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EncyclopediaPrice > sales-ratio

Price in economics and business is the assigned numerical monetary value of a good, service or asset. The concept of price is central to microeconomics where it is one of the most important variables in resource allocation theory (also called price theory). Price is also central to marketing where it is one of the four variables in the marketing mix that business people use to develop a marketing plan. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Look up price in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... In economics, a business (also called firm or enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers or corporate entities such as governments, charities or other businesses. ... Moneys is an agreement within a community, to use something as a medium of exchange, which acts as an intermediary market good. ... In general, the economic value of something is how much a product or service is worth to someone relative to other things (often measured in money). ... In commerce, a product is a good economics and accounting good or service which can be bought and sold. ... This article is about a term used in economics. ... This article is about the business definition. ... Microeconomics (or price theory) is a branch of economics that studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources,[1] typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold. ... In strategic planning, a resource-allocation decision is a plan for using available resources, for example human resources, especially in the near term, to achieve goals for the future. ... Next big thing redirects here. ... The marketing mix is generally accepted as the use and specification of the 4 Ps describing the strategic position of a product in the marketplace. ... A marketing plan is a written document that details the necessary actions to achieve one or more marketing objectives. ...


Defination In general terms price is a component of an exchange or transaction that takes place between two parties and refers to what must be given up by one party (i.e., buyer) in order to obtain something offered by another party (i.e., seller). Yet this view of price provides a somewhat limited explanation of what price means to participants in the transaction. In fact, price means different things to different participants in an exchange:


Example - Price is commonly confused with the notion of cost as in “I paid a high cost for buying my new plasma television”. Technically, though, these are different concepts. Price is what a buyer pays to acquire products from a seller. Cost concerns the seller’s investment (e.g., manufacturing expense) in the product being exchanged with a buyer. For marketing organizations seeking to make a profit the hope is that price will exceed cost so the organization can see financial gain from the transaction. Finally, while product pricing is a main topic for discussion when a company is examining its overall profitability, pricing decisions are not limited to for-profit companies. Not-for-profit organizations, such as charities, educational institutions and industry trade groups, also set prices, though it is often not as apparent . For instance, charities seeking to raise money may set different “target” levels for donations that reward donors with increases in status (e.g., name in newsletter), gifts or other benefits. While a charitable organization may not call it a price in their promotional material, in reality these donations are equivalent to price setting since donors are required to give a contribution in order to obtain something of value

Contents

Conventional definition

In ordinary usage, price is the quantity of payment or compensation for something. People may say about a criminal that he has 'paid the price to society' to imply that he has paid a penalty or compensation. They may say that somebody paid for his folly to imply that he suffered the consequence.


Economists view price as an exchange ratio between goods that pay for each other. In case of barter between two goods whose quantities are x and y, the price of x is the ratio y/x, while the price of y is the ratio x/y.


This however has not been used consistently, so that old confusion regarding value frequently reappears. The value of something is a quantity counted in common units of value called numeraire, which may even be an imaginary good. This is done to compare different goods. The unit of value is frequently confused with price, because market value is calculated as the quantity of some good multiplied by its nominal price.


Theory of price asserts that the market price reflects interaction between two opposing considerations. On the one side are demand considerations based on marginal utility, while on the other side are supply considerations based on marginal cost. An equilibrium price is supposed to be at once equal to marginal utility (counted in units of income) from the buyer's side and marginal cost from the seller's side. Though this view is accepted by almost every economist, and it constitutes the core of mainstream economics, it has recently been challenged seriously.


There was time when people debated use-value versus exchange value, often wondering about the Diamond-Water Paradox (paradox of value). The use-value was supposed to give some measure of usefulness, later refined as marginal benefit (which is marginal utility counted in common units of value) while exchange value was the measure of how much one good was in terms of another, namely what is now called relative price. The paradox of value (also known as the diamond-water paradox) is the apparent contradiction, or paradox, that although water is on the whole more useful, in terms of survival, than diamonds, diamonds command a higher price in the market. ...


Relative and nominal price

The difference between nominal price and relative or real price (as exchange ratio) is often made. Nominal price is the price quoted in money while relative or real price is the exchange ratio between real goods regardless of money. The distinction is made to make sense of inflation. When all prices are quoted in terms of money units, and the prices in money units change more or less proportionately, the ratio of exchange may not change much. In the extreme case, if all prices quoted in money change in the same proportion, the relative price remains the same.


It is now becoming clear that the distinction is not useful ansssd indeed hides a major confusion. The conventional wisdom is that proportional change in all nominal prices does not affect real price, and hence should not affect either demand or supply and therefore also should not affect output. The new criticism is that the crucial question is why there is more money to pay for the same old real output. If this question is answered, it will show that dynamically, even as the real price remains exactly the same, output in real terms can change, just because additional money allow additional output to be traded. The supply curve can shift such that at the old price, the new higher output is sold. This shift if not possible without additional money.


From this point of view, a price is similar to an opportunity cost, that is, what must be given up in exchange for the good or service that is being purchased. For example, if x=1 and y=2, the relative price of x in terms of y is 2, and the price of y in terms of x is 0.5. Opportunity cost is a central concept of microeconomics. ...


The price of an item is also called the price point, especially where it refers to stores that set a limited number of price points. For example, Dollar General is a general store or "five and dime" store that sets price points only at even amounts, such as exactly one, two, three, five, or ten dollars (among others). Other stores (such as dollar stores, pound stores, euro stores, 100-yen stores, and so forth) only have a single price point ($1, £1, €1, ¥100), though in some cases this price may purchase more than one of some very small items Price Points along a Demand curve Price points are prices for which demand is relatively high. ... Dollar General is a chain of variety stores operating in 35 U.S. states. ... Smiths Gully General Store in Smiths Gully, Australia. ... Five and dime was a common nickname in the United States for five-and-ten-cent stores (also called 5 and 10s), popular in the early to mid-20th century. ... This article is about the type of currency, for the U.S. Dollar see United States dollar. ... A 99 cent store A dollar store is a store that sells inexpensive items for one dollar or less each. ... GBP redirects here. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ...


Marxian price theory

In Marxian economics, it is argued that price theory must be firmly grounded in the real history of economic exchange in human societies. Money-prices are viewed as the monetary expression of exchange-value. Exchange-value can however also be expressed in trading ratios between quantities of different types of goods. Note: Marxian is not restricted to Marxian economics, as it includes those inspired by Marxs works who do not identify with Marxism as a political ideology. ... In political economy and especially Marxian economics, exchange value refers to one of four major attributes of a commodity, i. ...


In Marxian economics, the increasing use of prices as a convenient way to measure the economic or trading value of labor-products is explained historically and anthropologically, in terms of the development of the use of money as universal equivalent in economic exchange. However, in an anthropological-historical sense, Marxian economists argue a "price" is not necessarily a sum of money; it could be whatever the owner of a good gets in return, when exchanging that good. Money prices are merely the most common form of prices. For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ...


Marxian economists distinguish very strictly between real prices and ideal prices. Real prices are actual market prices realized in trade. Ideal prices are hypothetical prices which would be realized if certain conditions would apply. Most equilibrium prices are hypothetical prices, which are never realized in reality, and therefore of limited use, although notional prices can influence real economic behavior.


According to Marxian economists, while all labor-products existing in an economy have economic value, only a minority of them have real prices; the majority of goods and assets at any time are not being traded, and they have at best a hypothetical price. Six criticisms Marxian economists make of neoclassical economics are that neoclassical price theory: Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ...

  • is not based on any substantive, realistic theory of economic exchange as a social process, and simply assumes that exchange will occur;
  • simply assumes prices can be attached or imputed to all goods and services;
  • assumes equilibrium prices will exist and that markets tend spontaneously to equilibrium prices;
  • fails to distinguish adequately between actual market prices; administered prices; and ideal, accounting, or hypothetical prices.
  • disconnects price theory from the real economic history of the use of prices.
  • is unable to provide a coherent explanation of the relationship between price and economic value.

Most marginalist economists dismiss Marxian theories of price, arguing that those theories require a method of converting from labour values into monetary prices, and that the method given in Marx's Capital (Volume 3) is mathematically flawed. Marxian economists themselves argue that it is impossible to convert values into prices because that attempt involves a conceptual confusion. In certain abstract models, Marx compares quantities of value with price quantities, but he does so, only because of the reality that goods may be traded above or below their value, and the reality that a quantity of value is produced before it is known how much of that value will be realised as income through sales. It would be more correct to say that Marx lacked a theory of short-term price movements.


Austrian theory

The last objection is also sometimes interpreted as the paradox of value, which was observed by classical economists. Adam Smith described what is now called the Diamond – Water Paradox: diamonds command a higher price than water, yet water is essential for life, while diamonds are merely ornamentation. One solution offered to this paradox is through the theory of marginal utility proposed by Carl Menger, the father of the Austrian School of economics. The paradox of value (also known as the diamond-water paradox) is the apparent contradiction, or paradox, that although water is on the whole more useful, in terms of survival, than diamonds, diamonds command a higher price in the market. ... Classical economics is widely regarded as the first modern school of economic thought. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... “Marginal revolution” redirects here. ... Austrian School economist Carl Menger Carl Menger Carl Menger (February 28, 1840 – February 26, 1921) was the founder of the Austrian School of economics. ... The Austrian School, also known as the “Vienna School” or the “Psychological School”, is a heterodox school of economic thought that advocates adherence to strict methodological individualism. ...


As William Barber put it, human volition, the human subject, was "brought to the centre of the stage" by marginalist economics, as a bargaining tool. Neoclassical economists sought to clarify choices open to producers and consumers in market situations, and thus "fears that cleavages in the economic structure might be unbridgeable could be suppressed".


Without denying the applicability of the Austrian theory of value as subjective only, within certain contexts of price behavior, the Polish economist Oskar Lange felt it was necessary to attempt a serious integration of the insights of classical political economy with neo-classical economics. This would then result in a much more realistic theory of price and of real behavior in response to prices. Marginalist theory lacked anything like a theory of the social framework of real market functioning, and criticism sparked off by the capital controversy initiated by Piero Sraffa revealed that most of the foundational tenets of the marginalist theory of value either reduced to tautologies, or that the theory was true only if counter-factual conditions applied. The capital controversy refers to a debate in economics concerning the nature and role of capital goods (or means of production) that occurred during the 1960s, largely between economists such as Joan Robinson and Piero Sraffa at the University of Cambridge in England and economists such as Paul Samuelson and... Piero Sraffa. ...


One insight often ignored in the debates about price theory is something that businessmen are keenly aware of: in different markets, prices may not function according to the same principles except in some very abstract (and therefore not very useful) sense. From the classical political economists to Michal Kalecki it was known that prices for industrial goods behaved differently from prices for agricultural goods, but this idea could be extended further to other broad classes of goods and services. Michał Kalecki (22nd June 1899-18 April 1970) was one of the greatest Polish economist. ...


See also

Look up Price in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... In economics, business, and accounting, a cost is the value of inputs that have been used up to produce something, and hence are not available for use anymore. ... In economics, crisis is an old term in business cycle theory, referring to the sharp transition to a recession. ... A free price system or free price mechanism (informally called the price system or the price mechanism) is an economic system where prices are not set by government or a central planning board but by the interchange of supply and demand, with the resulting prices being understood as signals that... In marketing, geo (also called marketing geography) is a discipline within marketing analysis which uses geolocation (geographic information) in the process of planning and implementation of marketing activities. ... The law of value is a concept in Karl Marxs critique of political economy. ... Next big thing redirects here. ... The marketing mix is generally accepted as the use and specification of the 4 Ps describing the strategic position of a product in the marketplace. ... Microeconomics (or price theory) is a branch of economics that studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources,[1] typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold. ... In microeconomics, production is the act of making things, in particular the act of making products that will be traded or sold commercially. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Price fixing is an agreement between business competitors to sell the same product or service at the same price. ... Price Points along a Demand curve Price points are prices for which demand is relatively high. ... Real prices and ideal prices refers to a distinction between actual prices paid for products, services, assets and labour, and computed prices which are not actually charged or paid in market trade. ... Resale price maintenance is the practice whereby a manufacturer requires distributors of their product to sell at certain prices, or set a minimum price. ... In microeconomics, the Reservation Price is the maximum price a buyer is willing to buy a good or service, or the minimum price a seller is willing to sell a good or service. ... The (manufacturers) suggested retail price (MSRP or SRP), list price or recommended retail price (RRP) (originally, Monroney suggested retail price) of a product is the price the manufacturer recommends that the retailer sell it for. ... A unit of account is a standard numerical unit of measurement for the market value of goods, services, and other transactions. ... Most firms use a Fixed price policy. ... In general, the economic value of something is how much a product or service is worth to someone relative to other things (often measured in money). ... Yield management, also known as revenue management, is the process of understanding, anticipating and reacting to consumer behaviour in order to maximize revenue or profits. ...

External links

  • Wages, Prices & Living Standards: The World-Historical Perspective
  • Historicalstatistics.org Links to historical statistics on prices

References

  • Milton Friedman, Price Theory.
  • George Stigler, Theory of Price.
  • Simon Clarke, Marx, marginalism, and modern sociology: from Adam Smith to Max Weber (London: The Macmillan Press, Ltd, 1982).
  • Makoto Itoh & Costas Lapavitsas, Political Economy of Money and Finance.
  • Pierre Vilar, A history of gold and money.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... George Joseph Stigler (1911 - 1991) was a U.S. economist. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Price - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1048 words)
The concept of price is central to microeconomics where it is one of the most important variables in resource allocation theory (also called price theory).
Price is also central to marketing where it is one of the four variables in the marketing mix that business people use to develop a marketing plan.
In Marxian economics, the increasing use of prices as a convenient way to measure the economic or trading value of labor-products is explained historically and anthropologically, in terms of the development of the use of money as universal equivalent in economic exchange.
Pricing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1040 words)
Pricing is the manual or automatic process of applying prices to purchase and sales orders, based on factors such as: a fixed amount, quantity break, promotion or sales campaign, specific vendor quote, price prevailing on entry, shipment or invoice date, combination of multiple orders or lines, and many others.
In economic terms, it is a price that shifts most of the consumer surplus to the producer.
The classic example of this is the pricing of the snack cake Twinkies, which were perceived as low quality when the price was lowered.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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