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Encyclopedia > Primate
Primates[1]
Fossil range: Paleocene - Recent

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Eutheria
Superorder: Euarchontoglires
Order: Primates
Linnaeus, 1758
Families

A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans.[2] Primates are found all over the world. Non-human primates occur mostly in Central and South America, Africa, and southern Asia. A few species exist as far north in the Americas as southern Mexico, and as far north in Asia as northern Japan. The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ... Download high resolution version (1700x1336, 1116 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Primate Baboon The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex Olive Baboon User:Bwmodular/Sandbox Categories: Primate images ... Binomial name Papio anubis (Lesson, 1827) The Olive Baboon (Papio anubis), also called the Anubis Baboon, is a member of the family Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys). ... Subfamilies Cercopithecinae - 11 genera Colobinae - 10 genera The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... Orders[1] Magnorder Xenarthra: Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa (Sloths, True Anteaters) Magnorder Epitheria: Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Tenrecs, etc. ... Orders Glires Rodentia Lagomorpha Euarchonta Dermoptera Scandentia Primates The Euarchontoglires are a mammalian superorder based on molecular genetic research, combining the Glires clade, which consists of the Rodentia and the Lagomorpha, with that of the Euarchonta, a clade consisting of the Scandentia, the Primates and the Dermoptera. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Superfamilies and Families Cheirogaleoidea Cheirogaleidae Lemuroidea Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae Lemurs make up the infraorder Lemuriformes and are members of a class of primates known as prosimians . ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae †Proconsulidae †Dryopithecidae †Oreopithecidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, which includes humans. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Small Text For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


The order Primates was established by Linnaeus in 1758, in the tenth edition of his book Systema Naturae for the genera Homo (humans), Simia (other apes and monkeys), Lemur (prosimians) and Vespertilio (bats). In following editions, he also suggested that non-primate mammals should be called Secundates and that non-mammal animals should be called Tertiates, neither of which was accepted. In the first edition (1735), he had used the taxon Anthropomorpha for Homo, Simia and Bradypus (sloths). Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... In his Systema Naturae of 1758, Carolus Linnaeus divided the primates into three genera: Homo, Simia, and Lemur. ... The Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) is a prosimian of the family Lemuridae. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Families Megalonychidae Bradypodidae †Rathymotheriidae †Scelidotheriidae †Mylodontidae †Orophodontidae †Megatheriidae Sloths are medium-sized mammals that live in Central and South America belonging to the families Megalonychidae and Bradypodidae, part of the order Pilosa. ...


The Latin primas means "one of the first, excellent, noble" (nominative plural primates). The English singular primate was derived via back-formation from the Latin inflected form.[3] Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... In etymology, the process of back-formation is the creation of a neologism by reinterpreting an earlier word as a compound and removing the spuriously supposed affixes. ...


The Primates order is divided informally into three main groupings: prosimians, monkeys of the New World, and monkeys and apes of the Old World. The prosimians are species whose bodies most closely resemble that of the early proto-primates. The most well known of the prosimians, the lemurs, are located on the island of Madagascar and to a lesser extent on the Comoros Islands, isolated from the rest of the world. The New World monkeys include the familiar capuchin, howler, and squirrel monkeys. They live exclusively in the Americas. Discounting humans, the rest of the simians, the Old World monkeys and the apes, inhabit Africa and southern and central Asia, although fossil evidence shows many species existed in Europe as well. The Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) is a prosimian of the family Lemuridae. ... Families Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae The New World monkeys are the four families of primates that are found in Central and South America: the Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae and Atelidae. ... Families Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae Catarrhini is the unranked group of the Primates, one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorrhini. ... Superfamilies and Families Cheirogaleoidea Cheirogaleidae Lemuroidea Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae Lemurs make up the infraorder Lemuriformes and are members of a class of primates known as prosimians . ... The Union of Comoros (until 2002 the Islamic Federal Republic of the Comoros) is an independent country at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean, between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique. ... Type species Simia capucina Linnaeus, 1758 Species Cebus capucinus Cebus albifrons Weeper uolivaceus Cebus kaapori Cebus apella Cebus libidinosus Cebus nigritus Cebus xanthosternos Cebus queirozi Tufted Capuchin (Cebus apella) The capuchins are the group of New World monkeys classified as genus Cebus. ... Type species Simia belzebul Linnaeus, 1766 Species Alouatta coibensis Alouatta palliata Alouatta pigra Alouatta belzebul Alouatta guariba Alouatta macconnelli Alouatta nigerrima Alouatta sara Alouatta seniculus Alouatta caraya The howler monkeys (genus Alouatta monotypic in subfamily Alouattinae) are among the largest of the New World monkeys. ... Type species Simia sciurea Linnaeus, 1758 Species Saimiri oerstedii Saimiri sciureus Saimiri ustus Saimiri boliviensis Saimiri vanzolini The squirrel monkeys are the New World monkeys of the genus Saimiri. ... Families Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are the higher primates very common to most people: the monkeys and the apes, including humans. ... Subfamilies Cercopithecinae - 11 genera Colobinae - 10 genera The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


According to fossil evidence, primitive ancestors of primates already existed in the latest Cretaceous. Molecular clock studies suggest that the primate branch is even more ancient (originating at least in the mid-Cretaceous). They are now thought to be most closely related to flying lemurs and, more distantly, to treeshrews. They probably have descended from Plesiadapiformes. The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... The molecular clock (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)) is a technique in genetics, which researchers use to date when two species diverged. ... Species  Cynocephalus varigatus  Cynocephalus volans Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in South-east Asia. ... Families Tupaiidae Ptilocercidae The treeshrews are small mammals native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. ... Families Micromomyidae Paromomyidae Picromomyidae Palaechthonidae Picrodontidae Microsyopidae Chronolestidae Plesiadapidae Carpolestidae Plesiadapiformes is an extinct order of mammals and are either closely related to the primates, or are the pre-cursor to them. ...

Contents

Physical description

Homo sapiens, a member of the order Primates with highly evolved mental capabilities.

All primates have five fingers (pentadactyly), a generalized dental pattern, and a primitive (unspecialized) body plan. Another distinguishing feature of primates is fingernails. Opposing thumbs are also a characteristic primate feature, but are not limited to this order; opossums, for example, also have opposing thumbs. In primates, the combination of opposing thumbs, short fingernails (rather than claws) and long, inward-closing fingers is a relic of the ancestral practice of gripping branches, and has, in part, allowed some species to develop brachiation as a significant means of transportation. Forward-facing color binocular vision was also useful for the brachiating ancestors of humans, particularly for finding and collecting food, although recent studies suggest it was more useful in courtship. All primates, even those that lack the features typical of other primates (like lorises), share eye orbit characteristics, such as a postorbital bar, that distinguish them from other taxonomic orders.[citation needed]Old World species (apes and some monkeys) tend to have significant sexual dimorphism. This is characterized most in size difference, with males being slightly more than twice as heavy as females. This dimorphism may be a result of a polygynous mating system where there is significant pressure to attract and defend multiple females. New World species form pair bonds, and so these species (including tamarins and marmosets) generally do not show a significant size difference between the sexes.[citation needed] Image File history File links Human. ... Image File history File links Human. ... In biology, dactyly is the arrangement of digits (fingers and toes) on the hands, feet, or sometimes wings of an animal. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article discusses the anatomical nail. ... // This digit is one of the five fingers (though the word finger can also refer exclusively to the non-thumb digits). ... This article or section should be merged with Virginia_opossum The word opossum (usually pronounced without the leading O, or with only a very slight schwa) refers either to the Virginia Opossum in particular, or more generally to any of the other marsupials of magnorder Ameridelphia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... Genera Loris Nycticebus For other uses, see Loris (disambiguation). ... The postorbital bar is a bone which runs around the eyesocket of strepsirrhine primates. ... Families Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae Catarrhini is the unranked group of the Primates, one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorrhini. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... In sociobiology and behavioural ecology, the term mating system is used to describe the ways in which animal societies are structured in relation to sexual behavior. ... Families Cebidae Nyctipithecidae Pitheciidae Atelidae The New World monkeys or Platyrrhines are the four families of primates that are found in Central and South America, the Cebidae, Nyctipithecidae, Pitheciidae and Atelidae. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Type Species Saguinas ursula Hoffmannsegg, 1807 = Simia midas Linnaeus, 1758 Species 17 species, see text The tamarins are any of the squirrel-sized New World monkeys from the family Cebidae, classified as the genus Saguinus. ... Type species Simia jacchus Linnaeus, 1758 Species 18 species, see text Marmosets are New World monkeys in the genus Callithrix, which contains 18 species. ...


Habitat

Primates evolved from arboreal animals and many modern species live mostly in trees and hardly ever come to the ground. Other species are partially terrestrial, such as baboons and the Patas Monkey. Only a few species are fully terrestrial, such as the Gelada and Humans. Primates live in a diverse number of forested habitats, including rain forests, mangrove forests, and mountain forests to altitudes of over 3000 m. Although most species are generally shy of water, a few are fine swimmers and are comfortable in swamps and watery areas, including the Proboscis Monkey, De Brazza's Monkey and Allen's Swamp Monkey, which even developed small webbing between its fingers. Some primates, such the Rhesus Macaque and the Hanuman Langur, can exploit human-modified environments and even live in cities.[4] This article is about the biological organisms known as trees. ... Animal environments are classified as either aquatic (water), terrestrial (land), or amphibious (water and land). ... Type species Simia hamadryas Linnaeus, 1758 Species Papio hamadryas Papio papio Papio anubis Papio cynocephalus Papio ursinus The five baboon species are some of the largest non-hominid members of the primate order; only the Mandrill and the Drill are larger. ... Binomial name Erythrocebus patas Schreber, 1775 The Patas Monkey (Erythrocebus patas) is a ground-dwelling monkey distributed over West Africa. ... Binomial name Theropithecus gelada (Rüppell, 1835) The Gelada (Theropithecus gelada), sometimes called the Gelada Baboon, is a species of Old World monkey found only in the Ethiopian Highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea, with large populations in the Semien Mountains. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Binomial name Wurmb, 1787 The Proboscis Monkey, Nasalis larvatus also known as Long-nosed Monkey is a reddish-brown arboreal Old World monkey. ... Binomial name Cercopithecus neglectus Schlegel, 1876 De Brazzas Monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus) is an Old World monkey that gets its name from French explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza. ... Binomial name Allenopithecus nigroviridis (Pocock, 1907) Allens Swamp Monkeys get hot when they live in the Congo basin, in the Republic of Congo and in the west of the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... Binomial name Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780) The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), often called the Rhesus Monkey, is one of the best known species of Old World monkeys. ... Species Semnopithecus schistaceus Semnopithecus ajax Semnopithecus hector Semnopithecus entellus Semnopithecus hypoleucos Semnopithecus dussumieri Semnopithecus priam The gray langurs are a group of Old World monkeys and make up the entirety of the genus Semnopithecus. ...


Classification and evolution

Close relations

The Primate order lies in a tight clustering of related orders (the Euarchontoglires) within the Eutheria, a subclass of Mammalia. Recent molecular genetic research on primates, flying lemurs, and treeshrews has shown that the two species of flying lemur (Dermoptera) are more closely related to the primates than the treeshrews of the order Scandentia, even though the treeshrews were at one time considered primates. These three orders make up the Euarchonta clade. This clade combines with the Glires clade (made up of the Rodentia and Lagomorpha) to form the Euarchontoglires clade. Variously, both Euarchonta and Euarchontoglires are ranked as superorders. Also, some scientists consider Dermoptera a suborder of Primates and call the "true" primates the suborder Euprimates (Hoffstetter, 1978) [5] . In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Orders Glires Rodentia Lagomorpha Euarchonta Dermoptera Scandentia Primates The Euarchontoglires are a mammalian superorder based on molecular genetic research, combining the Glires clade, which consists of the Rodentia and the Lagomorpha, with that of the Euarchonta, a clade consisting of the Scandentia, the Primates and the Dermoptera. ... Orders[1] Magnorder Xenarthra: Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa (Sloths, True Anteaters) Magnorder Epitheria: Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Tenrecs, etc. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Species  Cynocephalus varigatus  Cynocephalus volans Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in South-east Asia. ... Families Tupaiidae Ptilocercidae The treeshrews are small mammals native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. ... Species  Cynocephalus varigatus  Cynocephalus volans Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in South-east Asia. ... Genera Tupaia Anathana Urogale Dendrogale Lyonogale Ptilocercus The tree shrews are small, squirrel-like mammals native to the tropical forests of South-east Asia. ... Orders  Dermoptera  Scandentia  Primates The term Euarchonta first appeared in the general scientific literature in 1999, when molecular evidence suggested that the morphology-based Archonta be trimmed down to exclude Chiroptera. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Orders Rodentia Lagomorpha Glires is a proposed clade consisting of rodents and lagomorphs (rabbits, hares, and pikas). ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents. ... Families Leporidae Ochotonidae Prolagidae (extinct) The Lagomorphs, order Lagomorpha, are an order of mammals of which there are two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). ... The earliest true primates is called euprimates. ...

Euarchontoglires
Glires

Rodentia (rodents) Orders Glires Rodentia Lagomorpha Euarchonta Dermoptera Scandentia Primates The Euarchontoglires are a mammalian superorder based on molecular genetic research, combining the Glires clade, which consists of the Rodentia and the Lagomorpha, with that of the Euarchonta, a clade consisting of the Scandentia, the Primates and the Dermoptera. ... Orders Rodentia Lagomorpha Glires is a proposed clade consisting of rodents and lagomorphs (rabbits, hares, and pikas). ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents. ...



Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, pikas) Families Leporidae Ochotonidae Prolagidae (extinct) The Lagomorphs, order Lagomorpha, are an order of mammals of which there are two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). ...



Euarchonta

Scandentia (treeshrews) Orders  Dermoptera  Scandentia  Primates The term Euarchonta first appeared in the general scientific literature in 1999, when molecular evidence suggested that the morphology-based Archonta be trimmed down to exclude Chiroptera. ... Families Tupaiidae Ptilocercidae The treeshrews are small mammals native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. ...




Dermoptera (flying lemurs) Species  Cynocephalus varigatus  Cynocephalus volans Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in South-east Asia. ...




Plesiadapiformes Families Micromomyidae Paromomyidae Picromomyidae Palaechthonidae Picrodontidae Microsyopidae Chronolestidae Plesiadapidae Carpolestidae Plesiadapiformes is an extinct order of mammals and are either closely related to the primates, or are the pre-cursor to them. ...



Primates






Classification

Ring-tailed Lemur, a strepsirrhine primate

In older classifications, the Primates were divided into two superfamilies: Prosimii and Anthropoidea. The Prosimii included all of the prosimians: all of Strepsirrhini plus the tarsiers. The Anthropoidea contained all of the simians. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x765, 195 KB) Ring-tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta) Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England Photographer: Adrian Pingstone in August 2003 and placed in the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x765, 195 KB) Ring-tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta) Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England Photographer: Adrian Pingstone in August 2003 and placed in the public domain. ... Binomial name Lemur catta Linnaeus, 1758 The Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) is a large prosimian, a lemur belonging to the family Lemuridae. ... Families Cheirogaleidae Lemuridae Megaladapidae Indridae Daubentoniidae (Aye-aye) Loridae Galagonidae The Strepsirrhini clade is one of the two suborders of primates. ... The Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) is a prosimian of the family Lemuridae. ... Families Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are the higher primates very common to most people: the monkeys and the apes, including humans. ...


In modern, cladistic reckonings, the Primate order is also a true clade. The suborder Strepsirrhini, the "wet-nosed" primates, split off from the primitive primate line about 63 million years ago (mya). The seven strepsirhine families are the four related lemur families and the three remaining families that include the lorises, the Aye-aye, the galagos, and the pottos.[1] Older classification schemes wrap the Lepilemuridae into the Lemuridae and the Galagidae into the Lorisidae, yielding a three-two family split instead of the four-three split as presented here.[1] Other lineages of lower primates inhabited Earth. During the Eocene, most of the northern continents were dominated by two dominant groups, the adapids and the omomyids. The former is considered a member of Strepsirrhini, but it does not have a tooth-comb like modern lemurs. The latter was related closely to tarsiers, monkeys, and apes. Adapids survived until 10 mya; omomyids on the other hand perished 20 million years earlier. Families Cheirogaleidae Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indridae Daubentoniidae (Aye-aye) Lorisidae Galagidae The Strepsirrhini clade is one of the two suborders of primates. ... The rhinarium is that wet naked surface around the nostrils of the nose in most mammals. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... Superfamilies and Families Cheirogaleoidea Cheirogaleidae Lemuroidea Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae Lemurs make up the infraorder Lemuriformes and are members of a class of primates known as prosimians . ... Genera Loris Nycticebus For other uses, see Loris (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Daubentonia madagascariensis Gmelin, 1788 The Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is a primate native to Madagascar that combines rodent-like teeth with a long, thin middle finger to fill the ecological niche of a woodpecker. ... Genera  Otolemur  Euoticus  Galago For the desktop presence framework, see Galago (software). ... Binomial name Perodicticus potto (P.L.S. Müller, 1766) The Potto (Perodicticus potto) is a strepsirrhine primate from the Lorisidae family. ... Species Lepilemur mustelinus Lepilemur microdon Lepilemur leucopus Lepilemur ruficaudatus Lepilemur edwardsi Lepilemur dorsalis Lepilemur septentrionalis Lepilemur seali Lepilemur mitsinjonensis The sportive lemurs are the medium sized primates that make up the Lepilemuridae family. ... Genera Lemur Eulemur Hapalemur Prolemur Varecia Lemuridae is one of the four families of lemurs and are part of a class of primates known as prosimians. ... Genera  Otolemur  Euoticus  Galago Galagos, also known as bushbabies or bush babies, are small, nocturnal primates native to continental Africa, and make up the family Galagonidae. ... Genera Arctocebus Perodicticus Pseudopotto Loris Nycticebus Lorisidae (or sometimes Loridae) is a family of strepsirrhine primates. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... Genera (extinct) Godinotia others The adapids, members of the extinct family Adapidae, are prosimian primates that lived during the Eocene era. ... Genera None extant Omomyids, the ancestor’s form of the known Tarsier like animal. ...


The Aye-aye is difficult to place in Strepsirrhini.[1] Its family, Daubentoniidae, could be a lemuriform primate and its ancestors split from lemur line more recently than the lemurs and lorises split, about 50 mya. Otherwise it is sister to all of the other strepsirrhines, in which case in evolved away from the main strepsirrhine line between 50 and 63 mya.

The suborder Haplorrhini, the "dry-nosed" primates, is composed of two sister clades.[1] The prosimian tarsiers in family Tarsiidae (monotypic in its own infraorder Tarsiiformes), represent the most primitive division at about 58 mya. The Simiiformes infraorder contains the two parvorders: the New World monkeys in one, and the Old World monkeys, humans and the other apes in the other.[1] This division happened about 40 mya. However about 30 mya, three groups split from the main haplorrhine lineage. One group stayed in Asia and are closest in kin to the "dawn monkey" Eosimias. The second stayed in Africa, where they developed into the Old World primates. The third rafted to South America to become the New World monkeys. Mysteriously the aboriginal Asian Haplorrhini vanished from record once Africa collided with Eurasia 24 mya. Apes and monkeys spread into Europe and Asia. Close behind came lorises and tarsiers, also African castaways. The first hominid fossils were discovered in Northern Africa and date back 7 mya. Modern humans did not appear until 0.2 mya, eventually becoming the most prevalent primate and mammal on Earth. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (840x706, 74 KB)An emperor tamarin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (840x706, 74 KB)An emperor tamarin. ... Binomial name Saguinus imperator (Goeldi, 1907) The Emperor Tamarin (Saguinus imperator) is a tamarin allegedly named for its similarity with the German emperor Wilhelm II. The name was first intended as a joke, but the name has become the official scientific name. ... Families Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae The New World monkeys are the four families of primates that are found in Central and South America: the Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae and Atelidae. ... Families Tarsiidae Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The haplorrhines, the dry-nosed primates (the Greek name means simple-nosed), are members of the Haplorrhini clade: the prosimian tarsiers and all of the true simians (the monkeys and the apes, including humans). ... The Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) is a prosimian of the family Lemuridae. ... Species Tarsius syrichta Tarsius bancanus Tarsius spectrum Tarsius dianae Tarsius pelengensis Tarsius sangirensis Tarsius pumilus Tarsiers (family Tarsiidae, genus Tarsius) are a genus of prosimian primates, previously classified as strepsirhines, but now classified as haplorhines, though still not considered to be monkeys. ... Species Tarsius syrichta Tarsius bancanus Tarsius spectrum Tarsius dianae Tarsius pelengensis Tarsius sangirensis Tarsius pumilus Tarsiers (family Tarsiidae, genus Tarsius) are a genus of prosimian primates, previously classified as strepsirhines, but now classified as haplorhines, though still not considered to be monkeys. ... Families Cebidae Nyctipithecidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are the primates very common to most people: the monkeys and the apes, including humans. ... Families Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae The New World monkeys are the four families of primates that are found in Central and South America: the Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae and Atelidae. ... Subfamilies Cercopithecinae - 11 genera Colobinae - 10 genera The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae †Proconsulidae †Dryopithecidae †Oreopithecidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, which includes humans. ... Eosimias was discovered in 1999 in China. ...


The discovery of new species happens at a rate of a few new species each year, and the evaluation of current populations as distinct species is in flux. Colin Groves listed about 350 species of primates in Primate Taxonomy in 2001.[6] The recently published third edition of Mammal Species of the World (MSW3) lists 376 species.[1] But even MSW3's list falls short of current understanding as its collection cutoff was in 2003, and a number publications since then have pushed the number of species up to 405. Notable new species not listed in MSW3 include the Bemaraha Woolly Lemur (Avahi cleesei) (named after British actor and lemur enthusiast John Cleese) and the GoldenPalace.com Monkey (whose name was put up for auction). Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... Binomial name Avahi cleesei Thalmann & Geissmann, 2005 The Bemaraha Woolly Lemur (Avahi cleesei), also known as Cleeses Woolly Lemur, is a species of woolly lemur native to western Madagascar, named after John Cleese. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... Superfamilies and Families Cheirogaleoidea Cheirogaleidae Lemuroidea Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae Lemurs make up the infraorder Lemuriformes and are members of a class of primates known as prosimians . ... John Marwood Cleese (born 27 October 1939) is an Academy Award-nominated and Emmy Award winning English comedian and actor. ... Binomial name Callicebus aureipalatii Wallace, 2005 The GoldenPalace. ...


Extant primate families

Hands and feet of primates

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 377 × 600 pixels Full resolution (677 × 1077 pixel, file size: 313 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Primate ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 377 × 600 pixels Full resolution (677 × 1077 pixel, file size: 313 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Primate ... Families Cheirogaleidae Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indridae Daubentoniidae (Aye-aye) Lorisidae Galagidae The Strepsirrhini clade is one of the two suborders of primates. ... Families Cheirogaleidae Lemuridae Megaladapidae Indridae Lemurs are part of a class of primates known as prosimians, and make up the infraorder Lemuriformes. ... Genera Cheirogaleus Microcebus Mirza Allocebus Phaner Cheirogaleidae is the family strepsirrhine primates that contains the various dwarf lemurs and mouse-lemurs. ... Genera Cheirogaleus Microcebus Mirza Allocebus Phaner Cheirogaleidae is the family strepsirrhine primates that contains the various dwarf lemurs and mouse-lemurs. ... Genera Lemur Eulemur Hapalemur Prolemur Varecia Lemuridae is one of the four families of lemurs and are part of a class of primates known as prosimians. ... Species Lepilemur mustelinus Lepilemur microdon Lepilemur leucopus Lepilemur ruficaudatus Lepilemur edwardsi Lepilemur dorsalis Lepilemur septentrionalis Lepilemur seali Lepilemur mitsinjonensis The sportive lemurs are the medium sized primates that make up the Lepilemuridae family. ... Genera The Indriidae (also spelled Indridae) are a family of strepsirrhine primates. ... Binomial name Daubentonia madagascariensis Gmelin, 1788 The Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is a primate native to Madagascar that combines rodent-like teeth with a long, thin middle finger to fill the ecological niche of a woodpecker. ... Binomial name Daubentonia madagascariensis Gmelin, 1788 The Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is a primate native to Madagascar that combines rodent-like teeth with a long, thin middle finger to fill the ecological niche of a woodpecker. ... Families Lorisidae Galagidae Lorisiformes are a group of primates found throughout Africa and Asia. ... Genera Arctocebus Perodicticus Pseudopotto Loris Nycticebus Lorisidae (or sometimes Loridae) is a family of strepsirrhine primates. ... Genera  Otolemur  Euoticus  Galago Galagos, also known as bushbabies or bush babies, are small, nocturnal primates native to continental Africa, and make up the family Galagonidae. ... Families Tarsiidae Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The haplorrhines, the dry-nosed primates (the Greek name means simple-nosed), are members of the Haplorrhini clade: the prosimian tarsiers and all of the true simians (the monkeys and the apes, including humans). ... Type species Lemur tarsier Erxleben, 1777 Species Tarsius syrichta Tarsius bancanus Tarsius tarsier Tarsius dentatus Tarsius lariang Tarsius pelengensis Tarsius sangirensis Tarsius pumilus The tarsiers are the members of the Tarsius genus of prosimian primates, monotypic in the Tarsiidae family and Tarsiiformes infraorder. ... Type species Lemur tarsier Erxleben, 1777 Species Tarsius syrichta Tarsius bancanus Tarsius tarsier Tarsius dentatus Tarsius lariang Tarsius pelengensis Tarsius sangirensis Tarsius pumilus The tarsiers are the members of the Tarsius genus of prosimian primates, monotypic in the Tarsiidae family and Tarsiiformes infraorder. ... Families Cebidae Nyctipithecidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are the primates very common to most people: the monkeys and the apes, including humans. ... Families Cebidae Nyctipithecidae Pitheciidae Atelidae The New World monkeys or Platyrrhines are the four families of primates that are found in Central and South America, the Cebidae, Nyctipithecidae, Pitheciidae and Atelidae. ... Genera Callithrix Leontopithecus Saguinus Callimico Cebus Saimiri The Cebidae form one of the four families of New World monkeys now recognised. ... Night monkey - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Genera Pithecia Chiropotes Cacajao Callicebus The Pitheciidae are one of the four families of New World monkeys now recognised. ... Genera Alouatta Ateles Brachyteles Lagothrix Oreonax The Atelidae are one of the two families of New World monkeys now recognised. ... Families Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae Catarrhini is the unranked group of the Primates, one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorrhini. ... Subfamilies Cercopithecinae - 11 genera Colobinae - 10 genera The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. ... Subfamilies Cercopithecinae - 11 genera Colobinae - 10 genera The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, including humans. ... Species 14 species, see text Gibbons are small apes that are traditionally grouped in the genus Hylobates. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ...

Some prehistoric primates

Binomial name Aegyptopithecus zeuxis Aegyptopithecus, also called the Dawn Ape, is an early fossil catarrhine that predates the divergence between hominoids (apes) and Old World monkeys. ... Species †A. afarensis (Lucy) †A. africanus †A. anamensis †A. bahrelghazali †A. garhi Formerly Australopithecus, now Paranthropus † † † For the song Australopithecus by Modest Mouse, see Sad Sappy Sucker. ... Binomial name Branisella boliviana Hoffstetter, 1969 Branisella boliviana is an extinct species of New World monkey that lived in what is now Bolivia during the late Oligocene. ... Species †Dryopithecus wuduensis †Dryopithecus fontani †Dryopithecus brancoi †Dryopithecus laietanus †Dryopithecus crusafonti Dryopithecus was a genus of apes that is known from localities ranging from Eastern Africa into Eurasia. ... Eosimias was discovered in 1999 in China. ... Species Gigantopithecus blacki Gigantopithecus bilaspurensis Gigantopithecus was a genus of ape that existed from as long ago as 5 million years ago and as recently as 100 thousand years ago in what is today the countries of China and India. ... Species (extinct) Godinotia neglecta others Godinotia is an extinct genus of lemur-like prosimian belonging to the Adapidae family. ... Megaladapis is an extinct species of primate that once inhabited Madagascar. ... Species Notharctus robinsoni Notharctus tenebrosus Notharctus pugnax Notharctus robustior Notharctus is an extinct genus of primates that inhabited Eocene North America 50 million years ago. ... Pierolapithecus catalaunicus is the name of a species of primate which until recently, was only hypothesized. ... The Pliopithecus is a primate of the Miocene and the Pliocene. ... Binomial name Sahelanthropus tchadensis Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an early fossil hominid, approximately 7 million years old from the Miocene. ... Species Sivapithecus indicus Sivapithecus ramapithecus Sivapithecus kenyapithecus Sivapithecus ouranopithecus Sivapithecus is the genus of extinct primates, any one of its species may have been the ancestor to the modern orangutans. ... Binomial name    Victoriapithecus macinnesi    von Koenigswald, 1969 Victoriapithecus macinnesi is an extinct species described from the oldest known monkey skull. ...

Primate hybrids

In The Variation Of Animals And Plants Under Domestication Charles Darwin noted: "Several members of the family of Lemurs have produced hybrids in the Zoological Gardens." For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Superfamilies and Families Cheirogaleoidea Cheirogaleidae Lemuroidea Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae Lemurs make up the infraorder Lemuriformes and are members of a class of primates known as prosimians . ...


Many gibbons are hard to identify based on fur coloration and are identified either by song or genetics. These morphological ambiguities have led to hybrids in zoos. Zoo gibbons usually come from the black market pet trade in Southeast Asia, which transported gibbons across countries all over the region. As a result, perhaps as much as 95% of zoo gibbons are of unknown geographic origin. As most zoos rely on morphological variation or labels that are impossible to verify to assign species and subspecies names, it is unfortunately common for gibbons to be misidentified and housed together. For example, some collections' supposedly pure breeding pairs were actually mixed pairs or hybrids from previous mixed pairs. The hybrid offspring were sent to other gibbon breeders and led to further hybridization in captive gibbons. Within-genus hybrids also occur in wild gibbons where the ranges overlap (Agile Gibbons and Pileated Gibbons x Lar Gibbons, Agile Gibbons x Müller's Bornean Gibbon, Yellow-cheeked Gibbons x Northern White-cheeked Gibbons). Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... Binomial name Hylobatesagilis F. Cuvier, 1821 The Agile Gibbon (Hylobates agilis), also known as the Black-handed Gibbon, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Hylobates pileatus (Gray, 1861) The Pileated Gibbon (Hylobates pileatus) is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Hylobates lar (Linnaeus, 1771) The Lar Gibbon (Hylobates lar), also known as the White-handed Gibbon, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Hylobatesagilis F. Cuvier, 1821 The Agile Gibbon (Hylobates agilis), also known as the Black-handed Gibbon, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Hylobates muelleri Martin, 1841 Müllers Bornean Gibbon (Hylobates muelleri), also known as the Grey Gibbon, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Nomascus gabriellae (Thomas, 1909) Synonyms Hylobates gabriellae (Thomas, 1909) The Yellow-cheeked Crested Gibbon, also called Golden-cheeked Crested Gibbon or Buffed-cheeked gibbon, is a species of gibbon native to Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. ...


Intergeneric gibbon hybridizations have only occurred in captivity. Silvery Gibbons (Hylobates moloch) and Müller's Bornean Gibbon (H. muelleri) have hybridized with Siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) in captivity - a female Siamang produced hybrid "Siabon" offspring on 2 occasions when housed with a male gibbon; only one hybrid survived. Binomial name Hylobates (Hylobates) moloch (Audebert, 1798) The Silvery Gibbon (Hylobates (Hylobates) moloch) is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name (Raffles, 1821) The Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) is an arboreal, black furred gibbon native to the forests of Malaysia, Thailand, and Sumatra. ...


Anubis Baboons and Hamadryas Baboons have hybridized in the wild where their ranges meet. A Rheboon is a captive-bred Rhesus Macaque/Hamadryas Baboon hybrid with a baboon-like body shape and macaque-like tail. Binomial name Papio anubis (Lesson, 1827) The Olive Baboon (Papio anubis), also called the Anubis Baboon, is a baboon from the Old World monkey family. ... Binomial name Papio hamadryas (Linnaeus, 1758) The Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas) is a baboon from the Old World monkey family. ... Binomial name Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780) The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), often called the Rhesus Monkey, is one of the best known species of Old World monkeys. ... Type species Simia hamadryas Linnaeus, 1758 Species Papio hamadryas Papio papio Papio anubis Papio cynocephalus Papio ursinus The five baboon species are some of the largest non-hominid members of the primate order; only the Mandrill and the Drill are larger. ... Type species Simia inuus Linnaeus, 1758 = Simia sylvanus Linnaeus, 1758 Species See text. ...


Different macaque species can interbreed. In "The Variation Of Animals And Plants Under Domestication" Charles Darwin wrote: A Macacus, according to Flourens, bred in Paris; and more than one species of this genus has produced young in London, especially the Macacus rhesus, which everywhere shows a special capacity to breed under confinement. Hybrids have been produced both in Paris and London from this same genus. The Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata) has interbred with the introduced Taiwanese Macacque (M. cyclopis) when the latter escaped into the wild from private zoos. Binomial name Macaca fuscata Blyth, 1875 The Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata), also known as the Snow Monkey, is a terrestrial Old World monkey species native to northern Japan, although an introduced free-ranging population has been living near Laredo, Texas since 1972. ... Binomial name Macaca cyclopis (Swinhoe, 1862) The Formosan Rock Macaque (Macaca cyclopis) is a macaque living in Taiwan and has been introduced to Japan. ...


Various hybrid monkeys are bred within the pet trade, for example:

Among Old World monkeys, natural hybridization is not uncommon. There numerous field reports of hybrid monkeys and detailed studies of zones where species overlap and hybrids occur. Type species Simia capucina Linnaeus, 1758 Species Cebus capucinus Cebus albifrons Weeper uolivaceus Cebus kaapori Cebus apella Cebus libidinosus Cebus nigritus Cebus xanthosternos Cebus queirozi Tufted Capuchin (Cebus apella) The capuchins are the group of New World monkeys classified as genus Cebus. ... Binomial name Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1758) The Tufted Capuchin (Cebus apella), also known as Brown Capuchin or Black-capped Capuchin is a New World primate from South America. ... Binomial name Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk, 1848 The Weeper Capuchin, Cebus olivaceus, is a capuchin monkey from South America. ... Binomial name Macaca silenus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) is an Old World monkey that lives only in southwest India. ... Binomial name Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780) The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), often called the Rhesus Monkey, is one of the best known species of Old World monkeys. ... Binomial name Macaca arctoides (I. Geoffroy, 1831) The Stump-tailed Macaque (Macaca arctoides), also called the Bear Macaque, is a macaque living in China, India, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Thailand. ... Subfamilies Cercopithecinae - 11 genera Colobinae - 10 genera The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. ...


Among the great apes, Sumatran and Bornean orangutans are considered separate species with anatomical differences, producing sterile or poorly fertile hybrids. Hybrid orangutans are genetically weaker, with lower survival rates than pure animals. Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of orangutans. ... Binomial name Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) The Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. ... Type species Simia pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760 Orangutan distribution Species Pongo pygmaeus Pongo abelii The orangutans are two species of great apes known for their intelligence and their long arms and reddish-brown hair. ...


Legal status

See also: Non-human primate experiments and International trade in primates
Monkeys imported for experimentation in a crate. Credit: BUAV

Humans are recognized as persons and protected in law by the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights[7] and by all governments, though to varying degrees. Non-human primates are not classified as persons. The status of non-human primates has generated much debate, particularly through the Great Ape Project [8] which argues for the personhood of the non-human members of the family Hominidae. In 1995 Ignaas Spruit, director of Leiden (Netherlands) based Pro-Primates organization, went farther, as he proposed that some rights should be recognized to all non-human primates.[9] In the same way, the American anthropologist Earnest Albert Hooton, enlarging the sense of the famous quote by Terence, used to say "Primas sum: primatum nil a me alienum puto", that is to say: “I am a primate; nothing about primates is outside of my bailiwick” [10] Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... The international trade in primates sees 32,000 wild-caught primates sold on the international market every year. ... This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... The classical definition of a person is a human being regarded as an individual. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Earnest Albert Hooton (November 20, 1887, Clemansville, Wisconsin – May 3, 1954, Cambridge, Massachusetts) was a U.S. physical anthropologist known for his work on racial classification and his popular writings such as the book Up From The Ape. ... Publius Terentius Afer, better known as Terence, was a comic playwright of the Roman Republic. ...


Animal testing

Thousands of primates are used every year around the world in scientific experiments because of their psychological and physiological similarity to humans. Chimpanzees, baboons, marmosets, macaques, and green monkeys are most commonly used in these experiments. In the European Union, around 10,000 were used in 2004, with 4,652 experiments conducted on 3,115 non-human primates in the UK alone in 2005.[11] As of 2004, 3,100 non-human primates were living in captivity in the United States, in zoos, circuses, and laboratories, 1,280 of them being used in experiments.[8] European campaign groups such as the BUAV are seeking a ban on all primate use in experiments as part of the European Union's current review of existing law on animal experimentation. Enos the space chimp before insertion into the Mercury-Atlas 5 capsule in 1961. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Type species Simia hamadryas Linnaeus, 1758 Species Papio hamadryas Papio papio Papio anubis Papio cynocephalus Papio ursinus The five baboon species are some of the largest non-hominid members of the primate order; only the Mandrill and the Drill are larger. ... Type species Simia jacchus Linnaeus, 1758 Species 18 species, see text Marmosets are New World monkeys in the genus Callithrix, which contains 18 species. ... Type species Simia inuus Linnaeus, 1758 = Simia sylvanus Linnaeus, 1758 Species See text. ... Species Chlorocebus sabaceus Chlorocebus aethiops Chlorocebus djamdjamensis Chlorocebus tantalus Chlorocebus pygerythrus Chlorocebus cynosuros The vervet monkeys or green monkeys are primates from the family of Old World monkeys. ... Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... The Big Top of Billy Smarts Circus Cambridge 2004. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ...


Laughter in primates

Laughter might not be confined or unique to humans, despite Aristotle's observation that "only the human animal laughs". However, some behavioural psychologists argue that self-awareness of one's situation, or the ability to identify with somebody else's predicament, are prerequisites for laughter, so animals are not really laughing in the same way that humans do. A boy laughing hysterically as he is tickled Laughter is an expression or appearance of merriment or amusement. ...


Chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans show laughter-like vocalizations in response to physical contact, such as wrestling, play chasing, or tickling. This is documented in wild and captive chimpanzees. Chimpanzee laughter is not readily recognizable to humans as such, because it is generated by alternating inhalations and exhalations that sound more like breathing and panting. The differences between chimpanzee and human laughter may be the result of adaptations that have evolved to enable human speech. There are instances in which non-human primates have been reported to have expressed joy. One study analyzed and recorded sounds made by human babies and bonobos also known as pygmy chimpanzees when they were tickled. It found although the bonobo’s laugh was a higher frequency, the laugh followed the same spectrographic pattern of human babies to include as similar facial expressions. Humans and chimpanzees share similar ticklish areas of the body such as the armpits and belly. The enjoyment of tickling in chimpanzees does not diminish with age. [12] Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the primates, is a ground-dwelling herbivore that inhabits the forests of central Africa. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ...


See also

The arboreal theory claims that primates became primates by adapting to arboreal life. ... Primatology is the study of non-human primates. ...

References

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  1. ^ a b c d e f g Groves, Colin (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 111-184. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ M. Goodman, D. A. Tagle, D. H. Fitch, W. Bailey, J. Czelusniak, B. F. Koop, P. Benson, J. L. Slightom (1990). "Primate evolution at the DNA level and a classification of hominoids". Journal of Molecular Evolution 30: 260–266. 
  3. ^ Dictionary.com.
  4. ^ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primaten
  5. ^ McKenna, Malcolm C. and Bell, Susan K. (1997). Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York, 329. 
  6. ^ Primate Taxonomy (Smithsonian Institute Press, 2001), Colin Groves (ISBN 1-56098-872-X )
  7. ^ UN Declaration of Human Rights
  8. ^ a b Declaration on Great Apes, Great Ape Project
  9. ^ Spruit, Ignaas (1995). "On Declaring Non-human Primate Rights: An Approach to Primate Protection", in Corbey, Raymond and Theunissen, Bert: Ape, Man, Apeman: Changing Views since 1600. Department of Prehistory, Leiden University, pp. 377-383. 
  10. ^ Milner, Richard (1990). The encyclopedia of evolution :humanity's search for its origins. Facts on File, New York, s.v. "Hooton". 
  11. ^ British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection - Primates
  12. ^ Johnson, Steven (April 2003). "Emotions and the Brain". Discover 24 (4). 

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... GFDL Wikispecies logo File links The following pages link to this file: Solanaceae Species Asterias Homo (genus) Human Wikipedia:Template messages/Links Wikipedia:Template messages/All Homo floresiensis User talk:Tuneguru Template:Wikispecies Categories: GFDL images ... Wikispecies is a sister project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that anybody can edit with a great potential use to students and researchers. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Families Cheirogaleidae Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indridae Daubentoniidae (Aye-aye) Lorisidae Galagidae The Strepsirrhini clade is one of the two suborders of primates. ... Genera Cheirogaleus Microcebus Mirza Allocebus Phaner Cheirogaleidae is the family strepsirrhine primates that contains the various dwarf lemurs and mouse-lemurs. ... Genera Lemur Eulemur Hapalemur Prolemur Varecia Lemuridae is one of the four families of lemurs and are part of a class of primates known as prosimians. ... Type Species Lepilemur mustelinus I. Geoffroy Species Lepilemur aeeclis Lepilemur ankaranensis Lepilemur dorsalis Lepilemur edwardsi Lepilemur leucopus Lepilemur microdon Lepilemur mustelinus Lepilemur randrianasoli Lepilemur ruficaudatus Lepilemur sahamalazensis Lepilemur septentrionalis The sportive lemurs are the medium sized primates that make up the Lepilemuridae family. ... Genera The Indriidae (also spelled Indridae) are a family of strepsirrhine primates. ... Binomial name Daubentonia madagascariensis Gmelin, 1788 The Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is a primate native to Madagascar that combines rodent-like teeth with a long, thin middle finger to fill the ecological niche of a woodpecker. ... Genera Arctocebus Perodicticus Pseudopotto Loris Nycticebus Lorisidae (or sometimes Loridae) is a family of strepsirrhine primates. ... Genera  Otolemur  Euoticus  Galago For the desktop presence framework, see Galago (software). ... Families Tarsiidae Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The haplorrhines, the dry-nosed primates (the Greek name means simple-nosed), are members of the Haplorrhini clade: the prosimian tarsiers and all of the true simians (the monkeys and the apes, including humans). ... Type species Lemur tarsier Erxleben, 1777 Species Tarsius syrichta Tarsius bancanus Tarsius tarsier Tarsius dentatus Tarsius lariang Tarsius pelengensis Tarsius sangirensis Tarsius pumilus The tarsiers are the members of the Tarsius genus of prosimian primates, monotypic in the Tarsiidae family and Tarsiiformes infraorder. ... Genera Callithrix Leontopithecus Saguinus Callimico Cebus Saimiri The Cebidae form one of the four families of New World monkeys now recognised. ... Type species Simia trivirgata Humboldt, 1811 Species Aotus lemurinus Aotus hershkovitzi Aotus trivirgatus Aotus vociferans Aotus miconax Aotus nancymae Aotus azarae The Night monkeys, also known as the Owl monkeys or Douroucoulis, are the members of the genus Aotus of New World monkeys (monotypic in family Aotidae). ... Genera Pithecia Chiropotes Cacajao Callicebus The Pitheciidae are one of the four families of New World monkeys now recognised. ... Genera Alouatta Ateles Brachyteles Lagothrix Oreonax The Atelidae are one of the two families of New World monkeys now recognised. ... Subfamilies Cercopithecinae - 11 genera Colobinae - 10 genera The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Primate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1955 words)
In primates, the combination of opposing thumbs, short fingernails (rather than claws) and long, inward-closing fingers is a relic of the ancestral practice of brachiating through trees.
Primates live in a diverse number of forested habitats, including rain forests, mangrove forests, and mountain forests to altitudes of over 3000 m.
Thousands of primates are used every year around the world in scientific experiments because of their psychological and physiological similarity to humans.
Primate (religion) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1195 words)
In the Orthodox churches, Primate is often used in the general sense of the head of an autocephalous or autonomous church, but not as a specific title.
In England, however, the metropolitans of the two provinces of Canterbury and York, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Archbishop of York, are Primate of All England and Primate of England respectively.
In the Western Church, a Primate is an archbishop (or rarely a suffragan or exempt bishop) of a see (called a primas) which confers precedence over the other bishops of his own province, or over a number of provinces (possibly part of a province), such as a 'national' church in (historical) political/cultural terms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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