, in which Russian forces advanced into Bulgaria, the Caucasus, and northeastern Anatolia itself before the Turks sued for peace. ... Prince Aleksandr Sergeyevich Menshikov (Александр Сергеевич Меншиков in Russian)(August 26, 1787 — May 1, 1869, all n. ... This article is about a city in Bulgaria. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (272nd in leap years). ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Aleksandr Pushkin was a Russian poet and a founder of modern Russian literature Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин) (June 6 (May 26, O.S.), 1799 - February 10 (January 29, O.S.), 1837), Russian author, whom many consider the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. ... ODESSA (German Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen; The Organization of Former SS-Members) was an alleged Nazi-German fugitive network set up towards the end of World War II by a group of SS officers, among whom Martin Bormann and Heinrich Himmler. ... Russian (Russian: русский язык, russkij jazyk, â–¶ (help· info)) is the most widely spoken language of Europe and the most widespread of the Slavic languages. ...


In 1844 Vorontsov was appointed commander-in-chief and viceroy (namestnik) of the Caucasus. For his campaign against Shamil, and especially for his difficult march through the dangerous forests of Chechnya, he was raised to the dignity of prince, with the title of Serene Highness. By 1848 he had captured two-thirds of Daghestan, and the situation of the Russians in the Caucasus, so long almost desperate, was steadily improving. In the beginning of 1853 Vorontsov was allowed to retire because of his increasing infirmities. He was made a field-marshal in 1856, and died the same year at Odessa. Statues have been erected to him both there and at Tiflis. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province as a substitute for the monarch. ... Namestnik (Russian: ) was an office position in the history of Russia. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Imam Shamil of Chechnya Imam Shamil (1797 - March 1871) was a Daghestani Avar political and religious leader of the Muslims of the Northern Caucasus. ... Capital Grozny Area - total - % water 78th - 15,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density 49th - est. ... View of Tiflis from the Grounds of Saint David Church, ca. ...


References

  • Gammer, Moshe. Muslim Resistance to the Tsar: Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan. Frank Cass & Co., London, 1994. ISBN 071463431X.
  • This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, a publication in the public domain.

Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

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