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Encyclopedia > Primoplantae
?Primoplants
Fossil range: Mesoproterozoic - Recent
Algal bloom and land plants
Algal bloom and land plants
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
subgroups

Primoplantae is a group of organisms that includes green plants (green algae and land plants), red algae, and an obscure group of single-celled algae called the glaucophytes. They derive their energy through photosynthesis using chloroplasts. They differ from other photosynthetic eukaryotes, in that they initially acquired their chloroplasts by engulfing a cyanobacterium. All other eukaryotes with chloroplasts acquired them by way of a primoplant. The Mesoproterozoic era is a geologic period that occurred between 1600 and 900 million years ago. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista An eukaryote (yoo-KAR-ee-ot) is an organism with a complex cell or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... The glaucophytes, also referred to as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a tiny group of freshwater algae. ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae (Rhodophyta, pronounced /ˈrəʊdə(ʊ)ˌfʌɪtə/, ancient greek: rhodos phytos = red plant) are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Viridiplantae are a proposed kingdom of biology under the three-domain system that includes the plants and the related phylum Chlorophyta of the kingdom Protista. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta The Green AlgaeHELL NOMedia:Example. ... In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living being. ... u fuck in ua ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta The Green AlgaeHELL NOMedia:Example. ... Divisions Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes are the most familiar... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae (Rhodophyta, pronounced /ˈrəʊdə(ʊ)ˌfʌɪtə/, ancient greek: rhodos phytos = red plant) are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... The glaucophytes, also referred to as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a tiny group of freshwater algae. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista An eukaryote (yoo-KAR-ee-ot) is an organism with a complex cell or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... Cyanobacteria (Greek: cyanos = blue) are a phylum of aquatic bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. ...

Contents

Taxonomic history

Some authors have simply referred to this group as plants or Plantae [1] [2] Since the same name has also been applied to less inclusive clades, such as Viridiplantae and embryophytes, this larger group is sometimes known as Plantae sensu lato ("plants in the broad sense"). A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Viridiplantae are a proposed kingdom of biology under the three-domain system that includes the plants and the related phylum Chlorophyta of the kingdom Protista. ... Divisions Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes are the most familiar...


Because the name Plantae is ambiguous, other names have been proposed. Primoplantae, which appeared in 2004, seems to be the first new name suggested for this group. [3]


Another name that has been applied to this node is Plastida, defined as the clade sharing "plastids of primary (direct prokaryote) origin in Magnolia virginiana Linnaeus 1753". [4] Binomial name Magnolia virginiana L. The Sweetbay magnolia, Magnolia virginiana, also called just Sweetbay, is a member of the magnolia family, Magnoliaceae. ...


Most recently, the name Archaeplastida was proposed. [5] The Archaeplastida are a major line of eukaryotes, comprising the land plants, green and red algae, and a small group called the glaucophytes. ...


Morphology

All primoplants have plastids called chloroplasts that carry out photosynthesis, derived from captured cyanobacteria. In glaucophytes, perhaps the most primitive members of the group, the chloroplast is called a cyanelle and shares several features with cyanobacteria, including a peptidoglycan cell wall, that are not retained in other primoplants. The resemblance of cyanelles to cyanobacteria supports the endosymbiotic theory. Plastids are a class of membrane-bound organelles found in plant and algal cells. ... The endosymbiotic theory, now generally accepted by biologists, concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e. ...


Primoplants vary widely in the degree of their cell organization, from isolated cells to filaments to colonies to multi-celled organisms. The earliest primoplants were unicellular, and many groups remain so today. Multicelluarity evolved separately in several groups, including red algae, ulvophyte green algae, and in the green algae that gave rise to stoneworts and land plants. The cells of most primoplants have walls, commonly but not always made of cellulose. Orders Acrosiphoniales Caulerpales Cladophorales Dasycladales Oltmansiellopsidales Trentepohliales Ulotrichales Ulvales The Ulvophyceae or Ulvophytes are class of green algae, distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology. ...


Endosymbiosis

Because the ancestral primoplant acquired its chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria, the event is known as a primary endosymbiosis. Evidence for this includes the presence of a double membrane around the chloroplasts; one membrane belonged to the bacterium, and the other to the eukaryote that captured it. Over time, many genes from the chloroplast have been transferred to the nucleus of the host cell. The presence of such genes in the nuclei of eukaryotes without chloroplasts suggests this transfer happened early in the primoplants' evolution. [6]


All other eukaryotes with chloroplasts gained them by engulfing a single-celled primoplant with its own bacterially-derived chloroplasts. The chloroplasts of euglenids and chlorarachniophytes appear to be captured green algae. Other photosynthetic eukaryotes have chloroplasts that are captured (primoplant) red algae, and include heterokont algae, cryptophytes, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates. Because these involve endosymbiosis of cells that have their own endosymbionts, the process is called secondary endosymbiosis. The chloroplasts of these eukaryotes are typically surrounded by more than two membranes, reflecting their history of multiple engulfment. The euglenids are one of the best-known groups of flagellates, commonly found in freshwater especially when rich in organic materials, with a few marine and endosymbiotic members. ... Genera Chlorarachnion Gymnochlora Lotharella Cryptochlora Chlorarachniophytes are a small group of algae occasionally found in tropical oceans. ... Typical classes Colored groups Chrysophyceae (golden algae) Synurophyceae Actinochrysophyceae (axodines) Pelagophyceae Phaeothamniophyceae Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) Raphidophyceae Eustigmatophyceae Xanthophyceae (yellow-green algae) Phaeophyceae (brown algae) Colorless groups Oomycetes (water moulds) Hypochytridiomycetes Bicosoecea Labyrinthulomycetes (slime nets) Opalinea Proteromonadea The heterokonts or stramenopiles are a major line of eukaryotes. ... Orders Class Pavlovophyceae    Pavlovales Class Prymnesiophyceae    Prymnesiales    Phaeocystales    Isochrysidales    Coccolithales The haptophytes, classed either as the Prymnesiophyta or Haptophyta, are a group of algae. ... Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagellates are a large group of flagellate protists. ...


Fossil record

Perhaps the most ancient remains of Primoplantae are microfossils from the Roper group in northern Australia. The structure of these single-celled fossils resemble that of modern green algae. These date to the Mesoproterozoic Era, about 1500 to 1300 Ma (million years ago) [7] These fossils are consistent with a molecular clock study that calculated that this clade diverged about 1500 Ma. [8] The oldest fossil that can be assigned to a specific modern group is the red alga Bangiomorpha, from 1200 Ma. [9] For other uses of the term, see Fossil (disambiguation) Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other artifacts such as footprints. ... The Mesoproterozoic era is a geologic period that occurred between 1600 and 900 million years ago. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... The molecular clock (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)) is a technique in genetics, which researchers use to date when two species diverged. ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae (Rhodophyta, pronounced /ˈrəʊdə(ʊ)ˌfʌɪtə/, ancient greek: rhodos phytos = red plant) are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ...


In the late Neoproterozoic Era, algal fossils became more numerous and diverse. Eventually, in the Paleozoic Era, plants emerged onto land, and have continued to flourish up to the present. The Neoproterozoic is the geological era from 1000 Ma to 542 Ma (million years ago). ... The Paleozoic Era is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ...


References

  1. ^ T. Cavalier-Smith (1981). "Eukaryote Kingdoms: Seven or Nine?". BioSystems 14: 461-481.
  2. ^ Bhattacharya, Debashish; Yoon, Hwan Su; Hackett, Jeremiah (2003). "Photosynthetic eukaryotes unite: endosymbiosis connects the dots.". BioEssays 26: 50-60.
  3. ^ Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Soltis, Douglas E.; & Chase, Mark W. (2004). "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view". American Journal of Botany 91: 1437-1445.
  4. ^ Simpson, A.G.B. (2004). "{{{title}}}". First International Phylogenetic Nomenclature Meeting. Paris, July 6-9, 2004..
  5. ^ Sina M. Adl et al (2005). "The New Higher Level Classification of Eukaryotes with Emphasis on the Taxonomy of Protists". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52 (5): 399. DOI:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x.
  6. ^ Andersson, Jan O., & Roger, Andrew J. (2002). "A cyanobacterial gene in non-photosynthetic protists--An early chloroplast acquisition in eukaryotes?". Current Biology 12: 115-119..
  7. ^ Javaux, Emmanuelle J, Knoll, Andrew H, & Walter, Malcolm R. (2004). "TEM evidence for eukaryotic diversity in mid-Proterozoic oceans". Geobiology 2: 121-132.
  8. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su; Hackett, Jeremiah D., Ciniglia, Claudia; Pinto, Gabriele; & Bhattacharya, Debashish} (2004). "A molecular timeline for the origin of photosynthetic eukaryotes.". Molecular Biology & Evolution 21 (5): 809-818.
  9. ^ Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2000). "Bangiomorpha pubescens n. gen., n. sp.: implications for the evolution of sex, multicellularity, and the Mesoproterozoic/Neoproterozoic radiation of eukaryotes.". Paleobiology 26 (3): 386–404.

 
 

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