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Encyclopedia > Prince Lazar
Prince Lazar, Photo courtesy of freesrpska.org
Prince Lazar, Photo courtesy of freesrpska.org

Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović (Cyrillic Кнез Лазар Хребељановић) (1329June 15, 1389), also known as "Tsar Lazar", was a Serbian noble who fought and perished at the Battle of Kosovo, to which his name and life are inextricably tied. He is a mythical figure in Serbia, and a saint of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Frescoe of Knez Lazar. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Events Antipope Nicholas V is excommunicated by Pope John XXII. Aimone of Savoy becomes Count of Savoy. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I seizes Albert, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,   listen[?]; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917 (although... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Noble is the guitarist of British Sea Power. ... Battle on Kosovo, by Adam Stefanović, oil, 1870 The Battle of Kosovo Polje was fought on St. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total (2002)     (without Kosovo)  â€“ Density  7. ... The Serbian Orthodox Church (Serbian Cyrillic: Српска православна црква; SPC, SOC) is a body of some 11 million Orthodox Christians united under the Serb Patriarch who includes Archbishop of Peć and Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci in his title. ...

Contents


Life

Lazar was born in Prilepac in 1329, the son of a minor vlastelin (noble). He was educated at Tsar Dusan's court in Prizren, where he later held the office of "stavilac". He was later promoted to knez by Dusan's successor Tsar Uros. Despite his imperial title, Uros was a weak and ineffectual leader, allowing local nobles to gain power and influence at the expense of the central authority. Tsar Stefan Uroš IV Dušan Silni (the mighty) (Цар Стефан Душан Силни) (around 1308-December 20, 1355) was a Serb king (September 8, 1331-1346) and tsar (1346-December 5, 1355). ... View of Prizren Prizren (Serbian Cyrillic Призрен; Albanian Prizreni) is an historic city located in Kosovo at 42. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Serbian: knez; Romanian: cneaz; in fem. ... Stefan Uroš was name of several Serb kings and tsars. ...


Lazar left Prizren in the early 1370s, and devoted himself to the consolidation of his power in the northern Serbian regions around his court in Krusevac. Although a pledged vassal to Uros, he refused to participate in the Battle of Marica, at which the bulk of the imperial Serbian army was destroyed by an Ottoman force. Soon afterwards, Uros, the last of the Nemanjic emperors, passed away. Through a combination of diplomacy, military action, and family alliances, Lazar emerged from the resulting power vacuum as the most powerful Serbian noble not in the Ottomans' service. He acquired dynastic legitimacy by marrying Milica Nemanjic, and despite retaining only the minor title of knez, he nevertheless used the imperial name of Stefan as well as the designation "autocrator". At the same time, he took no issue with Bosnian ban Tvrtko (whose Nemanjic lineage was in any case much stronger than Lazar's) proclaiming himself "King Stefan of Serbs and Bosnia". In this way Lazar could retain the de facto power, while ceding only a ceremonial title to Tvrtko, who never managed to revive the old Nemanjic institutions of central power. Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s 1360s - 1370s - 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s 1420s Years: 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 Events and Trends Mamai was a powerful military commander of Golden Horde, who resided in the western part of this... Kruševac (Serbian: Крушевац) is a town located in the Republic of Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro at 43. ... The Battle of Maritsa was a battle that took place at the Maritsa River on September 26, 1371 between the forces of the Ottoman sultan Murad Is lieutenant LalaÅŸahin and a coalition of Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian forces numbering 70,000 men under the command of the Serbian... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... Nemanjić (Serbian Немањић; also Nemanjid) was a medieval Serb ruling dynasty. ... Ban was a title used in some states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 9th century and the 20th century. ... Tvrtko Kotromanić (1338?-1391) was an important native ruler of medieval Bosnia who transformed the country from an autonomous banate into an independent kingdom. ...


Battle of Kosovo

Reliable historical accounts of this battle are scarce, and they've been largely displaced in the Serbian tradition by the epic poetry, which tell a grossly distorted picture of the events, such as the branding of Vuk Branković as a traitor. Vuk Branković ( - + ca. ...


The Ottomans fielded a full army, led by the Sultan Murad I and his sons. The Serbian force was composed chiefly of Lazar's army, flanked by the troops of Vuk Branković and Tvrtko (commanded by fierce duke Vlatko Vuković). In strictly military terms the battle might be termed a draw - both sides lost their leader, and withdrew amidst heavy casualties. However, the toll of the battle on Serbia was catastrophic as its entire political elite was wiped out. A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Sultan Murat I Murad I (1319 (or 1326) – 1389; nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-like one) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Portugal, Spain and France (in Italy... Vlatko Vuković (died 1392) was a Vojvode of Hum (Herzegovina). ...


Aftermath and Myth

Following Lazar's death, his widow Milica assumed control of Serbia. Lacking in military or economic strength, she pledged suzerainty to Murad's successor Bayezid. Meanwhile, she turned to internal matters, where she dealt with her few remaining political opponents. It was her propaganda campaign, via the epic poetry composed at her court, that resulted in Lazar's quick canonization, and the subsequent portrayal of Vuk Brankovic as the traitor responsible for the Serbian defeat. Beyazid I Beyazid I (ca 1354–1403; Bayezıt, nicknamed Yıldırım, the Thunderbolt) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Canonization is the process of declaring someone a saint and involves proving that a candidate has lived in such a way that he or she is worthy of sainthood. ...


In the myth, Lazar is portrayed as having been visited by an angel of God on the night before battle, and offered a choice between an earthly or a heavenly kingdom, which choice would result in a victory or defeat, respectively, at Kosovo. Lazar, naturally, opts for the heavenly kingdom, which will last "forever and ever", but has to perish on the battlefield. This is why sometimes Serbs refer to themselves as the people of heaven ("nebeski narod"). In other poems, Lazar is portrayed as holy, emanating light, and being resurrected 40 years after his death, in a clear Christ parallel. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Serbian Orthodox Church canonised Lazar as Saint Hieromartyr Lazar. He is celebrated at June 15th of the Julian calendar, which is June 28th of the Gregorian calendar. The Serbian Orthodox Church (Serbian Cyrillic: Српска православна црква; SPC, SOC) is a body of some 11 million Orthodox Christians united under the Serb Patriarch who includes Archbishop of Peć and Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci in his title. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... The Julian calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, taking force in 45 BC or 709 ab urbe condita. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Gregorian calendar is the calendar widely used in the Western world. ...


Marriage and Progeny

Lazar married Milica (Милица) ¹ in around 1353 and issued at least seven children (Cyrillic in parentheses): Events The Decameron was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio. ...

  1. Mara (Марa): died April 12, 1426, married Vuk Brankovic in around 1371
  2. Stefan Visoki (Стефан Високи) (around 1377 - July 19, 1427, buried in Resava), prince (1389-1402) and despot (1402-1427) , married in 1405 Jelena, daughter of Francesco Gattilusio (1384-1404)
  3. Vuk, prince, executed on July 6th 1410
  4. Mara or Dragana, died before July 1395, married Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman in around 1386
  5. Teodora, died before 1405, married Nikola II Gorjanski (who died 1433) (Nikola II Gorjanski jr. (Никола II Горјански Млађи), son of Nikola I Gorjanski (Никола I Горјански), ban of Mačva since 1387, ban of Croatia since 1394, Hungarian Palatin since 1401)
  6. Jelena or Jela, died March 1443, married
    1. Djuradj Stracimirovic (Ђурађ Страцимировић), one of Balsics
    2. Sandalj Hranic ² (Сандаљ Хранић) Kosace (Косаче)
  7. Olivera Despina (Оливера Деспина) died after 1444, married ³ Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I in 1390

See also: List of Serbian monarchs - History of Serbia - Milos Obilic April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Events March 6 - Battle of St. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery founded in Aldersgate, London. ... Despot Stefan Lazarevićs Coat of Arms 1415 AD Despot Stefan Lazarević (in Cyrillic: Стефан Лазаревић) (1374-1427) was the son and heir to Lazar (Cyrillic: Лазар), the Serbian prince who died at the Battle of Kosovo against the Turks in 1389, and princess Milica (Cyrillic: Милица) from the subordinate... Events January 17 – Gregory XI enters Rome. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... Events Lincoln College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Despotism is government by a singular authority, either a single person or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute power. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... Events July 15 – Lithuanian forces under the cousins Władysław Jagiełło of Poland and Witowt of Lithuania decisively defeat the forces of the Teutonic Knights, whose power is broken Jan Hus is excommunicated by the Archbishop of Prague. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,   listen[?]; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917 (although... Tsar Ivan Shishman of Bulgarian was the son of Tsar Ivan Alexander and his second wife Theodora. ... Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... Gorjanski (Hungarian: Garay) were a noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary, with notable members in the 14th and 15th centuries. ... Events Births June 23 - Francis II, Duke of Brittany Kettil Karlsson Vasa, later Regent of Sweden. ... Gorjanski (Hungarian: Garay) were a noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary, with notable members in the 14th and 15th centuries. ... Gorjanski (Hungarian: Garay) were a noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary, with notable members in the 14th and 15th centuries. ... Ban was a title used in some states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 9th century and the 20th century. ... Categories: Serbia and Montenegro geography stubs | Serbia ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... The palatine (Latin: comes palatii, comes palatinus, later: palatinus (regni), Hungarian: nádorispán/ nádor, Slovak: nádvorný župan/ nádvorný Å¡pán, later: palatín / nádvorník, German: Palatin) was the highest dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary after the king (a kind of powerful prime minister... Events The Lollards, a religious sect taught by John Wycliffe, were persecuted for their beliefs. ... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... Events March 1 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Beyazid I Beyazid I (ca 1354–1403; Bayezıt, nicknamed Yıldırım, the Thunderbolt) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Events Births December 27 - Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (died 1411) Domenico da Piacenza, Italian dancemaster (died 1470) John Dunstable, English composer (died 1453) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (died 1436) Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (died 1447) John VIII Palaeologus Byzantine Emperor (died 1448) Deaths... Coat of Arms of Serbia This is a list of Serbian monarchs. ... Coat of Arms of Serbia Sabars and their migrations The original Serbs and Croats were Central Asian Sarmatian nomads who entered Europe with the Huns in the fourth century A.D. The Sarmatian Serbs settled in a land designated as White Serbia, in what is now Saxony and Western Poland. ... According to a Serbian epic poetry, Miloš Obilić was the name of the Serbian knight who, at the Battle of Kosovo, between Serbia and the Ottoman Empire, assassinated the Ottoman sultan Murad I. On June 15th, 1389, Miloš made his way into the Ottoman camp on the pretext of being...


Footnotes

¹ Milica was a daughter of Prince Vratko (кнез Вратко), who was a great-grandson of Vukan Nemanjic. Vukan himself was the eldest son of Stefan Nemanja. Milica was first mentioned in 1395 and later became the nun Jevgenija (Јевгенија) and abbess Jefrosina (Јефросина). [Mrdjenović (1987), p.20, 75] King Stefan Nemanja Stefan Nemanja (Cyrillic Стефан Немања), Stefan I (ca 1113-February 13, 1199 or 1200) was the Grand Župan of RaÅ¡ka (Rascia), located in the central west region of the Balkans from 1166 to 1199. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ...


² Sandalj Hranic (around 1370-March 15, 1435) was a nephew of Vlatko Vuković, the aforementioned participant of the Battle of Kosovo. [Mrdjenović (1987), p.108] Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... For other uses, see number 1435. ... This article is about the domestic group. ...


³ Balkan noblewomen married to an Ottoman sultan during this era of Turkish invasion were chosen into the sultan's harem. In traditional Arab culture, the harîm حريم (cf. ...


Sources

  • Age, marriage and progeny information from The geneaology and coats of arms of Serbian dynasties and feudals (Родословне таблице и грбови српских династија и властеле); editors Aleksa Ivić (1928), Dusan Spasić, Aleksandar Plavestra and Dusan Mrdjenović (1987); Bata, Belgrade, ISBN 86-7685-007-0 (1928), ISBN 86-7335-050-6 (1987) (in Serbian language).
  • Croats and Serbs: Chapter V - History of the Serbs in the middle ages - The Dismemberment of Dusan’s empire

External link

  • Lazar's virtual grave

  Results from FactBites:
 
Prince Lazar - Definition, explanation (951 words)
Lazar was born in Prilepac in 1329, the son of a minor vlastelin (noble).
Lazar left Prizren in the early 1370s, and devoted himself to the consolidation of his power in the northern Serbian regions around his court in Krusevac.
The Serbian force was composed chiefly of Lazar's army, flanked by the troops of Vuk Brankovic and Bosnian ban Tvrtko (commanded by fierce duke Vlatko Vukovic).
The City of Prince Lazar (810 words)
The medieval city of Krusevac, capital of prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic (around 1326 -1389), an important political, commercial and economic center of the Moravic Serbia, was built in the middle of the eighth decade of the 14th century.
It was built in the period 1377/8 - 1380 in honour of the first born son of prince Lazar, Stefan, the heir to the throne.
The Monument to Prince Lazar, the founder of the city, was uncovered in 1971, within the celebration ”Six Centuries of Krusevac”.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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