FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Prince Igor
Aleksandr Borodin (1833-1887)

Prince Igor (Russian: Князь Игорь, Knyaz' Igor) is an opera in four acts with a prologue by Alexander Borodin. The libretto is an adaption by the composer of the East Slavic epic The Lay of Igor's Host. Its subject is the Russian prince Igor Svyatoslavich and his campaign in 1185 against the invading Polovtsian tribes. The work was not finished upon the composer's death in 1887, and was edited and completed by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Alexander Glazunov. It was first performed in St.Petersburg, Russia, in 1890. Igor Svyatoslavich (April 3, 1151-1202) was the prince of Novhorod-Siversky from 1180 to 1202. ... Image File history File links Aleksandr_Borodin. ... Image File history File links Aleksandr_Borodin. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Russian: , Aleksandr Porfirevič Borodin) (31 Oct. ... Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The Tale of Igors Campaign (Old East Slavic: Слово о плъку Игоревѣ, Slovo o pălku IgorevÄ›; Modern Russian: Слово о полку Игореве, Slovo o polku Igoreve) is an anonymous masterpiece of East Slavic literature written in Old East Slavic language and tentatively dated by the end of 12th century. ... Igor Svyatoslavich (April 3, 1151-1202) was the prince of Novhorod-Siversky from 1180 to 1202. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a... Portrait by Ilya Repin, 1887. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Composition history

Original Composition


After briefly considering Mey's The Tsar's Bride as a subject (later taken up in 1898 by Rimsky-Korsakov, his 9th opera), Borodin began looking for a new project for his first opera. Vladimir Stasov, critic and advisor to The Mighty Handful, suggested The Lay of Igor's Host, a 12th century epic prose poem, and sent Borodin a scenario for a 3 Act opera on April 30, 1869.[1] Initially, Borodin found the proposition intriguing, but daunting: Lev Mey (Лев Александрович Мей) (1822-1862) - a Russian poet. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Tsars Bride (Царская невеста in Cyrillic, Carskaja nevesta in transliteration) is an opera in four acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. ... Stasov is a quintessential family of Russian intelligentsia. ... The Mighty Handful (Moguchaya Kuchka / Могучая Кучка in Russian), better known as The Five in English-speaking countries, was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under... The Tale of Igors Campaign (Old East Slavic: Слово о плъку Игоревѣ, Slovo o pălku IgorevÄ›; Modern Russian: Слово о полку Игореве, Slovo o polku Igoreve) is an anonymous masterpiece of East Slavic literature written in Old East Slavic language and tentatively dated by the end of 12th century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

"Your outline is so complete that everything seems clear to me and suits me perfectly. But will I manage to carry out my own task to the end? Bah! As they say here, 'He who is afraid of the wolf doesn't go into the woods!' So I shall give it a try..."[2]

Aleksandr Borodin, reply to Stasov's proposal

After collecting material from literary sources, Borodin began composition in September of 1869 with initial versions of Yaroslavna's arioso and Konchakovna's Cavatina, and sketched the Polovtsian Dances and March of the Polovtsy. He soon began to have doubts and ceased composing. He expressed his misgivings in a letter to his wife: "There is too little drama here, and no movement... To me, opera without drama, in the strict sense, is unnatural."[3] This began a period of about four years in which he proceeded no further on Prince Igor, but began diverting materials for the opera into his other works, the Symphony No 2 in b minor (1869-76) and the collaborative opera-ballet Mlada (1872).[4] Mlada was a projected 4-act opera-ballet which was planned in 1872 as a collaborative effort between four nineteenth-century Russian composers: Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky and Borodin were each supposed to compose an act. ...


The Mlada project was soon aborted, and Borodin, like the the other members of The Mighty Handful who were involved—Cui, Mussorgsky, and Rimsky-Korsakov—thought about ways to recycle the music he contributed. Of the eight numbers he had composed for Act 4 of Mlada, those that eventually found their way into (or back into) Prince Igor included No.1 (Prologue: The opening C major chorus), No.2 (material for Yaroslavna's arioso and Igor's aria), No.3 (Prologue: The eclipse), No.4 (Act 3: The trio), and No.8 (Act 4: The closing chorus).[5] The Mighty Handful, also known as The Five in English-speaking countries (and by comparable translation of such in other languages), was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under the leadership of Mily Balakirev with the... Cui may refer to one of the following: César Cui was a Russian composer. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Моде́ст Петро́вич Му́соргский) (March 21, 1839 – March 28, 1881; sometimes spelt Modeste Moussorgsky), was an innovative Russian composer famed for his colourful...


Borodin returned to Prince Igor in 1874, inspired by the success of his comrades Rimsky-Korsakov and Mussorgsky in the staging of their historical operas The Maid of Pskov (1873) and Boris Godunov (1874). This period also marks the creation of two new characters, the deserters Skula and Yeroshka, who have much in common with the rogue monks Varlaam and Misail in Boris Godunov. The Maid of Pskov (Russian: , Pskovityanka), also known as Ivan the Terrible, is an opera in three acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. ... I regard the people as a great being, inspired by a single idea. ...


In his memoirs, Rimsky-Korsakov mentions an 1876 concert at which Borodin's "closing chorus" was performed, the first public performance of any music from Prince Igor identified by him:

"...Borodin's closing chorus ["Glory to the beautiful Sun"]..., which, in the epilogue of the opera (subsequently done away with), extolled Igor's exploits, was shifted by the author himself to the prologue of the opera, of which it now forms a part. At present this chorus extolls Igor as he starts on his expedition against the Polovtsy. The episodes of the solar eclipse, of the parting from Yaroslavna, etc., divide it into halves which fringe the entire prologue. In those days this whole middle part was non-existent, and the chorus formed one unbroken number of rather considerable dimensions."

Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Chronicle of My Musical Life, 1909

The original scenario of a choral epilogue was certainly inspired by the example of A Life for the Tsar by Glinka, to whom Prince Igor is dedicated. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Mihail Ivanovič Glinka) (June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20] - February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3]), was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian classical music. ...


Borodin's primary occupation was chemistry, but he spent much time also, to the consternation of his fellow composers, engaged in volunteer activities in support of women's causes. This gave him little time to make any headway on Prince Igor. Stasov had so little confidence in him to finish the task that in 1876 he offered his scenario to Rimsky-Korsakov.


Another performance, this time the premiere of the Polovetsian Dances in 1879, elicited this background story:

"There was no end of waiting for the orchestration of the Polovtsian Dances, and yet they had been announced and rehearsed by me with the chorus. It was high time to copy out the parts. In despair I heaped reproaches on Borodin. He, too, was none too happy. At last, giving up all hope, I offered to help him with the orchestration. Thereupon he came to my house in the evening, bringing with him the hardly touched score of the Polovtsian Dances; and the three of us — he, Anatoly Lyadov, and I — took it apart and began to score it in hot haste. To gain time, we wrote in pencil and not in ink. Thus we sat at work until late at night. The finished sheets of the score Borodin covered with liquid gelatine, to keep our pencil marks intact; and in order to have the sheets dry the sooner, he hung them out like washing on lines in my study. Thus the number was ready and passed on to the copyist. The orchestration of the closing chorus I did almost single-handed..."[6]

Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Chronicle of My Musical Life, 1909

Borodin worked on Prince Igor off and on for 18 years. His continual failure to make progress on the opera became a joke between him and Rimsky-Korsakov:

"Aleksandr Porfiryevich, have you finally transposed such-and-such a number of the opera score?"
"Yes, I have."
"Well, thank the Lord! At last!"
"I transposed it from the piano to the table."[7]

Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Chronicle of My Musical Life, 1909

Posthumous Completion and Orchestration

Title page of the published score. The text reads: "Prince Igor, opera in 4 acts with a prologue, words and music by A.P. Borodin, subject adapted from The Lay of Igor's Host."

Borodin died suddenly in 1887, leaving Prince Igor incomplete. Rimsky-Korsakov and Stasov went to Borodin's home, collected his scores, and brought them to Rimsky-Korsakov's house. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

"Glazunov and I together sorted all the manuscripts ... In the first place there was the unfinished Prince Igor. Certain numbers of the opera, such as the first chorus, the dance of the Polovtsy, Yaroslavna's Lament, the recitative and song of Vladimir Galitsky, Konchak's aria, the arias of Konchakovna and Prince Vladimir Igorevich, as well as the closing chorus, had been finished and orchestrated by the composer. Much else existed in the form of finished piano sketches; all the rest was in fragmentary rough draft only, while a good deal simply did not exist. For Acts II and III (in the camp of the Polovtsy) there was no adequate libretto —no scenario, even — there were only scattered verses and musical sketches, or finished numbers that showed no connection between them. The synopsis of these acts I knew full well from talks and discussions with Borodin, although in his projects he had been changing a great deal, striking things out and putting them back again. The smallest bulk of composed music proved to be in Act III. Glazunov and I settled the matter as follows between us: he was to fill in all the gaps in Act III and write down from memory the Overture played so often by the composer, while I was to orchestrate, finish composing, and systematize all the rest that had been left unfinished and unorchestrated by Borodin."[8]

Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Chronicle of My Musical Life, 1909

The often-repeated account that Glazunov reconstructed and orchestrated the overture from memory after hearing the composer play it at the piano is true only in part. The following statement by Glazunov himself clarifies the matter:

"The overture was composed by me roughly according to Borodin's plan. I took the themes from the corresponding numbers of the opera and was fortunate enough to find the canonic ending of the second subject among the composer's sketches. I slightly altered the fanfares for the overture ... The bass progression in the middle I found noted down on a scrap of paper, and the combination of the two themes (Igor's aria and a phrase from the trio) was also discovered among the composer's papers. A few bars at the very end were composed by me."[9]

Aleksandr Glazunov, memoir, 1891, published in the Russkaya muzikalnaya gazeta, 1896

Early performance history

St. Petersburg Premiere (First Performance)

"On October 23, 1890, Prince Igor was produced at last, rehearsed fairly well by K. A. Kuchera, as Nápravník had declined the honor of conducting Borodin's opera. Both Glazunov and I were pleased with our orchestration and additions. The cuts later introduced by the Directorate in Act 3 of the opera did it considerable harm. The unscrupulousness of the Mariinsky Theatre subsequently went to the length of omitting Act 3 altogether. Taken all in all, the opera was a success and attracted ardent admirers, particularly among the younger generation."[10] is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Lev Ivanov (1834 – 1901) was a Russian ballet dancer and choreographer. ... Eduard Frantsovitch Nápravník (24 August 1839, Býšť, Bohemia - 23 November 1916) was Czech/Russian conductor and composer. ...

Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Chronicle of My Musical Life, 1909

Moscow performances followed in 1892 with the Russian Opera Society, conducted by Iosif Pribik, and in 1898 at the Bolshoy Theatre, conducted by Ulrikh Avranek. The Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow, Russia The Bolshoi Theatre (Russian: , Bolshoy Teatr, Large Theater) is a theatre and opera company in Moscow, Russia, which gives performances of ballet and opera. ...


Original Interpreters

Role St. Petersburg 1890 Moscow 1892 Moscow 1898 Voice
Igor Ivan Melnikov Ivan Goncharov Pavel Khokhlov baritone
Yaroslavna Olga Olgina Yelena Tsvetkova Mariya Deysha-Sionitskaya soprano
Vladimir Mikhaylov Leonid Sobinov tenor
Galitsky Vlasov bass-baritone
Konchak Mikhail Koryakin Aleksandr Antonovsky Trezvinsky bass
Konchakovna Mariya Slavina Azerskaya contralto
Ovlur Uspensky tenor
Skula Fyodor Stravinsky Vasiliy Tyutyunnik bass
Yeroshka Grigoriy Ugrinovich Konstantin Mikhaylov-Stoyan tenor
Yaroslavna's nurse soprano
A Polovtsian maiden Dolina soprano

Other Notable Premieres For the Russian politician, see: Ivan Melnikov (politician). ... For Asteroid 4449 Sobinov 1987 RX3 named after Leonid Sobinov, Russian opera singer, see: Meanings of asteroid names (4001-4500) Leonid Vitalyevich Sobinov (Russian: Леони́д Вита́льевич Со́бинов, June 7 [OS May 26] 1872, Yaroslavl – October 14, 1934, Riga) was a Russian opera singer, the Peoples Artist of the RSFSR (1923). ...

Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... The National Theatre in Prague is known as the Alma Mater of Czech Opera, and as the national monument of Czech history and art. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Théâtre du Châtelet is a theatre and opera house in Paris, France. ... Portrait of Sergei Diaghilev by Valentin Serov (1904) Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Russian: / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev), also referred to as Serge, (March 31, 1872 – August 19, 1929) was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous dancers and choreographers would later arise. ... The Russian opera singer Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin () (February 13 (February 1, Old Style), 1873–April 12, 1938) was the most famous bass in the first half of the 20th century. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The present-day Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, sketched when it was new, in 1813. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the state. ... The Metropolitan Opera is located at Lincoln Center in New York, New York. ... Adamo Didur (December 24, 1874 - January 7, 1946) was a Polish bass. ...

Critical reception

"The chief appeal of Prince Igor lies in the quality of its individual numbers rather than its whole shape or ability to involve an audience in the narrative."[11]


Performance practice

One of the main considerations when performing Prince Igor is the question of whether to include Act 3, much of which was composed by Glazunov. The practice of omitting it was mentioned as early as 1909 by Rimsky-Korsakov in his memoirs.[12] Many productions leave Act 3 out because it "fails to carry conviction both musically and dramatically."[13] On the other hand, maintaining the act has certain benefits. It contains some fine pages (e.g., the "Polovetsian March"), provides an important link in the narrative (Igor's escape, Vladimir's fate), and is the origin of some of the memorable themes first heard in the overture (the trio, brass fanfares). Fortunately, the option of omitting the fine overture, also known to have been composed by Glazunov, is seldom if ever considered.


Recently, the question of the best sequence of scenes in which to perform the opera has gained some prominence. Borodin did not complete a libretto before composing the music to Prince Igor.[14] The opera has traditionally been performed in the edition made by Rimsky-Korsakov and Glazunov. It will be obvious that the positions to which they assigned the Prologue, Act 3, and Act 4 cannot be changed if the story is to make sense. However, because the events of Act 1 and Act 2 overlap and are independent of one another, Act 2 may just as well precede Act 1 without any loss of coherence. Soviet musicologists Pavel Lamm and Arnold Sokhor reported the existence of a written plan (now lost), in Borodin's hand, that specified this sequence of scenes:[15] Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ...

  1. The omen from heaven (Prologue)
  2. Imprisonment (Act 2)
  3. Galitsky's court (Act 1, Scene 1)
  4. Yaroslavna's palace (Act 1, Scene 2)
  5. Escape (Act 3)
  6. Return (Act 4)

Sokhor assessed the plan as not written later than 1883.[16] The 1993 recording of Prince Igor by Valery Gergiev with the Kirov Opera features a new edition of the score with additions commissioned from composer Yuri Faliek, adopting this hypothetical original sequence. The explanation in the notes to the recording asserts that this order better balances the musical structure of the score by alternating the acts in the Russian and Polovtsian settings with their distinctive musical atmospheres. Valery Gergiev Valery Abisalovich Gergiev, Russian: Вале́рий Абиса́лович Ге́ргиев (born 1953) is a Russian conductor and opera company director. ... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ...


Despite this justification, there is good reason for maintaining the traditional sequence. Act 2 contains most of the numbers for which the work is known and beloved today, with Igor's brooding and impassioned aria ("Oh give me freedom") at the center, flanked by Vladimir's cavatina and Konchak's aria, not to mention the rousing conclusion provided by the Polovtsian Dances. Relocating its wealth of arias and dances from the center of the work to the beginning concentrates too much of the opera's rich melodic invention towards the front of the work. The Polovetsian Dances (or Polovtsian Dances) are perhaps the best known selections from Alexander Borodins opera Prince Igor. ...


The Mariinsky Edition makes other important changes and additions to the score. Much of the material composed or orchestrated by Glazunov and Rimsky-Korsakov is retained, but extra material is based on an unpublished vocal score by Pavel Lamm with some extra linking material composed by Faliek himself who also carried out the orchestration of the newly added material. The changes include:[17] Vocal score or Piano-vocal score is a music score of an opera, or a vocal or choral composition with orchestra (like oratorio or cantata) where the vocal parts are written out in full but the accompaniment is reduced to two staves and adapted for playing on piano. ...

  • About 200 bars added to the scene in Yaroslavna's palace which make explicit Galitsky's rebellion
  • Various additions and removals from Act 3, including the restoration of a monologue for Igor composed by Borodin in 1875. A review in Gramophone highlights how the newly added monologue "helps to give a weighty focus to Act 3, otherwise a phenomenal feat of reconstruction on Glazunov's part, but somehow insubstantial".[18]
  • A different final chorus for Act 4, "Glory to the multitude of stars", a repeat of material from the Prologue. This idea is historically justified, as Borodin had originally placed this chorus at the end of the opera in the form of an epilogue [see the quote by Rimsky-Korsakov above under Composition history]. This regrettably necessitates the elimination of Borodin's subsequent chorus, "God heard our prayers".

In the West, the opera has often been given in languages other that Russian. For example, the 1960 recording under Lovro von Matacic is sung in German, the 1964 recording under Armando La Rosa Parodi is in Italian and the 1982 David Lloyd-Jones recording is in English. On the other hand, the 1990 Bernard Haitink and the 1962 Oscar Danon recordings are Western performances sung in Russian.[19] Gramophone is a glossy publication published by Haymarket devoted to classical music and particularly recordings of classical music. ... For the historical figure, see Igor Svyatoslavich. ... Lovro von Matacic (born February 14, 1899 in Sušak, died January 4, 1985 in Zagreb) was a Croatian conductor. ... David Lloyd-Jones has been a conductor for orchestral and choral concerts, BBC broadcasts and TV studio opera productions. ... ...


Roles

Russian English Voice
Игорь Святославич, князь Северский Igor Svyatoslavich, Prince of Novgorod-Seversky baritone
Ярославна, его жена во втором браке Yaroslavna, his wife by second marriage soprano
Владимир Игоревич, его сын от первого брака Vladimir Igorevich, his son from the first marriage tenor
Владимир Ярославич, князь Галицкий, брат княгини Ярославны Vladimir Yaroslavich, Prince of Galich, brother of Princess Yaroslavna bass-baritone
Кончак, половецкий хан Konchak, Polovtsian khan bass
Гзак, половецкий хан Gzak, Polovtsian khan silent role
Кончаковна, дочь хана Кончака Konchakovna, daughter of Khan Konchak contralto
Овлур, крещеный половчанин Ovlur, a Christian Polovtsian tenor
Скула, гудочник Skula, a gudok-player bass
Ерошка, гудочник Yeroshka, a gudok-player tenor
Няня Ярославны Yaroslavna's nurse soprano
Половецкая девушка A Polovtsian maiden soprano
Русские князья и княгини, бояре и боярыни, старцы, русские ратники, девушки, народ. Половецкие ханы, подруги Кончаковны, невольницы (чаги) хана Кончака, русские пленники, половецкие сторожевые Russian princes and princesses, boyars and boyarynas, elders, Russian warriors, maidens, people. Polovtsian khans, Konchakovna's girlfriends, slaves (chagi) of Khan Konchak, Russian prisoners, Polovtsian sentries chorus, silent roles

Source: 100 Опер, Издательство «Музыка», Ленинград 100oper.nm.ru Novgorod-Seversky is a historic town in the Chernigov region of Ukraine, on the bank of the Desna River, only 45 km south from the Russian border. ... Baritone (French: ; German: ; Italian: ) is most commonly the type of male voice that lies between bass and tenor. ... This article is about the singing voice part. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... The name may refer to Halych, of Galicia (Central Europe) Galich, Russia Alexander Galich, a Russian dissident bard This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A bass-baritone is a singing voice that shares certain qualities of both the baritone and the bass. ... This article is about the title. ... This article is about the voice-type. ... Gudok is an ancient Russian string musical instrument, which was played with a bow. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar, Romanian: ) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Romanian, and Russian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th century through the 17th century. ...


Note:

  • The actual given name of the historical Yaroslavna is Yefrosinya (Russian: Ефросинья, English: Euphrosina). Yaroslavna is a patronymic, meaning "daughter of Yaroslav". Konchakovna's name is similarly derived.
  • Yaroslavna's brother, Vladimir Yaroslavich, is often called "Prince Galitsky" (Russian: Князь Галицкий), leading to the misconception that he was a prince by the name of Galitsky. In fact, he was a son of Prince of Galich Yaroslav Osmomysl. Prince Galitsky is a title meaning "Prince of Galich".

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up patronymic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Yaroslav Osmomysl (Ukrainian: ) was the most famous Prince of Halych (now in Western Ukraine) from the first dynasty of its rulers, which descended from Yaroslav Is eldest son. ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ...

Synopsis

Konstantin Korovin's costume design for Igor in the production of Prince Igor at the Mariinsky Theatre, 1909

Note: As discussed above, Borodin's final decision on the order of the first two acts is unclear. The traditional grouping presented here is that of the Rimsky-Korsakov-Glazunov edition. In many productions, Act 3 is omitted. Image File history File linksMetadata Princeigor. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Princeigor. ... Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin (Russian: Константин Алексеевич Коровин) (November 23 (N.S. December 5), 1861, Moscow - September 11, 1939, Paris) was a Russian painter. ... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ...


Prologue: The cathedral square in Putyvl, an ancient Russian city. Prince Igor is about to set out on a campaign against the Polovtsians and their Khans who have previously attacked the Russian lands. The people sing his praise and that of his son, the other leaders and the army (Chorus: "Glory to the beautiful Sun"). A solar eclipse takes place to general consternation. Two soldiers Skula and Yeroshka desert feeling sure that Vladimir Yaroslavich, Prince Galitsky, will offer them work more to their liking. Although Yaroslavna, Igor's wife, takes the eclipse for a bad omen, Igor insists that honour demands that he goes to war. He leaves her to the care of her brother, Prince Galitsky, who tells of his gratitude to Igor for sheltering him after he was banished from his own home by his father and brothers. The people sing a great chorus of praise (Chorus: "Glory to the multitude of stars") as the host sets out on their campaign against the Polovtsians. Putyvl or Putivl (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ) is an ancient town in north-east Ukraine, in Sumy Oblast. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... Igor Svyatoslavich (April 3, 1151-1202) was the prince of Novhorod-Siversky from 1180 to 1202. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ...


Act 1


Scene 1 — Vladimir Galitsky's court in Putyvl. Galitsky's followers sing his praise. Skula and Yeroshka are now working as gudok-players. They entertain the followers and all sing of how Galitsky and his men abducted a young woman and how she pleaded to be allowed to return to her father without being dishonoured. The prince arrives and sings of how, if he were Prince of Putyvl, he would drink and feast all day while dispensing judgment and have the prettiest maidens with him all night (Galitsky's Song). The treasury would be spent on himself and his men while his sister would be praying in a monastery. A group of young women beg the prince to restore their abducted friend. He threatens them and drives them away, saying how she now lives in luxury in his quarters and does not have to work. The prince returns to his rooms having sent for wine for his followers. The gudok players and the prince's followers mock the women. They wonder what might happen if Jaroslavna hears of what happens, but then realise she would be helpless with all her men gone to war. They sing of how they are all drunkards and are supported by Galitsky. The men decide to go to the town square to declare Galitsky the Prince of Putyvl, leaving just the two drunk musicians behind. Gudok is an ancient Russian string musical instrument, which was played with a bow. ...


Scene 2 — A room in Yaroslavna's palace: Yaraslavna is alone worrying about why she has not heard from Igor and his companions (Yaroslavna's Arioso). She sings of her tearful nights and nightmares and reminisces about when she was happy with Igor by her side. The nurse brings in the young women who tell Yaroslavna of their abducted friend. They are reluctant at first to reveal the culprit but eventually name Galitsky and talk of how he and his drunken followers cause trouble around Putyvl. Galitsky enters and the women run away. Yaroslavna questions him as to the truth of their story and he mocks her saying she should treat him as a guest in her house. She threatens him with what Igor will do on his return, but Galitsky replies that he can seize the throne whenever he wants. Yaroslavna accuses him of repeating the betrayal that he carried out against their father, but he replies that he was only joking and asks if she has a lover now her husband is away. She threatens him with sending him back to their father. He replies that he will return the girl but will take another later and leaves. The council of boyars arrive to inform Yaroslavna that the Polovtsians under Khan Gzak are about to attack Putyvl. Igor's army has been utterly destroyed and he has been wounded and captured with his son and brother. After a moment of faintness, Yaroslavna orders messengers sent to the city's allies, but the Boyars report that the roads are cut, some towns are in revolt and their princes will be captured. The Boyars say that they will organise the defence but Galitsky returns with his followers to demand that a new Prince be chosen. His retinue say it should be him as he is Yaroslavna's brother and Igor's brother-in-law. The boyars refuse. The argument is interrupted by the sight of flames and the sound of crying women. Some of the boyars flee; some join the battle, others guard the Princess. They call the attack God's judgment.


Act 2


Evening in the Polovtsian Camp: Polovtsian maidens sing comparing love to a flower that droops in the heat of the day and is revived ay night. They dance together (Dance of the Polovtsian Maidens). Konchakovna joins in the singing hoping that her own lover will join here soon (Konchakovna's Cavatina). The Russian prisoners arrive from their day's work and express their gratitide when fed. Their guards retire for the night leaving just Ovlur, a Christian, in charge. by Konchakovna and the maidens. Vladimir, son of Igor, sings of his hope that his love will soon join him now thta the day is fading (Vladimir's Cavatina). His love is Konchakovna. She comes and the two sing of their love and their desire to marry (Love Duet). While her father will consent to the marriage, they know that his will not. They part when they hear Ivan coming. He sings of his disgrace and torment at being captured with his followers dead (Prince Igor's Aria). Only his wife, he feels will be loyal. He hopes for the chance to regain his honour. Ovlur urges Ivan to escape and the prince agrees to think about it. Khan Konchak asks him if all is well (Konchak's Aria) and he replies that the falcon cannot live in captivity. Konchak says that as Igor did not ask for mercy he is not a prisoner but an honoured guest equal to a Khan. Igor reminds him that he too knows what it is to be a captive. Konchak offers Igor freedom if he will promise not to wage war on him again, but he refuses saying he cannot lie. Konchak regrets that they were not born to be allies. They would then have captured all of Russia. He summons the Polovtsian slaves to entertain Ivan and himself and offers Ivan his choice of them. As the slaves dance the Polovtsians sing of Konchak's glory(Polovtsian Dances).

Konstantin Korovin's costume design for Konchakovna in the production of Prince Igor at the Mariinsky Theatre, 1909

Act 3 Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin (Russian: Константин Алексеевич Коровин) (November 23 (N.S. December 5), 1861, Moscow - September 11, 1939, Paris) was a Russian painter. ... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ...


The Polovtsian camp. The Polovtsian army returns in triumph singing the praise of Khan Gzak (Polovtsian March). Konchak sings of the sack of Putyvl and other victories and confidently predicts that they will soon capture all of Russia. Igor and his son Vladimir have their worst fears confirmed by the new captives. Vladimir and the other prisoners urge Igor to escape, but he is at first reluctant, singing of his shame and saying that it is the duty of the other Russian princes to save the homeland (Igor's Monologue, Faliek edition only). Ovlur now arrives to say thay he has prepared horses for Igor and Vladimir and Igor now agrees to escape. The distressed Konchakovna comes, challenging Vladimir to show his love by either taking her with him or by staying. Igor urges his son to come, but Vladimir feels unable to leave Konchakovna who threatens to wake the camp. Eventually Igor flees alone and Konchakovna sounds the alarm. She and her father refuse to let the Polovtsians kill Vladimir. Instead Konchak orders the death of the guards and marries Vladimir to his daughter. As for Igor, Konchak thinks more of him for his escape.


Act 4


Dawn in Putyvl: Yaroslavna weeps at her spearation from Igor and the defeat of his army, blaming the very elements themselves for helping the enemy (Yaroslavna's Lament). Peasant women blame not the wind but Khan Gzak for the devastation. As Yaroslavna looks around to acknowledge the destruction, she sees two riders in the distance who turn out to be Igor and Ovlur. The two lovers sing of their joy of being reunited and of the expectation that Ivan will lead the Russians to victory against the Khan.


Unaware of the Igor's return, Skula and Yeroshka, the drunken gudok players, sing a song that mocks him. Then they notice him in the distance. After a moment of panic about what will happen to them, Skula says that they should rely on their cuning and decides on a plan that will save them. They ring the church bells to summon a crowd. Although people at first treat them with suspicion, the gudok players manage to convince the crowd that Igor has returned and the boyars that they are loyal followers of the true prince and not Galitsky. All joyously celebrate Igor's return.


Principal arias and numbers

Overture

Prologue

Chorus: "Glory to the beautiful Sun" («Солнцу красному слава!»)
Chorus: "Glory to the multitude of stars" («Частым звёздочкам слава!»)

Act 1

Galitsky's Song: "If only I had the honor" («Только б мне дождаться чести»)
Yaroslavna's Arioso: "A long time has passed" («Немало времени прошло с тех пор»)

Act 2

Dance: "Dance of the Polovtsian Maidens" («Пляска половецких девушек»)
Konchakovna's Cavatina: "The light of day fades" («Меркнет свет дневной»)
Vladimir's Cavatina: "Slowly the day died away" («Медленно день угасал»)
Love Duet: "Is that you, my Vladimir?" («Ты ли, Владимир мой?»)
Igor's Aria: "No sleep, no rest for my tormented soul" («Ни сна, ни отдыха измученной душе»)
Konchak's Aria: "Are you well, Prince?" («Здоров ли, князь?»)
Polovtsian Dances: "Fly away on the wings of the wind" («Улетай на крыльях ветра»)

Act 3

March: "Polovtsian March" («Половецкий марш»)

Act 4

Yaroslavna's Lament: "Oh, I weep" («Ах, плачу я»)
Chorus: "God heard our prayers" («Знать, господь мольбы услышал»)

Both the Overture to Prince Igor and the "Polovtsian Dances" (from Act II) are well-known concert standards. Together with the "Polovtsian March", they form the so-called "suite" from the opera. The Polovetsian Dances (or Polovtsian Dances) are perhaps the best known selections from Alexander Borodins opera Prince Igor. ... In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ...


Structure

This is a sortable table. Click on the button next to the criterion you would like to use to sort the information.


Note: The dates refer to composition, not orchestration. Where a pair of dates differ, a small gap usually indicates a starting and ending range. On the other hand, a large gap (more than one year) indicates an interruption of composition or a revision of the musical number.

No. Act Number Composer Orchestrator Year Year
Overture Glazunov Glazunov 1887 1887
1 Prologue Borodin Borodin* 1876 1885
2 Act 1, Scene 1 Scene: Galitsky's Court Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov 1875 1879
3 Act 1, Scene 2 Arioso: Yaroslavna Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov 1869 1875
4 Act 1, Scene 2 Scena: Yaroslavna, Nurse, Chorus Borodin Borodin 1879 1879
5 Act 1, Scene 2 Scena: Yaroslavna, Galitsky Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov 1879 1879
6 Act 1, Scene 2 Finale: Yaroslavna, Galitsky, Chorus Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov 1879 1880
7 Act 2 Chorus of Polovtsian Maidens Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov n.a. n.a.
8 Act 2 Dance of Polovtsian Maidens Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov n.a. n.a.
9 Act 2 Cavatina: Konchakovna Borodin Borodin 1869 1869
10 Act 2 Scena: Konchakovna, Chorus Rimsky-Korsakov / Glazunov Rimsky-Korsakov / Glazunov 1887 1887
11 Act 2 Recitative and Cavatina: Vladimir Borodin Borodin 1877 1878
12 Act 2 Duet: Vladimir, Konchakovna Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov 1877 1878
13 Act 2 Aria: Igor Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov 1881 1881
14 Act 2 Scena: Igor, Ovlur Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov n.a. n.a.
15 Act 2 Aria: Konchak Borodin Borodin 1874 1875
16 Act 2 Recitative: Igor, Konchak Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov n.a. n.a.
17 Act 2 Polovtsian Dances with Chorus Borodin Borodin / Rimsky-Korsakov / Lyadov 1869 1875
18 Act 3 Polovtsian March Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov 1869 1875
19 Act 3 Song: Konchak Glazunov Glazunov n.a. n.a.
20 Act 3 Recitative and Scena Borodin Glazunov n.a. n.a.
22 Act 3 Recitative: Ovlur, Igor Glazunov Glazunov 1888 1888
23 Act 3 Trio: Igor, Vladimir, Konchakovna Borodin / Glazunov Glazunov n.a. 1888
24 Act 3 Finale: Konchakovna, Konchak, Chorus Borodin / Glazunov Glazunov 1884 n.a.
25 Act 4 Lament: Yaroslavna Borodin Borodin 1875 1875
26 Act 4 Peasant's Chorus Borodin Borodin 1879 1879
27 Act 4 Recitative and Duet: Yaroslavna, Igor Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov 1876 1876
28 Act 4 Gudok-Players' Song, Scena and Chorus Borodin Rimsky-Korsakov n.a. n.a.
29 Act 4 Finale: Skula, Yeroshka, Chorus Borodin Borodin n.a. n.a.

Source: Album notes to the 1993 Kirov Opera recording, Philips CD 442-537-2. Information compiled by musicologist Marina Malkiel.


Discography

This is a list of studio recordings. A comprehensive list of all recordings of Prince Igor may be found here.


Audio

  • 1952, Aleksandr Melik-Pashayev (conductor), Bolshoy Theatre, Andrey Ivanov (Igor), Yelena Smolenskaya (Yaroslavna), Sergey Lemeshev (Vladimir), Aleksandr Pirogov (Galitsky), Mark Reyzen (Konchak), Vera Borisenko (Konchakovna)
  • 1955, Oskar Danon (conductor), Belgrade National Opera; Dushan Popovich (Igor), Valeria Heybalova (Yaroslavna), Noni Zunec (Vladimir), Zarko Cvejic (Galitsky, Konchak), Melanie Bugarinovic (Konchakovna)
  • 1966, Jerzy Semkov (conductor), National Opera Theatre of Sofia; Constantin Chekerliiski (Igor), Julia Wiener (Yaroslavna), Todor Todorov (Vladimir), Boris Christoff (Galitsky, Konchak), Reni Penkova (Konchakovna)
  • 1969, Mark Ermler (conductor), Bolshoy Theatre; Ivan Petrov (Igor), Tatyana Tugarinova (Yaroslavna), Vladimir Atlantov (Vladimir), Artur Eisen (Galitsky), Aleksandr Vedernikov (Konchak), Yelena Obraztsova (Konchakovna)
  • 1993, Valery Gergiev (conductor), Kirov Chorus and Orchestra; Mikhail Kit (Igor), Galina Gorchakova (Yaroslavna), Gegam Grigorian (Vladimir), Vladimir Ognovienko (Galitsky), Bulat Minjelkiev (Konchak), Olga Borodina (Konchakovna), Philips 442-537-2.

Notes

  1. ^ Abraham and Lloyd-Jones (1986: p.51).
  2. ^ Hofmann (date unknown: p. 12).
  3. ^ Malkiel and Barry (1994: p.16).
  4. ^ Abraham and Lloyd-Jones (1986: p. 51).
  5. ^ Abraham and Lloyd-Jones (1986: p. 67).
  6. ^ Rimsky-Korsakov (1923: p. 211)
  7. ^ Rimsky-Korsakov (1923: p. 210)
  8. ^ Rimsky-Korsakov (1923: p. 283)
  9. ^ Abraham (1939: p. 165)
  10. ^ Rimsky-Korsakov (1923: p. 309)
  11. ^ Abraham and Lloyd-Jones (1986: p.69).
  12. ^ Rimsky-Korsakov (1923: p.309).
  13. ^ Abraham and Lloyd-Jones (1986: p.70).
  14. ^ Abraham and Lloyd-Jones (1986: pg. 69).
  15. ^ Malkiel and Barry (1994: p.16).
  16. ^ Malkiel and Barry (1994: p.16)
  17. ^ Malkiel and Barry (1994: p.17).
  18. ^ " DN" review of Gergiev 1993 recording Grammophone, April 1995. p.119. Link checked 24 September 2007
  19. ^ Capon, B. Discography of Prince Igor. Link checked 22 September 2007.

is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Abraham, G. (1939) On Russian Music, London (via album notes by Richard Taruskin in "Alexander Borodin: Orchesterwerke" Deutsche Grammophon CD 435 757-2)
  • Abraham, G. and Lloyd-Jones, D. (1986) "Alexander Borodin" in Brown, D. (ed.) The New Grove: Russian Masters 1, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., pp.45-76.
  • Borodin, A. Libretto for Prince Igor.
  • Hofmann, M. Une musique d'une somptueuse beauté (album notes to the 1952 Bolshoy Theatre recording) Le Chant du Monde CD LDC 2781041/43
  • Malkiel, M. and Barry, A. (1994) Authenticity in Prince Igor:Open Questions, New Answers (introductory note to 1993 Gergiev recording) pp.13-22 of booklet, Philips CD 442-537-2.
  • Rimsky-Korsakov, N. (1923) Chronicle of My Musical Life, translated by J. A. Joffe, New York: Knopf

  Results from FactBites:
 
YouTube - Warren G & Sissel - The Rapsody - Prince Igor (339 words)
YouTube - Warren G and Sissel - The Rapsody - Prince Igor
Warren G & Sissel - The Rapsody - Prince Igor (more) (less)
Warren G & Rapsody & Sissel - prince Igor
Prince Igor (451 words)
Prince Igor is an opera in a prologue and four acts by Alexander Borodin (music and libretto).
Prince Igor, who is about to start on a campaign against the Khan Konchak of the Polovtsians, refuses to heed the warnings of his wife and his people who interpret a recent eclipse as a bad omen.
Prince of Galich (Kniaz Galitsky) bribes Skoula and Eroshka to encourage Prince Igor in his determination to depart as he himself wants to usurp Igor's place.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m