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Encyclopedia > Prime Minister of Japan
Japan

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Politics and government of
Japan
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Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan
Kantei, Official residence of PM

The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin?) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the Diet from among its members, and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office. The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet and appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State. The incumbent PM is Yasuo Fukuda. 1 The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Government and politics. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... The following is a traditional list of Emperors of Japan. ... For Prince Komatsu, see Prince Komatsu Akihito. ... Imperial Household Agency building on the grounds of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo The Imperial Household Agency ) is a government agency of Japan in charge of the state matters concerning Japans imperial family and also keeping the Privy Seal and the State Seal. ... This is a historical list of individuals who have served as Prime Minister of Japan. ... Yasuo Fukuda , born July 16, 1936) is a Japanese politician. ... The Cabinet ) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ... The most influential part of the executive of the Japanese government are the ministries. ... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... The House of Councillors ) is the upper house of the Diet of Japan. ... The House of Representatives ) is the lower house of the Diet of Japan. ... In the judicial system of Japan, the postwar constitution guarantees that all judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be bound only by this constitution and the Laws (Article 76). ... The Japanese political system has three types of elections: general elections to the House of Representatives held every four years (unless the lower house is dissolved earlier), elections to the House of Councillors held every three years to choose one-half of its members, and local elections held every four... Japan held a nationwide election to the House of Representatives, the more powerful lower house of the National Diet, on February 18, 1990. ... Japan held a nationwide election to the House of Representatives, the more powerful lower house of the National Diet, on July 18, 1993. ... A general election took place in Japan on October 20, 1996. ... Elections to the Shugi-In (House of Representatives) of the Japanese Diet were held on 25 June 2000. ... Incumbent Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi A general election took place in Japan on November 9, 2003. ... Elections to the House of Councillors, the upper house of the legislature of Japan, were held on July 11, 2004. ... For a breakdown of the results by block district with maps, see Results of Japan general election, 2005 Japan held a nationwide election to the House of Representatives, the more powerful lower house of the National Diet, on 11 September 2005, about two years before the end of the term... Elections to the House of Councillors, the upper house of the legislature of Japan, were held on July 29, 2007. ... Political parties in Japan lists political parties in Japan. ... This section needs to be updated. ... The Democratic Party of Japan ) is a liberal party in Japan. ... The New Komeito ), New Komeito Party , or NKP is a political party in Japan founded by Daisaku Ikeda, leader of the Buddhist organization Soka Gakkai. ... The Japanese Communist Party or Japan Communist Party (JCP) (in Japanese 日本共産党, Nihon Kyōsan-tō) is a political party in Japan. ... The Social Democratic Party (社会民主党 Shakai Minshu-tō, often abbreviated to 社民党 Shamin-tō; also abbreviated as SDP in English) is a political party of Japan. ... } While Japans political mainstream can be described as a one and a half party system, with the LDP being the dominant force, there is room for political extremism to the left and the right. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... Monetary policy pertains to the regulation, availability, and cost of credit, while fiscal policy deals with government expenditures, taxes, and debt. ... The primary responsibility for the Japanese foreign policy, as determined by the 1947 constitution, is exercised by the cabinet and subject to the overall supervision of the National Diet. ... Since the surrender after World War II and the return to the international community by the Treaty of San Francisco, Japanese diplomatic policy have been based on close partnership with the United States and the emphasis on the international cooperation such as the United Nations. ... Japan is a liberal democracy. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 617 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Copyrighted by っ Also CC-by-2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 617 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Copyrighted by っ Also CC-by-2. ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... The House of Representatives ) is the lower house of the Diet of Japan. ... The Cabinet(内閣, Naikaku) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ... Minister of State is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system. ... Yasuo Fukuda , born July 16, 1936) is a Japanese politician. ...


The office was created in 1885, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution. It took its current form with the adoption of the current constitution in 1947. Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ... The Constitution of Japan ) has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1946. ...

Contents

Appointment

The Prime Minister is designated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals, then a joint committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common candidate. Ultimately, however, if the two houses do not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the Diet. Therefore, the House of Representatives can theoretically ensure the appointment of any Prime Minister it wishes. The candidate is then formally appointed to office by the Emperor. The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... An example of runoff voting. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ...


The Prime Minister must resign if the House of Representatives adopts a motion of no confidence or defeats a vote of confidence, unless the House of Representatives is dissolved within ten days. The Prime Minister must also resign after every general election to the House of Representatives, even if his party or coalition has won a majority in the house. A Motion of No Confidence, also called Motion of Non Confidence is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


The office of Prime Minister has by convention usually been occupied by the leader of the majority party in the Diet, or the leader of the majority coalition, with the exception of Tomiichi Murayama. Tomiichi Murayama Tomiichi Murayama (村山 富市 Murayama Tomiichi, born March 3, 1924) was the 81st Prime Minister of Japan from June 30, 1994 to January 11, 1996 and was replaced by Ryutaro Hashimoto. ...


Role

Under Article 5 of the Constitution, the Prime Minister exercises "control and supervision" over the entire executive branch. His countersignature is required for all laws and Cabinet orders. Unlike most other parliamentary systems, where cabinet ministers theoretically have some freedom of action (within the limits of collective responsibility), the Japanese Cabinet is little more than an extension of the Prime Minister's authority. Collective responsibility is a principle of British Cabinet Government in which the members of the Cabinet must support all Governmental decisions made in Cabinet, even if they do not privately agree with them. ...


The Prime Minister appoints all Cabinet ministers, and can dismiss them at any time. He can also permit legal action to be taken against them. He also must make reports on domestic and foreign relations to the Diet.


Under the Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954, the Prime Minister is supreme commander of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Japan Self-Defense Forces ), or JSDF, are the military forces in Japan that were established after the end of World War II. The force has not been engaged in real combat but has been engaged in some international peacekeeping operations. ...


Despite the office's power, most Prime Ministers usually do not have nearly as long a tenure as their counterparts in other countries; most do not stay in office longer than five years.


History

After the Meiji Restoration, the Daijō-kan system, which was used in the Nara period, was adopted as the Japanese government entity. Political powers of their leader, Daijō Daijin and his aids, Sadaijin and Nadaijin were ambiguous and frequently conflicted with other positions such as Sangi. In the 1880s, Itō Hirobumi, then one of Sangi, started to examine the reformation of the governmental organization. In 1882, Ito and his staff, Ito Miyoji and Saionji Kinmochi, travelled to Europe and investigated constitutions in constitutional monarchies, the British Empire and the German Empire. After his return to Japan, Ito urged the need of a Constitution and a modern governmental system and persuaded conservatives to approve his plan. The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Daijō-kan ) was the Department of State in Nara and Heian period Japan and briefly under the Meiji Constitution. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... The Daijō daijin ) or Chancellor of the Realm was the head of the Daijō-kan, or Department of State in Heian Japan and briefly under the Meiji Constitution. ... Sadaijin (左大臣), most commonly translated as Minister of the Left, was a government position in Japan in the late Nara and Heian periods. ... Naidaijin (内大臣), usually translated as Inner Minister -- also known as the Minister of the Center (中大臣) -- was a Japanese government post. ... Itō Hirobumi , 16 October 1841–26 October 1909, also called Hirofumi/Hakubun and Shunsuke in his youth) was a Japanese statesman, Resident-General of Korea, four times Prime Minister of Japan (the 1st, 5th, 7th and 10th) and genrō. Itō was assassinated by An Jung-geun, a Korean anti-Japanese... Ito Miyoji ); (7 May 1857 - 19 February 1934) was a statesman in Meiji period Japan. ... Prince Saionji Kinmochi ), (23 October 1849 –24 November 1940) was a Japanese politician, statesman and twice Prime Minister of Japan. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ...


On December 22, 1885, in the Daijō-kan order No. 69, abolition of Daijō-kan and the induction of the Prime minister (内閣総理大臣) and his cabinet were published. December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...


Official office and residence

The Office of the Prime Minister of Japan is called the Kantei. The original Kantei served from 1929 until 2002. A new building was inaugurated at this time and now serves as the new Kantei. The old Kantei was then converted to the new official residence, or Kōtei. The Kantei (官邸) is the official residence of the Prime Minister of Japan. ...


Living former Japanese Prime Ministers

Yasuhiro Nakasone (中曽根 康弘 Nakasone Yasuhiro, b. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Toshiki Kaifu Toshiki Kaifu (海部 俊樹; born Dr Adam Liew on January 2, 1931) is a Japanese politician who was the 76th and 77th Prime Minister of Japan from 1989 to 1991. ... January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Morihiro Hosokawa Morihiro Hosokawa (細川 è­·ç…• Hosokawa Morihiro, b. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Tsutomu Hata (羽田 孜 Hata Tsutomu, b. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Tomiichi Murayama Tomiichi Murayama (村山 富市 Murayama Tomiichi, born March 3, 1924) was the 81st Prime Minister of Japan from June 30, 1994 to January 11, 1996 and was replaced by Ryutaro Hashimoto. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yoshiro Mori Yoshiro Mori (森 喜朗 Mori Yoshirō, born July 14, 1937) is a Japanese politician who served as the 85th and 86th Prime Minister of Japan from April 5, 2000 to April 26, 2001. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Junichiro Koizumi , born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shinzo Abe , ; born 21 September 1954) is the current Prime Minister of Japan, elected by a special session of the National Diet on 26 September 2006. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This is a historical list of individuals who have served as Prime Minister of Japan. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Government and politics. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Prime ministers of Japan
  • Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. Official website.
  • (Japanese) List of Japanese cabinets.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Prime Minister of Japan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (537 words)
The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet and appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State.
The Prime Minister must resign if the House of Representatives adopts a motion of no confidence or defeats a vote of confidence, unless the House of Representatives is dissolved within ten days.
Theoretically, the Prime Minister is very powerful, with a role most similar to the German chancellor and even greater because of Japan's unitary form of government.
Prime Minister - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2981 words)
In parliamentary systems like the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding head of the government while the position of head of state (the King, Queen or President), who may officially be the head of the executive, is largely ceremonial.
The Prime Minister is formally the presiding minister of the Privy Council and the cabinet.
Contrary to popular and journalistic belief, most prime ministers in parliamentary systems are not appointed for a specific term of office and in effect may remain in power through a number of elections and parliaments.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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