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Encyclopedia > Prince Leopold of Bavaria
Prince Leopold of Bavaria
Born February 9, 1846(1846-02-09)
Munich, Bavaria
Died September 28, 1930 (aged 84)
Munich, Bavaria
Consort Archduchess Gisela of Austria
Issue Princess Elisabeth
Princess Auguste
Prince Georg

Prince Konrad Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Categories: 1856 births | 1932 deaths | Non-ruling Austrian royalty | Habsburg | Habsburg-Lorraine ... Prince Georg Franz Joseph Luitpold Maria of Bavaria (born April 2, 1880 - died May 31, 1943) was a member of the Bavarian Royal House of Wittelsbach. ...

Royal House House of Wittelsbach
Father Luitpold of Bavaria
Mother Archduchess Augusta of Austria

Leopold Maximilian Joseph Maria Arnulf, Prinz von Bayern (February 9, 1846 - September 28, 1930) was born in Munich, the son of Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria (1821-1912) and his wife Archduchess Augusta of Austria (1825-1864). He was a Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) who commanded German and Austro-Hungarian forces on the Eastern Front in World War I. The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... Prince Regent Luitpold Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria (German: Prinzregent Luitpold Karl Joseph Wilhelm Ludwig von Bayern) (12 March 1821—12 December 1912), was the regent and de facto ruler of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912, due to the incapacity of his nephews, Ludwig II and Otto. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Prince Regent Luitpold Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria (German: Prinzregent Luitpold Karl Joseph Wilhelm Ludwig von Bayern) (12 March 1821—12 December 1912), was the regent and de facto ruler of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912, due to the incapacity of his nephews, Ludwig II and Otto. ... Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Contents

Biography

Prince Leopold Entered the Bavarian Army at the AGE of 15, and received his patent as a lieutenant dated November 28, 1861.[1] He saw first combat during the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, where he commanded an artillery battery at Kissingen and Rossbrunn. Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... Bad Kissingen is a town in Bavaria, capital of the district Bad Kissingen. ...


In 1870, King Ludwig II of Bavaria, sent Leopold to the battlefields of France, where the Bavarian Army was fighting alongside the Prussian Army in the Franco-Prussian War. He served with the 3rd Bavarian Artillery Regiment and saw action at Sedan and Beauvert. He was promoted to major in December 1870.[2] For his bravery against the enemy he received both the Iron Cross 1st and 2nd Classes, the Bavarian Military Merit Order Knight 1st Class, the Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Max Joseph, Bavaria's highest military decoration, and decorations from several other German states. Ludwig (Louis) II, King of Bavaria, Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm, also known as Ludwig the Mad, and Mad King Ludwig (August 25, 1845 - June 13, 1886) was king of Bavaria from 1864 until his death. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Combatants Prussia Bavaria France Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Napoleon III Patrice MacMahon Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot Strength 200,000 774 cannon 120,000 564 cannon Casualties 2,320 dead 5,980 wounded 700 missing (9,000 total) 3,000 dead 14,000 wounded 21,000 captured 82,000 surrendered... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... The Bavarian Military Merit Order (Militär-Verdienstorden) was established on July 19, 1866 by King Ludwig II of Bavaria. ... The Military Order of Max Joseph (German: Militär-Max-Joseph-Orden) was the highest purely military order of the Kingdom of Bavaria. ...


In the post-war years, Prince Leopold spent most of his time travelling, visiting Africa, Asia and countries of Europe. He was married on April 20, 1873 at Vienna to Archduchess Gisela of Austria, daughter of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria and the Empress Elisabeth. He remained in the Bavarian army and was finally promoted to the rank of field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) on January 1, 1905.[3] He retired from active duty in 1913. is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Categories: 1856 births | 1932 deaths | Non-ruling Austrian royalty | Habsburg | Habsburg-Lorraine ... Franz Joseph I Franz Joseph I (in English also Francis Joseph) ( August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916. ... Elisabeth in a riding habit, from Vanity Fair, 1884. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ...


Prince Leopold's retirement, however, did not last long. On April 16, 1915, he was re-activated and given command of the German 9th Army, replacing General August von Mackensen. Leopold quickly proved himself an able commander as he took Warsaw on 4 August 1915. Following this success, he was put in command of Army Group Prince Leopold of Bavaria (Heeresgruppe Prinz Leopold von Bayern), which was a combined German/Austro-Hungarian force in the central sector of the Eastern Front. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Military Order of Max Joseph on August 5, 1915, the prestigious Pour le Mérite, Prussia's highest military decoration, on August 9, 1915 and the oak leaves to the Pour le Mérite on July 25, 1917. On August 29, 1916, after the brutal summer campaigns succeeded in reversing the Brusilov Offensive against the Austrians, Leopold became the Supreme Commander of the German forces on the Eastern front (Oberbefehlshaber Ost), succeeding Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg. Leopold held this post for the rest of the war. On March 4, 1918, Leopold received yet another high honor, the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross, awarded only five times during World War I. is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Field Marshal August von Mackensen August von Mackensen (December 6, 1849–November 8, 1945), was a German Field Marshal, born August Mackensen in Haus Leipnitz, in the Prussian province of Saxony, to Louis and Marie Louise Mackensen. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Military Order of Max Joseph (German: Militär-Max-Joseph-Orden) was the highest purely military order of the Kingdom of Bavaria. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Order Pour le Mérite, known informally as the Blue Max (German: Blauer Max), was Prussias highest military order until the end of World War I. The award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with eagles between the arms, the Prussian royal cypher, and the French legend Pour... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Russian Empire Austria-Hungary German Empire Commanders Aleksei Brusilov Conrad von Hötzendorf Alexander von Linsingen Strength 40+ infantry divisions (573,000 men) 15 cavalry divisions (60,000 men) 39 infantry divisions (437,000 men) 10 Cavalry divisions (30,000 men) Casualties 500,000+ men killed or wounded 975... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was an award intended for senior Generals of the German Army and dated back to 1870. ...


Prince Leopold retired again in 1918 after the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which had ended the war on the Eastern Front. This treaty was highly favorable to Germany, and Leopold ended his career with success. He died on September 28, 1930 in Munich and is buried in the Colombarium in the Michaelskirche in Munich . The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... The Michaelskirche in Munich The High Altar The former Jesuit church of St Michael in Munich is the largest Renaissance church north of the Alps. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


Family

Prince Leopold and his wife Gisela had four children:

  • Princess Elisabeth Marie of Bavaria (1874-1957), who married Otto Ludwig Philipp Graf von Seefried auf Buttenheim
  • Princess Auguste Maria of Bavaria (1875-1964), who married Archduke Joseph August of Austria
  • Prince Georg of Bavaria (1880-1943)
  • Prince Konrad of Bavaria (1883-1969)

Joseph August, Archduke of Austria HI & RH Joseph August Viktor Klemens Maria, Archduke of Austria, Prince of Hungary and Bohemia (9 August 1872-6 July 1962), son of Joseph of Austria (1833-1905) and his wife Clotilde of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1846-1927). ... Prince Georg Franz Joseph Luitpold Maria of Bavaria (born April 2, 1880 - died May 31, 1943) was a member of the Bavarian Royal House of Wittelsbach. ...

Greek succession

Due to the renunciation by his elder brother Ludwig of all his rights to the Greek succession, Leopold technically succeeded upon their father's death to the rights of the deposed Otto I, King of the Hellenes. At Leopold's death his rights were inherited by his son Georg. King Otto or Othon of Greece, (Greek: , Othon, Vasileus tis Ellados) also Prince of Bavaria (June 1, 1815 – July 26, 1867) was made the first modern king of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London, whereby Greece became a new independent kingdom under the protection of the Great Powers...


Decorations and honors

Bavaria

  • House Order of St. Hubertus
  • House Order of St. Georg, Grand Prior of the order
  • Military Order of Max Joseph, Knight's Cross (1871) and Grand Cross (1915)
  • Military Merit Order, Grand Cross with Swords
  • St. George Medal
  • Ludwig Order, Honor Cross
  • Jubilee Medal with Crown
  • 1866 Army Commemorative Cross

Prussia The Military Order of Max Joseph (German: Militär-Max-Joseph-Orden) was the highest purely military order of the Kingdom of Bavaria. ... The Bavarian Military Merit Order (Militär-Verdienstorden) was established on July 19, 1866 by King Ludwig II of Bavaria. ...

Other German states The Order of the Black Eagle The Order of the Black Eagle (German: Schwarzer-Adler-Orden) was the highest order of chivalry in Prussia. ... The Order of the Red Eagle was an order of chivalry of Prussia, awarded to recognize valor in combat or excellence in military leadership. ... The Order Pour le Mérite, known informally as the Blue Max (German: Blauer Max), was Prussias highest military order until the end of World War I. The award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with eagles between the arms, the Prussian royal cypher, and the French legend Pour... The Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was an award intended for senior Generals of the German Army and dated back to 1870. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... King Carol I of Romania, wearing the collar of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern around his neck and the pinback Honor Cross 1st Class with Swords of the Princely House Order of Hohenzollern on his lower left breast. ...

  • Anhalt: Order of Albert the Bear, Grand Cross
  • Baden: House Order of Fidelity
  • Baden: Order of Berthold the First, Grand Cross
  • Bremen: Hanseatic Cross
  • Brunswick: House Order of Henry the Lion, Grand Cross
  • Brunswick: War Merit Cross
  • Hamburg: Hanseatic Cross
  • Hesse-Darmstadt: Ludewig Order
  • Hesse-Darmstadt: Military Merit Cross 1870/71
  • Hohenzollern: Princely House Order of Hohenzollern, Honor Cross 1st Class
  • Lippe-Detmold: War Honor Cross for Heroic Deeds
  • Lippe-Detmold: War Merit Cross
  • Lübeck: Hanseatic Cross
  • Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz: House Order of the Wendish Crown, Grand Cross with Crown
  • Mecklenburg-Schwerin: 1870 Military Merit Cross
  • Saxony: Order of the Rue Crown
  • Saxony: Military Order of St. Henry, Commander 1st Class
  • Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: House Order of Vigilance or the White Falcon, Grand Cross
  • Duchies of Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Saxe-Meiningen: Ducal Saxe-Ernestine House Order, Grand Cross
  • Schaumburg-Lippe: 1870 Military Merit Medal
  • Württemberg: Order of the Württemberg Crown, Grand Cross

Other countries Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Baden was a territory in the southwest of what later became unified Germany. ... Baden was a territory in the southwest of what later became unified Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... The Hanseatic Cross (Hanseatenkreuz) was a decoration of the three Hanseatic Cities of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, who were member states of the German Empire during World War I. Each city-state established its own version of the cross, but the design and award criteria were similar for each. ... Location of the Duchy of Brunswick within the German Empire Capital Braunschweig Government Monarchy Duke  - 1813-1815 Frederick William  - 1913-1918 Ernest Augustus History  - Restoration 1815  - Abdication 1918 Area  - 1910 3,672 km² Population  - 1910 est. ... Location of the Duchy of Brunswick within the German Empire Capital Braunschweig Government Monarchy Duke  - 1813-1815 Frederick William  - 1913-1918 Ernest Augustus History  - Restoration 1815  - Abdication 1918 Area  - 1910 3,672 km² Population  - 1910 est. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... The Hanseatic Cross (Hanseatenkreuz) was a decoration of the three Hanseatic Cities of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, who were member states of the German Empire during World War I. Each city-state established its own version of the cross, but the design and award criteria were similar for each. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... The Ludewigsorden (English:Order of Louis), was an order of the Grand Duchy of Hesse which was awarded to meritorious soldiers and civilians from 1807 to 1918. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... King Carol I of Romania, wearing the collar of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern around his neck and the pinback Honor Cross 1st Class with Swords of the Princely House Order of Hohenzollern on his lower left breast. ... Small German country of the 1800s, eventually absorbed by Prussia in its quest for German Unification. ... Small German country of the 1800s, eventually absorbed by Prussia in its quest for German Unification. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... The Hanseatic Cross (Hanseatenkreuz) was a decoration of the three Hanseatic Cities of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, who were member states of the German Empire during World War I. Each city-state established its own version of the cross, but the design and award criteria were similar for each. ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy in northern Germany, roughly consisting of the present day district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (the historical Stargarder Land), bordering areas of modern-day Brandenburg with the town of Fürstenberg and the area around Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... The Military Merit Cross (Militärverdienstkreuz) was established by Friedrich Franz II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin on August 5, 1848. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... The Military Order of St. ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) was once the name given to the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present states of Bavaria and Thuringia, which were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Schaumburg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Coat of Arms of the (formerly royal) Württemberg family, on a gate of the familys current residence, Schloss Altshausen in Altshausen, Germany // Counts of Württemberg Conrad I 1089-1122 Conrad II 1100-1130 John d. ...

The orders above which were from Allied nations were awarded prior to World War I.[4] Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The founder, Philip the Good , with at least six other Members wearing collars, 1447-8 Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, with the collar of the Order The Order of the Golden Fleece (Spanish: Orden del Toisón de Oro) is an order of chivalry founded in 1430 by Duke Philip... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Military Merit Cross (German: Militärverdienstkreuz) was a decoration of the Empire of Austria and, after the establishment of the Dual Monarchy in 1867, the Empire of Austria-Hungary. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Military Merit Medal (in German Militär-Verdienstmedaille, in Hungarian Katonai Érdemérem) was a military decoration of the Empire of Austria-Hungary. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Portrait of Philip Count of Flanders as Grand Cordon wearing the badge and the star of the order. ... Queen Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... The Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation () was the primary dynastic order of the Kingdom of Italy, which ceased to be a national order when the kingdom became a republic in 1946. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Ottoman redirects here. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword, of Valour, Loyalty and Merit is a Portuguese order of knighthood, and was created by King Afonso V in 1459. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Further reading

  • Leopold Prinz von Bayern 1846-1930: aus den Lebenserinnerungen, edited by Hans-Michael Körner and Ingrid Körner. Regensburg: F. Pustet, 1983.
  • Wolbe, Eugen. Generalfeldmarschall Prinz Leopold von Bayern: ein Lebensbild. Leipzig: R.F. Koehler, 1920.

Notes

  1. ^ Bavarian War Ministry, Militär-Handbuch des Königreichs Bayern, 1914
  2. ^ Bavarian War Ministry, Militär-Handbuch des Königreichs Bayern, 1914
  3. ^ Bavarian War Ministry, Militär-Handbuch des Königreichs Bayern, 1914
  4. ^ Decorations as of 1914 from the Bavarian War Ministry, Militär-Handbuch des Königreichs Bayern, 1914. World War I decorations from award rolls, Erhard Roth, Verleihungen von militärischen Orden und Ehrenzeichen des Königreichs Bayern im Ersten Weltkrieg, 1997 (ISBN 3-932543-19-X), and Ferry W. von Péter, Verleihungen nichtbayerischer Orden und Ehrenzeichen an bayerischer Militärangehörige 1914-1918, 2001 (ISBN 3-932543-25-0)

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