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Encyclopedia > Prince Eugene of Savoy
François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan
18 October 166324 April 1736

Prince Eugene of Savoy by Jacob van Schuppen
Place of birth Hôtel Soissons, Paris
Place of death Vienna
Allegiance Austrian Habsburgs
Battles/wars Great Turkish War
Battle of Vienna
Battle of Zenta
War of the Spanish Succession
Battle of Blenheim
Battle of Turin
Battle of Oudenarde
Battle of Malplaquet
Battle of Denain
Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18
Battle of Petrovaradin

François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan (October 18, 1663April 24, 1736), known as Prince Eugen the noble knight in Austria-Hungary, Principe Eugenio di Savoia in Italian, Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German was one of the most prominent generals to serve the Habsburgs. is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1663 (MDCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... Image File history File links Prinz-Eugen-von-Savoyen1. ... Portrait of Prince Eugene of Savoy. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The House of Austrian Habsburgs came into being after the April 21, 1521 assignment of the Austrian lands to Ferdinand I from his brother Emperor Charles V (also King Charles I of Spain) (1516 - 1556). ... The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers, then joined into a Holy League, during the second half of the 17th century. ... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... Combatants Austria Ottoman Empire Commanders Prince Eugene of Savoy Sultan Mustafa II Strength 34,000 infantry, 16,000 cavalry, 60 guns above 80,000 Casualties 500 (2) 30,000 (2) The Battle of Zenta or Battle of Senta, fought on September 11, 1697 just south of modern Serbian town of... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... Combatants England, Dutch Republic, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark Kingdom of France, Electorate of Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Prince Eugène of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[3] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 34... The Battle of Turin took place on 7 September 1706 west of the city of Turin during the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Combatants Great Britain United Provinces Holy Roman Empire France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Prince Eugene of Savoy Louis, duc de Bourgogne Duc de Vendôme Strength 105,000 100,000 Casualties 3,000 15,000 The Battle of Oudenarde (or Oudenaarde) was a key battle in the War of the... The Battle of Malplaquet was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on September 11, 1709 between France and a British–Austrian alliance (known as the Allies). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) was not an acceptable long-standing agreement for the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Austria Ottoman Empire Commanders Prince Eugene of Savoy Damad Ali † Strength cca 90,000 120,000-190,000 Casualties 5,000 10,000-30,000 The Battle of Petrovaradin was a decisive victory for Austrian forces in the war between Austria and the Ottoman Empire (1716–1718), at Petrovaradin... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1663 (MDCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ...

Contents

Early life

Eugene of Savoy was born on October 18, 1663 in Paris. He was the fifth son of Prince Eugène-Maurice of Savoy-Carignano, Comte de Soissons, grandson to Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, and Olympia Mancini, niece of the powerful Cardinal Mazarin. There were rumours that his real father was Louis XIV, as Olympia had been one of his mistresses; but chronology makes this impossible. is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1663 (MDCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Charles Emmanuel I (b. ... Portrait of Olympia Mancini by Pierre Mignard Olympia Mancini, in France Olympe Mancini (1638 — 9 October 1708) was the second of five famous Mancini sisters, nieces of Cardinal Mazarin; she was also the mother of the famous general Prince Eugene of Savoy. ... Cardinal Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino; but best known as Cardinal Mazarin (July 14, 1602 – March 9, 1661) served as the chief minister of France from 1642, until his death. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ...


His mother's sister Laura Mancini was the mother of Vendôme, one of his great opponents. Another cousin was Louis, Margrave of Baden-Baden, whose mother was a sister of Eugene's father. Another sister of Mazarin's was the mother of Laura Martinozzi, the Duchess of Modena, whose daughter Mary Beatrice d'Este, was the queen consort of James II & VII of England and Scotland. Laura Mancini (1636 - February 8, 1657), also known as Victoire, was the oldest of the five Mancini sisters, nieces of cardinal Mazarin. ... Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Duc de Vendôme on campaign, 1706. ... Louis of Baden , 1655–1707, margrave of Baden (1677–1707), military commander in the service of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Laura Martinozzi (May 27, 1639 in Fano-July 19, 1687 in Rome) was one of the Mazarinettes - the seven nieces Cardinal Mazarin brought to France from Italy so that he might arrange advantageous marriages for them. ... Civil ensign of the Duchy of Modena, 1830-1859. ... Beatrice dEste was an Italian noblewomanwho was honored for her writing and supported writers and artists ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ...


Eugene had an unstable childhood due to his father's death when he was ten and his mother's banishment from France in the aftermath of the Poison affair when he was seventeen. This instability perhaps contributed to the development of his cosmopolitan character, exemplified by his signature: Eugenio von Savoy, which includes three languages ("Eugenio" in Italian, "von" in German, "Savoy" in French) (Spini). Poison affair was a murder scandal in France during the reign of the king Louis XIV. It began a period of hysterical pursuit of murder suspects during which number of prominent people were implicated and sentenced for poisoning and witchcraft. ...


Originally destined for the Roman Catholic Church, Eugene was known at court as the petit abbé (English: the little abbot or priest), but personally he preferred the army. His repeated applications for a commission were refused by Louis XIV, possibly due to Eugene's slight build and his mother's disgrace. Catholic Church redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Whatever the reason, Eugene left France in disgust with a personal hatred for Louis XIV. His destination was Austria, where his older brother Louis-Jules already served as colonel of a dragoon regiment. There was need for soldiers in Austria because the Ottoman Turks were besieging Vienna itself. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


Before he could reach Austria his brother was killed in battle with the Turks, so Eugene now hoped to take over the regiment after his brother. When Eugene reached Emperor Leopold I in Passau the regiment already had a new commander, but the emperor gave Eugene a commission in a cavalry regiment. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... In military organizations, a commissioned officer is a member of the service who derives authority directly from a sovereign power, and as such holds a commission from that power. ...


Turkish Wars

Eugene took part in the Relief of Vienna in 1683, after which he got his own Dragoon regiment. // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... For other uses, see Dragoon (disambiguation). ...


In the 1686 capture of Buda, Eugene was wounded, but continued to serve until the siege of Belgrade in 1688 where he was more seriously wounded. After that he returned to Vienna. Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ...


War of the Grand Alliance

The capture of Belgrade was the end of the Austrian offensive against the Turks. The army was needed to resist the ambitions of Louis XIV. So Eugene went with the army to Italy to cooperate with his relative, the Duke of Savoy. When the Duke of Savoy defected from the coalition, further war in Italy was abandoned and Eugene returned to Vienna.


Battle of Zenta

When Eugene came back from Italy in 1697 he received command of the army in Hungary. Since the capture of Belgrade the Turks had rebounded and recaptured it in 1690.


It was his first independent command and it turned out to be a good decision, as Eugene, after some skillful maneuvers, surprised the Ottomans at the Battle of Zenta near Senta (today Serbia). The victory was one of the most complete and important ever won by Austria, leading to the Treaty of Karlowitz in Karlovci (today Serbia) in 1699. The peace that followed would be a short one, as the Spanish king Charles II lay dying and the succession had not been settled. Combatants Austria Ottoman Empire Commanders Prince Eugene of Savoy Sultan Mustafa II Strength 34,000 infantry, 16,000 cavalry, 60 guns above 80,000 Casualties 500 (2) 30,000 (2) The Battle of Zenta or Battle of Senta, fought on September 11, 1697 just south of modern Serbian town of... Senta, City Hall The tower of the City Hall The bridge across Tisa River in Senta Senta (Serbian: Сента or Senta, Hungarian: Zenta, Romanian: Zenta, German: Senta) is a town and municipality on the bank of the Tisa river in the Vojvodina province, Serbia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed in 1699 in Sremski Karlovci (a city in modern-day Serbia and Montenegro) (German: Karlowitz, Turkish:Karlofça), concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman side was defeated. ... Sremski Karlovci (Serbian: Sremski Karlovci or Сремски Карловци, German: Karlowitz or Carlowitz, Croatian: Srijemski Karlovci, Hungarian: Karlóca, Turkish: Karlofça) is a town and municipality in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia and Montenegro, situated on the bank of the river Danube, between Belgrade and Novi Sad. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Charles II of Spain (Carlos Segundo) (November 6, 1661, Madrid - November 1, 1700, Madrid) was King of Spain, Naples, Sicily, nearly all of Italy (except Piedmont, the Papal States and Venice), and Spains overseas Empire, stretching from Mexico to the Philippines. ...


War of the Spanish Succession

In the opening shots of that war, Eugene defeated French armies in northern Italy. As the area of French offensive action moved north, and as the war spread to include other nations such as England, Eugene joined forces for the first time with his English counterpart, the Duke of Marlborough. Together they defeated the French in Bavaria at the Battle of Blenheim (1704). For the next three years he was engaged in fighting in northern Italy and Provence, where he suffered defeats in Cassano, but finally he defeated French armies in the decisive battle of Turin (1706), after which Louis XIV had to withdraw all French forces from Italy. Eugene attacked French Toulon on 1707, but the siege was unsuccessful. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Combatants England, Dutch Republic, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark Kingdom of France, Electorate of Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Prince Eugène of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[3] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 34... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... Combatants France Austria Prussia Commanders Louis Joseph, duc de Vendôme Eugene of Savoy Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau Strength 30,000 29,000 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Cassano, fought on August 16, 1705, was a hard fought battle in the Italian theatre of the War of... The Battle of Turin took place on 7 September 1706 west of the city of Turin during the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and...


Eugene then moved north to Flanders, where he joined up with Marlborough to win the battles of Oudenarde and Malplaquet. During 1711, following the death of the Emperor Joseph, Eugene's army was withdrawn from Flanders to the Rhine to counter an attempt by the Elector of Bavaria to invade southern Germany. Britain signed the Treaty of Utrecht with France in 1713 which left Austria and Eugene to face France alone. After one more year of fighting, Austria signed a favourable peace with France, in 1714. Combatants Great Britain United Provinces Holy Roman Empire France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Prince Eugene of Savoy Louis, duc de Bourgogne Duc de Vendôme Strength 105,000 100,000 Casualties 3,000 15,000 The Battle of Oudenarde (or Oudenaarde) was a key battle in the War of the... The Battle of Malplaquet was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on September 11, 1709 between France and a British–Austrian alliance (known as the Allies). ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ...


Later life

Also in 1714, Eugene began construction of the Belvedere, a baroque palace in the 3rd district of Vienna. Construction of various parts of the palace complex continued until 1723. Eugene never married, something that was highly unusual at the time; there is in fact not a single recorded relationship of any kind. He may very well have lived in celibacy his entire life. Upper Belvedere Lower Belvedere View of the gardens seen from the Upper Belvedere, painted by Canaletto in 1758 Upper Belvedere The Belvedere is a baroque palace complex built by Prince Eugene of Savoy in the 3rd district of Vienna, south-east of the city centre. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ...

Monument to Prince Eugen at the Heldenplatz in Vienna.

One of the new Austrian possessions after the War of the Spanish Succession was the former Spanish, now Austrian Netherlands. Eugene was made governor of this area, then later became vicar of the Austrian lands in Italy. Just two years after the end of the war against France, Eugene led the Austrian armies during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18. With the Victories of Peterwardein Hungary was cleared of Ottoman forces and the stronghold of Belgrade was captured by Eugene August 22, 1717, attacking them unexpectedly over a pontoon bridge near the village of Semlin. This victory is remembered in the traditional song "Prinz Eugen, der edle Ritter (Prince Eugene, the noble knight)". The Battle of Belgrade led to the Treaty of Passarowitz, which temporarily added northern Serbia and the Bosnian bank of the Sava river to the Austrian crown, and ended the Turkish threats to Vienna once and for all. Late in his life, Eugene engaged in one last war, the War of the Polish Succession. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (900x600, 130 KB) Monument to Prince Eugene of Savoy on horseback. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (900x600, 130 KB) Monument to Prince Eugene of Savoy on horseback. ... Heldenplatz in Vienna The Heldenplatz (Heroes Square) is a historical plaza in Vienna, where in 1938, Adolf Hitler announced the Anschluss of Austria to the German Reich. ... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... The Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands ruled the Seventeen Provinces, after 1581 only the Southern Netherlands as a representative of the Duke of Burgundy (until 1555), the King of Spain (1555-1706) or the Archduke of Austria (1716-1794), all from the house of Habsburg. ... The Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) was not an acceptable long-standing agreement for the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Austria Ottoman Empire Commanders Prince Eugene of Savoy Damad Ali † Strength cca 90,000 120,000-190,000 Casualties 5,000 10,000-30,000 The Battle of Petrovaradin was a decisive victory for Austrian forces in the war between Austria and the Ottoman Empire (1716–1718), at Petrovaradin... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... Semlin may either be: Zemun, a town in Serbia whose English name is Semlin. ... The Treaty of Passarowitz was the peace treaty signed in Požarevac, Serbia (German: Passarowitz, Turkish Pasarofça, Hungarian: Pozsarevác) on July 21, 1718 between the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria and the Republic of Venice on the other. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... The War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738) was a European war and a Polish civil war, with considerable interference from other countries, to determine the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland, as well as an attempt by the Bourbon powers to check the power of Austria in western...


Eugene died in Vienna in 1736, in his sleep, after a night of playing cards with his old friend, the Countess Batthyany. A legend maintains that a lion in his palace zoo died the same night. Eugene is buried in a chapel of honor in St. Stephen's Cathedral but his heart lies in the Basilica of Superga in Turin. The term card has many different meanings. ... For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... The Basilica of Superga is a church in the vicinity of Turin. ...


Legacy

At his death, Eugene was one of the wealthiest men in Europe. His fortune passed to his niece, Princess Victoria of Savoy-Carignan, whom he had never met. She sold his extensive library to the Austrian emperor, and it formed the core of what is today the Austrian National Library. Princess Anna Victoria of Savoy-Carignan (1680-1763) was the daughter of Prince Louis Thomas of Savoy-Carignan, Duc de Soisson, and Urania de la Cropte, Duchess de Soisson. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a country to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country. ...


In a tribute to his military skill he was named by Napoleon as one of the seven generals whose campaigns were worthy of study. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


The World War I British monitor HMS Prince Eugene, Austro-Hungarian battleship Prinz Eugen, and the World War II German 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen, heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen and Italian light cruiser Eugenio di Savoia were named after Eugene of Savoy, whose name has thus been given to warships of four different navies--variously on opposite sides in both World War I and World War II. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A monitor was a special form of warship, little more than a self-propelled floating artillery platform that could move close inshore and give its support to military operations on land. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... SMS Prinz Eugen was an Austro-Hungarian dreadnought battleship. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Freiwilligen-Gebirgs-Division SS-Freiwilligen-Division Prinz Eugen SS-Freiwilligen-Gebirgs-Division Prinz Eugen 7. ... The German heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen fought as part of the German Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was named after Prince Eugene of Savoy (Prinz Eugen in German). ... Eugenio di Savoia was a Condottieri class light cruiser, which served in the Regia Marina during World War II. She survived the war but was given as a war reparation to the Hellenic Navy in 1947. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Lernet-Holenia on Eugene

The Encyclopaedia Britannica article on Prince Eugene of Savoy contains the following:

Even as he faced a world of foes before him, he had a world of enemies at his back, nourished by the "hereditary curse" of Austria: slothful souls and thoughtless minds, low intrigue, envy, jealousy, foolishness, and dishonesty. He served three emperors: Leopold I, Joseph I, and Charles VI. Toward the end of his life, Eugene observed that, whereas the first had been a father to him and the second a brother, the third (who was perhaps least worthy of so great a servant) had been a master.

The end of the article contains the initials A.L.-Ho. In the index of contributors, these initials correspond to Alexander Marie Norbert Lernet-Holenia (1897-1976), an Austrian writer, dramatist and poet. Alexander Lernet-Holenia (1897 – 1976) was an Austrian writer. ...


References

Literature

  • Military Heritage did a feature about the Muslim Turks versus Christian Nobility 1716 battle and crusade at Peterwardein, and the success of Prince Eugene of Savoy (Ludwig Heinrich Dyck, Military Heritage, August 2005, Volume 7, No. 1, pp 48 to 53, and p. 78), ISSN 1524-8666.
  • Dodge, Theodore Ayrault. Gustavus Adolphus - A History of the Art of War from its Revival After the Middle Ages to the End of the Spanish Succession War, with a Detailed Account of the Campaigns of the Great Swede, and of the Most Famous Campaigns of Turenne, Conde, Eugene and Marlborough. London: Grenhill Books, 1996. ISBN 1-85367-234-3
  • Henderson, Nicholas. Prince Eugen of Savoy. Phoenix Press. 2002. ISBN 1-84212-597-4
  • McKay, Derek. Prince Eugene of Savoy. London: Thames and Hudson. 1977. OCLC 3716509
  • Nicolle, David and Hook, Christa. The Janissaries. Botley: Osprey Publishing. 2000. ISBN 1-85532-413-X
  • Setton, Kenneth M. Venice, Austria, and the Turks in the Seventeenth Century. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society. 1991. ISBN 0-87169-192-2
  • Spini, Giorgio. "Storia dell'Eta' Moderna da Carlo V all'Illuminismo", Edizioni Einaudi, Torino, 1988. ISBN 8806049941

Military Heritage is a glossy, bi-monthly history magazine published by Sovereign Media. ... Theodore Ayrault Dodge (28 May 1842–1909) was a Union officer in the American Civil War and a military historian of both that war and of the great generals of ancient and European history. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

  1. REDIRECT Template:Commons cat

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Prince Eugene of Savoy at AllExperts (1314 words)
Eugene of Savoy was born on October 18, 1663 in Paris.
Monument to Prince Eugen at the Heldenplatz in Vienna.
Eugene is buried in a chapel of honor in the Cathedral of Saint Stephan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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