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Encyclopedia > Prime Meridian
Location of the Prime Meridian
Image:Prime Meridian.jpg
Prime Meridian in Greenwich
A GPS receiver at the Greenwich Meridian
Laser projected from the Royal Observatory in Greenwich marking the Prime Meridian
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (today a museum)
The 24-hour clock at Greenwich

The Prime Meridian, also known as the International Meridian or Greenwich Meridian, is the meridian (line of longitude) passing through the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London — it is the meridian at which longitude is defined to be 0 degrees. The prime meridian, and the opposite 180th meridian (at 180° longitude), which the International Date Line generally follows, separate the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The Prime Meridian and the 180th meridian form a great circle which encircles the Earth like a longitudinal equator. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x835, 221 KB) Summary Location of Prime Meridian. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x835, 221 KB) Summary Location of Prime Meridian. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: A GPS receiver held over the Meridian Line at Greenwich does not read a longitude of 0. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: A GPS receiver held over the Meridian Line at Greenwich does not read a longitude of 0. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 587 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (945 × 965 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this picture of the laser at Royal Greenwich Observatory on the 5th September 2006. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 587 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (945 × 965 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this picture of the laser at Royal Greenwich Observatory on the 5th September 2006. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 638 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1329 × 1249 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 638 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1329 × 1249 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 2. ... On the earth, a meridian is a north-south line between the North Pole and the South Pole. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... Royal Observatory, Greenwich The original site of the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), which was built as a workplace for the Astronomer Royal, was on a hill in Greenwich Park in Greenwich, London, overlooking the River Thames. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... The 180th meridian is the line of longitude exactly opposite the Prime Meridian. ... “Date line” redirects here. ... The eastern hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... For the Brisbane bus routes known collectively as the Great Circle Line (598 & 599), see the following list of Brisbane Transport routes A great circle on a sphere A great circle is a circle on the surface of a sphere that has the same diameter as the sphere, dividing the...


Unlike the parallels of latitude, which are defined by the rotational axis of the Earth (the poles being 90° and the Equator, 0°), the prime meridian is arbitrary, and multiple meridians have been used through history as the prime meridians of various mapmaking systems (including four different Greenwich meridians). The Greenwich Meridian established by Sir George Airy in 1851 was agreed upon as the international standard in October 1884. At the behest of U.S. President Chester A. Arthur, 41 delegates from 25 nations met in Washington, D.C., USA, for the International Meridian Conference. France abstained when the vote was taken, and French maps continued to use the Paris Meridian for several decades. This article is about the geographical term. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... George Biddell Airy Sir George Biddell Airy FRS (July 27, 1801–January 2, 1892) was an English mathematician and astronomer, Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Prime Meridian, Greenwich The Prime Meridian is the meridian (line of longitude) passing through the Royal Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich, England; it is the meridian at which longitude is 0 degrees. ... Meridian Room (or Cassini Room) at the Paris Observatory. ...


Heading south from the North Pole, the Prime Meridian passes through the following countries: For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ...

The zero meridian used by satellite navigation systems (on the WGS84 datum) is 102.5 metres (336.3 feet) to the east of the line marked at Greenwich.[1]. WGS84 uses the zero meridian as defined by the Bureau International de l'Heure,[2] which was defined by compilation of star observations in different countries. The mean of this data caused a shift of about 100 metres east away from the Prime Meridian at Greenwich, UK.[3] The plane of this geodetic meridian passes through the centre of the Earth, unlike the plane of the astronomical meridian which contains the direction of gravity (indicated by a plumb line) which points opposite to the direction of the zenith, to which astronomical instruments are aligned. The angle between these two meridian planes at the Royal Observatory, the east-west component of vertical deflection, is 5.31″. The WGS84 datum is an average of the various continental drifts. As a result, the astronomical meridian between the vertical crosshairs of Airy's transit telescope drifts toward the east as it is carried by the European portion of the Eurasian tectonic plate, closer to the geodetic meridian, by about one centimetre per year. Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... WGS 84 is the 1984 revision of the World Geodetic System. ... The Bureau International de lHeure (BIH) or the International Time Bureau, seated at the Paris Observatory, was the international bureau responsible for combining different measurements of Universal Time. ... This article is about Greenwich in England. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with plumb line. ... In broad terms, the zenith is the direction pointing directly above a particular location (perpendicular, orthogonal). ... The vertical deflections (deflections of the plumb line, astro-geodetic deflections) are important parameters of the local gravity field. ... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


Curiously, whether by accident or design, the location of the WGS84 0° meridian is marked in Greenwich by the presence of a waste basket on the path leading more or less due east from the observatory containing the transit telescope.


The zero meridian used by the Ordnance Survey (OSGB36 datum) is about six metres to the west of the line marked at Greenwich. This was the standard meridian before 1851, and the Ordnance Survey simply continued to use it. Part of an Ordnance Survey map at 1 inch to the mile scale from 1945 Ordnance Survey (OS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government. ...


Universal Time is notionally based on the WGS84 meridian. However, the standard international time UTC can differ from the mean observed time on the meridian by up to about one second (equivalent to about 280 metres at Greenwich), because of changes in the Earth's rotation. Leap seconds are inserted periodically to keep UTC in sync with the Earth. Universal Time (UT) is a timescale based on the rotation of the Earth. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A leap second is a one-second adjustment to civil time in order to keep it close to the mean solar time. ...


The Greenwich Meridian is now marked at night by a laser beam emitted from the observatory.[1] For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ...


One degree of longitude is approximately equal to (111.320 + 0.373sin²φ)cosφ km, where φ is latitude.[4]

Contents

Other reference meridians

The meridian through Greenwich was selected as the Prime Meridian because over two-thirds of all ships and tonnage already used it as the reference meridian on their maps in 1884. Other reference meridians used previously, or advocated, include:

  • WGS84 longitude zero - 102.5 metres (336.3 feet) east of the traditional Prime Meridian
WGS84 longitudes have supplanted traditional ones. The offset at other locations can be as much as 30″ east or west.

The World Geodetic System defines a reference frame for the earth, for use in geodesy and navigation. ... For other uses, see Berne (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... RundetÃ¥rn. ... Hierro redirects here. ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Almagest is the Latin form of the Arabic name (al-kitabu-l-mijisti, i. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Greek: Ναός της Αναστάσεως, Naos tis Anastaseos; Georgian: აგდგომის ტადზარი Agdgomis Tadzari; Armenian: Surp Harutyun) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... County Bihor County Status County capital Mayor Petru Filip, Democratic Party, since 2000 Area 111. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Meridian Room (or Cassini Room) at the Paris Observatory. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Warsaw meridian The Warsaw meridian (Polish: poÅ‚udnik warszawski) is a meridian line running through Warsaw. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Washington meridian was the prime meridian of the United States which passed through Washington, D.C.. Four have been specified: the first through the Capitol, the second through the White House, the third through the old Naval Observatory, and the fourth through the new Naval Observatory. ...

Other planetary bodies

The prime meridians of the following bodies in the Solar System have been defined: This article is about the Solar System. ...

  • The prime meridian of the Moon lies directly in the middle of the face of the moon visible from Earth and passes near the crater Bruce.
  • The 20th meridian of Mercury is defined by a special small crater known as Hun Kal, which is Mayan for 20.
  • The prime meridian of Mars is defined by the crater Airy-0.

This article is about Earths moon. ... Bruce is a small lunar impact crater located in the Sinus Medii. ... This article is about the planet. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Airy-0 is a crater on Mars whose location defines the position of the prime meridian of that planet. ...

References

  1. ^ History of the Prime Meridian -Past and Present
  2. ^ European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation and IfEN: "WGS 84 Implementation Manual", page 13. 1998
  3. ^ National Maritime Museum: "The Longitude of Greenwich"
  4. ^ P. Kenneth Seidelmann, ed., Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac (Mill Valley, Cal.: University Science Books, 1992) page 700.
  5. ^ Wilcomb E. Washburn, "The Canary Islands and the Question of the Prime Meridian: The Search for Precision in the Measurement of the Earth"
  6. ^ Maimonides, Hilchot Kiddush Hachodesh 11:17, calls this point אמצע היישוב, "the middle of the habitation", i.e. the habitable hemisphere. Evidently this was a convention accepted by Arab geographers of his day.

EUROCONTROL is the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation, an international organisation whose primary objective is the development of a seamless, pan-European Air Traffic Management (ATM) system. ... The National Maritime Museum, Greenwich The National Maritime Museum (NMM) is the leading maritime museum of the United Kingdom, and one of the most important in the world. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Prime meridian - definition of Prime meridian in Encyclopedia (415 words)
The Prime Meridian is the meridian (line of longitude) passing through Royal Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich, England; it is the meridian at which the longitude is 0 degrees.
The prime meridian of Earth's moon lies directly in the middle of the face of the moon visible from earth and passes near the crater Bruce.
The prime meridian of the planet Mars is defined by the crater Airy-0.
Meridian (geography) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (235 words)
On the Earth, a meridian is an imaginary north-south line between the North Pole and the South Pole that connects all locations with a given longitude.
The position on the meridian is given by the latitude.
Considering the meridian that passes through Greenwich, England, as establishing the meaning of zero degrees of longitude, or the Prime Meridian, any other meridian is identified by the angle, referenced to the center of the earth as vertex, between where it and the prime meridian cross the equator.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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