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Encyclopedia > Pretoria

Coordinates: 25°44′42″S, 28°11′25″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Pretoria
The central area of Pretoria viewed from the Union Buildings.

Flag
Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence)
Country South Africa
Province Gauteng
Established 1855
Area
 - Total 1,644 km² (634.8 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 - Total 2,345,908
 - Density 856/km² (2,217/sq mi)
Time zone SAST (UTC+2)
Area code(s) 012

Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the executive (administrative) and official de facto capital; the others are Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 165 KB)View of Central Pretoria, South Africa from the gardens of the Union Buildings. ... The Union Buildings are situated on Meintjies Kop, Pretoria, and form the official seat of the South African government. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pretoria. ... The flag of the city of Pretoria, South Africa. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A map of the nine provinces of South Africa South Africa is currently divided into nine provinces. ... Capital Johannesburg Largest city Johannesburg Area  - Total Ranked 9th 17,010 km² Premier (List) Mbhazima Shilowa (ANC) Population   - 2001   - 1996   - Density (2001) Ranked 2nd 8,837,172 7,348,423 520/km² (Ranked 1st) Languages isiZulu (21. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving South African Standard Time, or SAST, is a time zone used by all of South Africa, in addition to Lesotho and Swaziland. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating telephone number ranges to countries, regions, areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks such as mobile phone networks. ... 011 is a calling code that serves the area in and around Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Capital Johannesburg Largest city Johannesburg Area  - Total Ranked 9th 17,010 km² Premier (List) Mbhazima Shilowa (ANC) Population   - 2001   - 1996   - Density (2001) Ranked 2nd 8,837,172 7,348,423 520/km² (Ranked 1st) Languages isiZulu (21. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - Total 2,499 km² (964. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... Bloemfontein (pronounced , Afrikaans and Dutch for spring of Bloem (bloom), flower spring or fountain of flowers is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ...


Pretoria is contained in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality as one of several constituent former administrations (among which also Centurion and Soshanguve), and therefore sometimes incorrectly referred to as Tshwane — this contentious issue is still being decided. The City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality is (as of 5 December 2000) a metropolitan area mostly in Gauteng province, South Africa, that includes the city of Pretoria. ... Soshanguve is a township situated about 45 km north of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ...

Contents

Geography and climate


Pretoria
Pretoria (South Africa)

Pretoria is the transitional area between the Highveld and the Bushveld, approximately 50 km north of Johannesburg in the north-east of South Africa. It lies in a warm, well sheltered, fertile valley, surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg range, 1,370 m (4,495 ft) above sea level. The city's coordinates are approximate 25°43′S, 28°17′E. Snow is an extremely rare event, which occurs once or twice in a century, with the last recorded snowfall on 27 June 2007. Image File history File links Blue_pog. ... The Highveld is a high plateau area of South Africa which includes the largest metropolitan area in the country, Johannesburg. ... The Bushveld is a geographic region of South Africa that encompasses most of Limpopo Province and part of the North West Province. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... Hamerkop Kloof in the Magaliesberg Magaliesberg from Breedtsnek to Tonquani The Magaliesberg is a mountain range extending from Pretoria in the north-west of the Gauteng Province to a point south-east of Pilanesberg, in the North West Province, South Africa (see also Pilanesberg National Park). ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Climate Table
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Highest recorded temperature (°C) 36 36 35 33 29 25 26 31 34 36 36 35 36
Average daily maximum temperature (°C) 29 28 27 24 22 19 20 22 26 27 27 28 25
Average daily minimum temperature (°C) 18 17 16 12 8 5 5 8 12 14 16 17 12
Lowest recorded temperature (°C) 8 11 6 3 -1 -6 -4 -1 2 4 7 7 -6
Average monthly precipitation (mm) 136 75 82 51 13 7 3 6 22 71 98 110 674
Average number of rain days (>= 1 mm) 14 11 10 7 3 1 1 2 3 9 12 15 87
Source: South African Weather Service

For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ...

Demographics

Geographical distribution of home languages in the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality.

The city has a population of approximately one million. The main languages spoken in Pretoria include Tswana, Afrikaans, Ndebele, and English. The whole Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality had a population of 1 985 997 as of the 2001 census. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (943x638, 77 KB) Summary All Stats SA products are protected by copyright. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (943x638, 77 KB) Summary All Stats SA products are protected by copyright. ... Tswana (Setswana), is a Bantu language. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Ndebele language, or isiNdebele, or Sindebele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, and spoken by the AmaNdebele (the Ndebele people). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality is a metropolitan area contained mostly in the province of Gauteng, South Africa, that includes the city of Pretoria. ... This article is about the year. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...

Language Population %
Pedi 439 732 22.14%
Afrikaans 422 866 21.29%
Tswana 339 719 17.11%
Tsonga 198 441 9.99%
Zulu 151 200 7.61%
English 129 923 6.54%
Ndebele 98 077 4.94%
Sotho 78 435 3.95%
Swati 37 963 1.91%
Xhosa 37 957 1.91%
Venda 35 242 1.77%
Other 16 425 0.83%

Northern Sotho, or Sesotho sa Leboa, is one of the official languages of South Africa, and is spoken by 4,208,980 people (2001 Census Data), mostly in the provinces of Gauteng, Limpopo Province and Mpumalanga. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Tswana (Setswana), is a Bantu language. ... The Tsonga or Xitsonga language is spoken in southern Africa by the Tsonga people, also known as the Shangaan. ... Zulu (called isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Ndebele language, or isiNdebele, or Sindebele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, and spoken by the AmaNdebele (the Ndebele people). ... Sesotho (Sotho, Southern Sotho or Southern Sesotho[1]) is a Bantu language spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language. ... Swati (siSwati in the language itself; Swazi in Zulu) is a Bantu language of the Nguni group spoken in Swaziland and South Africa. ... For the Xhosa people, see Xhosa. ... Venda, also known as Tshivenda, or Luvenda, is a Bantu language. ... Map showing principal South African languages by municipality. ...

History

Satellite image of Pretoria from above.

Nguni-speaking settlers, who later became known as the Ndebele (derived from the Sotho word for 'refugees'), were probably the first people to recognise the suitability of the river valley which was to become the location of the future city of Pretoria for settlement. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1240x495, 1461 KB)World Wind image of Pretoria, South Africa. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1240x495, 1461 KB)World Wind image of Pretoria, South Africa. ... For the cattle breed see Nguni cattle. ... The Ndebele people are three tribes or nations of people living in South Africa and Zimbabwe; there are three main groups of Ndebele: The Southern Transvaal Ndebele, who live around Bronkhorstspruit The Northern Transvaal Ndebele, who live in Limpopo Province (formerly Northern Transvaal or Northern Province) around the towns of... Sesotho is a language spoken in southern Africa. ...


During the difaqane in Natal, another band of refugees arrived in this area under the leadership of Mzilikazi. However, they were forced to abandon their villages in their flight from a regiment of Zulu raiders in 1832. Mfecane (isiZulu), also known as the Difaqane or Lifaqane (Sesotho), is an African expression used about chaos and disturbances. ... KwaZulu-Natal, often referred to as KZN, is a province of South Africa. ... Mzilikazi (meaning the path of blood) (ca. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Pretoria itself was founded in 1855 by Marthinus Pretorius, a leader of the Voortrekkers, who named it after his father Andries Pretorius. The elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkers after his victory over the Zulus in the infamous Battle of Blood River. Andries Pretorius also negotiated the Sand River Convention (1852), in which Britain acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal. This made him the first successful leader in the fight against British colonialism in Sub-Sahara Africa It became the capital of the South African Republic (ZAR) on 1 May 1860. Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Son of Andries Pretorius, Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (17 September 1819 - 19 May 1901) was the first president of the South African Republic, and also compiled the constitution of the Republic. ... The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans for pioneers, literally those who move ahead or first/forward traveler) were white Afrikaner farmers, then known as Boers, who in the 1830s and 1840s emigrated during a series of mass movements of a number of separate trekking contingents under different leaders in what is called the... Andries Pretorius Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (November 27, 1798 – 23 July 1853) was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the Transvaal Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic in present-day South Africa. ... The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans for pioneers, literally those who move ahead or first/forward traveler) were white Afrikaner farmers, then known as Boers, who in the 1830s and 1840s emigrated during a series of mass movements of a number of separate trekking contingents under different leaders in what is called the... This article is about the African ethnic group. ... Combatants Voortrekkers Zulu Commanders Andries Pretorius Dambuza Ndlela kaSompisi Strength about 470 men between 10,000 and 20,000 men Casualties 3 wounded 3,000 dead The Battle of Blood River (Afrikaans: Slag van Bloedrivier) was fought on 16 December 1838 on the banks of the Blood River (Bloedrivier) in... Andries Pretorius Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (November 27, 1798 – 23 July 1853) was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the Transvaal Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic in present-day South Africa. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Sand River Convention The Sand River Convention was a convention whereby Great Britain formally recognised the independence of the Boers living beyond the Vaal River. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Anthem Transvaalse Volkslied Location of the Transvaal in pre-1994 South Afica Capital Pretoria Language(s) Dutch, English, Afrikaans Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1857-1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius  - 1883-1902 Paul Kruger  - 1900-1902 Schalk Willem Burger (acting) History  - Established June 27, 1857  - British annexation 1877-1881... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


The founding of Pretoria as the capital of the South African Republic can be seen as marking the end of the Boers' settlement movements of the Great Trek. Trekboers in the Karoo. ...


During the First Boer War, the city was besieged by Republican forces in December 1880 and March 1881. The peace treaty which ended the war was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881 at the Pretoria Convention. Combatants United Kingdom Transvaal Commanders Major-General Sir George Pomeroy Colley Commandant-General Piet Joubert Strength 1,200 3,000 Casualties 408 killed, 315 wounded 41 killed, 47 wounded The First Boer War (Dutch: Eerste Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Eerste Vryheidsoorlog, literally First Freedom War) also known as the First Anglo-Boer... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The peace treaty that ended the First Boer War (December 16, 1880 until March 23, 1881) between the Transvaal Boers and the United Kingdom, which was signed by the South African Republic forces and the British forces. ...


The Second Boer War (1899 to 1902) resulted in the end of the South African Republic and start of British hegemony in South Africa. During the war, Winston Churchill was imprisoned in the Staats Model School in Pretoria but escaped to Mozambique. The city surrendered to British forces under Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts on 5 June 1900 and the conflict was ended in Pretoria with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902. Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Look up hegemony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Churchill redirects here. ... The Staats Model School is situated on the corner of Van der Walt and Skinner Streets in Pretoria, Gauteng Province, Republic of South Africa. ... Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts of Kandahar, Pretoria and Waterford, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, PC (September 30, 1832–November 14, 1914) was a distinguished British soldier and one of the most successful commanders of the Victorian era. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... The Treaty of Vereeniging was a treaty signed on 31 May 1902 to end the Second Boer War between the Boers and the United Kingdom. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange Free State were united with the Cape Colony and Natal Colony in 1910 to become the Union of South Africa. Pretoria then became the administrative capital of the whole of South Africa, with Cape Town the legislative capital. Between 1860 and 1994, the city was also the capital of the province of Transvaal, superseding Potchefstroom in that role. Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... KwaZulu-Natal (often referred to as KZN) is a province of South Africa. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Potchefstroom Flag Potchefstroom is a large academic town with the North-West University, situated on the banks of the Mooi River (literally pretty river), 120 km west-southwest of Johannesburg in the North West Province of South Africa. ...


On 14 October 1931, Pretoria achieved official city status. When South Africa became a republic in 1961, Pretoria remained its administrative capital. is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the creation of new municipal structures across South Africa in 2000, the name Tshwane was adopted for the Metropolitan Municipality that includes Pretoria and surrounding towns. Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... In South Africa, a metropolitan municipality or Category A municipality is a municipality which executes all the functions of local government for a city or conurbation. ...


Pretoria previously had a rather sinister image as "the capital of Apartheid South Africa". However, Pretoria's political reputation was changed with the inauguration of Nelson Mandela as the country's first black President at the Union Buildings in the same city. However, the name Pretoria still has a negative connotation to some black South Africans, and therefore a change of name to Tshwane has been proposed. This proposed change is controversial to most of the inhabitants of the city. A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... The President of South Africa, in full, the President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ... The Union Buildings are situated on Meintjies Kop, Pretoria, and form the official seat of the South African government. ...


One example of the image of Pretoria abroad was the derisive nickname Pretoria-Gasteiz for Vitoria-Gasteiz in Negu Gorriak's song Napartheid. Haec est Victoria quae vincit (This is Victoria which triumphed) Location Location of Vitoria-Gasteiz in Spain Coordinates : 42°51′ N 2°41′ O Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spanish) Spanish name Vitoria-Gasteiz Founded 1181 Postal code 01001-01080... Negu Gorriak (basque for Red Winters or Harsh Winters) is an underground European rock group. ...


In 1994 Peter Holmes Maluleka was elected as transitional mayor of Pretoria, until the first democratic election held later that year, making him the first black mayor of this capital of South Africa. Maluleka later became the chairman of the Greater Pretoria Metropolitan City Council (later Tshwane Metro Council), then was elected Speaker of the Tshwane Metro Council and in 2004 was chosen to be a member of the South African Parliament for the Soshanguve constituency.


Cultural and academic

The front part of the Theo van Wyk Building on the Main Campus of UNISA.
Streetsigns in Pretoria

Pretoria is one of South Africa's leading academic cities, and it is home to both the largest residential university in the country (the University of Pretoria)[citation needed], the Tshwane University of Technology and the largest distance education university (the University of South Africa, more commonly known by its initials, UNISA). The South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is also located in this city. Image File history File links Unisa2. ... Image File history File links Unisa2. ... The University of South Africa is a distance education university, with headquarters in Pretoria, South Africa. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1656x1242, 425 KB) Summary A random street from Pretoria / Southafrica. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1656x1242, 425 KB) Summary A random street from Pretoria / Southafrica. ... The University of Pretoria is a university in South Africa, with a total of about 38 499 students being enrolled in 2005. ... Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) is a higher education institution in South Africa that came into being through a merger of three technikons — Technikon Northern Gauteng, Technikon North-West and Technikon Pretoria. ... // Distance Education is a field of expertise exploring situations in which the learner and the teacher are separated in time, space or both. ... Note: UniSA can also refer to the University of South Australia. ... The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is South Africas central and premier scientific research and development organization. ...


Sport

One of the most popular sports in Pretoria is rugby union. Loftus Versfeld is home to the Blue Bulls who compete in the domestic Currie Cup, the Bulls who compete in the international Super 14 competition (Winners of the Super 14 in 2007) and to soccer side Mamelodi Sundowns . Pretoria also hosted matches during the 1995 Rugby World Cup. Loftus Versfeld will be used for matches of the 2010 Soccer World Cup.There are two soccer teams in the city campaigning in the Premier Soccer League. They are Sundowns and Supersport United. Sundowns are the reigning PSL Champions. Cricket is also popular. For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Loftus Versfeld Stadium is a sports stadium situated in Pretoria, South Africa. ... The Blue Bulls, for sponsorship reasons named Vodacom Blue Bulls, or more popularly by the clubs Afrikaans name Die Blou Bulle, are a South African rugby union team that participates in the annual Currie Cup tournament. ... For the cricket competition originally known as the Currie Cup, see SuperSport Series. ... The Bulls, for sponsorship reasons known as the Vodacom Bulls, are a South African rugby union team competing in the Super 14 competition. ... The Super 14 is the largest rugby union football club championship in the southern hemisphere, consisting of four state teams from Australia (Queensland, New South Wales, ACT, and Western Australia), five New Zealand franchises, each of which is comprised by a number of provinces (the resulting teams are based in... Mamelodi Sundowns are a South African football club who currently compete in the Premier Soccer League. ... The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup. ... Mamelodi Sundowns is a South African football club that participates in the countrys Premier Soccer League. ... Supersport United is a South African football (soccer) club that currently competes in the Premier Soccer League. ...


Economy

Pretoria is an important industrial center, with heavy industries including iron and steel casting as well as automobile, railway and machinery manufacture. In a study entitled An Inquiry into Cities and Their Role in Subnational Economic Growth in South Africa and published in 2002 by statisticians at Potchefstroom University, the city was found to contribute 8.55% of the country's total GDP, making it the third biggest contributor behind Johannesburg and Cape Town.[1] General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Car redirects here. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Potchefstroom campus of the North-West University (nicknamed Pukke) was formerly known as the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education (abbreviated PU for CHE). ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - Total 2,499 km² (964. ...


Change of name

On 26 May 2005 the South African Geographical Names Council (SAGNC), which is linked to the Directorate of Heritage in the Department of Arts and Culture, approved changing the name of Pretoria to Tshwane, which is already the name of the Metropolitan Municipality[2] in which Pretoria, and a number of surrounding towns are located. Although the name change was approved by the SAGNC, it has not yet been approved by the Minister of Arts and Culture, Pallo Jordan. The matter is currently under consideration while he has requested further research on the matter. Should the Minister approve the name change, the name will be published in the Government Gazette, giving the public opportunity to comment on the matter. The Minister can then refer the public response back to the SAGNC, before presenting his recommendation before parliament, who will vote on the change. Various public interest groups have warned that the name change will be challenged in court, should the minister approve the renaming. The long process involved made it unlikely the name would change anytime soon, if ever, even assuming the Minister had approved the change in early 2006. is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The South African Geographical Names Council is the official government body of South Africa that advises the executive branch of the central government (in the form of the Minister of Arts and Culture) on new geographical names as well as the changing of existing geographical names. ... The City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality is a metropolitan area contained mostly in the province of Gauteng, South Africa, that includes the city of Pretoria. ... Zweledinga Pallo Jordan (22 May 1942) is the South African Arts and Culture Minister. ...


The Tshwane Metro Council has advertised Tshwane as "Africa's leading capital city" since the name change was approved by the SAGNC in 2005. This has led to further controversy, however, as the name of the city had not yet been changed officially, and the council was, at best, acting prematurely. Following a complaint lodged with the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), it was ruled that such advertisements are deliberately misleading and should be withdrawn from all media.[3] Despite the rulings of the ASA, Tshwane Metro Council failed to discontinue their "City of Tshwane" advertisements. As a result, the ASA requested that Tshwane Metro pay for advertisements in which it admits that it has misled the public. Refusing to abide by the ASA's request, the Metro Council was banned consequently from placing any advertisements in the South African media that refer to Tshwane as the capital. ASA may still place additional sanctions on the Metro Council that would prevent it from placing any advertisements in the South African media, including council notices and employment vacancies.[4][5]


After the ruling, the Metro Council continued to place Tshwane advertisements, but placed them on council-owned advertising boards and busstops throughout the municipal area. In August 2007, an internal memo was leaked to the media in which the Tshwane mayor sought advice from the premier of Gauteng on whether the municipality could be called the "City of Tshwane" instead of just "Tshwane".[6] This could increase confusion about the distinction between the city of Pretoria and the municipality of Tshwane.


Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ...

Places of interest

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 455 pixels Full resolution (805 × 458 pixel, file size: 337 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Originally uploaded to fr. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 455 pixels Full resolution (805 × 458 pixel, file size: 337 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Originally uploaded to fr. ... The Union Buildings are situated on Meintjies Kop, Pretoria, and form the official seat of the South African government. ... Photo of the Voortrekker monument File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo of the Voortrekker monument File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Monument from the front The Voortrekker Monument is a monument that is situated in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. ... The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa is the national zoo of South Africa. ... Church Square is the historic centre of the city of Pretoria, South Africa. ... The Union Buildings are situated on Meintjies Kop, Pretoria, and form the official seat of the South African government. ... Marabastad (also called Asiatic Bazaar or Location) is a business area near the Pretoria city centre. ... At 115 000 m², Menlyn Park is Pretorias largest shopping centre. ...

Museums

Kruger House is the historical Pretoria residence of the Boer leader and President of the South African Republic, Paul Kruger. ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ... Melrose House is a stately Victorian mansion located in Pretoria, South Africa. ... The Treaty of Vereeniging was a treaty signed on 31 May 1902 to end the Second Anglo-Boer War between the South African Republic and the Orange Free State Republic on one side and the Great Britain on the other. ... Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War There were two Boer wars, one in 1880-81 and the second from October 11, 1899-1902 both between the British and the settlers of Dutch origin (called Boere, Afrikaners or Voortrekkers) in South Africa that put an end to the two independent... The Monument from the front The Voortrekker Monument is a monument that is situated in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. ... The Transvaal Museum is a natural history museum situated in Pretoria, South Africa. ... The African Window is the national cultural history museum (NCHM) of South Africa. ...

Nature Reserves

  • Groenkloof Nature Reserve
  • Rietfontein Nature Reserve
  • Moreletaspruit Nature Reserve
  • Faerie Glen Nature Reserve
  • Wonderboom Nature Reserve
  • National Botanical Gardens

The Wonderboom Nature Reserve is a 1 km² reserve centered on a wild willowleaf fig tree Ficus salicifolia that is more than a thousand years old, found to the north of the Magaliesberg in the city of Tshwane north of central Pretoria, South Africa. ...

Stadiums

Loftus Versfeld Stadium is a sports stadium situated in Pretoria, South Africa. ...

Radio and television broadcasting

Radio and TV broadcasting in Pretoria is supplied via a network of VHF/FM and UHF transmitters and repeaters owned and operated by Sentech - South Africa's state-owned broadcast signal distributor - from four transmitter sites in and around the city. A number of community radio stations operate transmitters from non-Sentech sites. Sentech is the signal distributor for the South African broadcasting sector. ...


The inception of an FM broadcast service in South Africa, began on September 1, 1961 from what is now known as the Sentech Tower in Brixton, Johannesburg. The remainder of South Africa was initially served by medium wave transmitters, which were essentially localised to the larger centres. A massive drive through the 1960's and 70's saw the roll-out of the FM network to the rest of the country. Much of the original equipment supplied was through technology exchange programmes, meaning that the transmitters were of European design, but manufactured in South Africa. Original networks were based on 3kW tube FM equipment, operating into channel combining equipment to allow the use of a common transmit antenna system, with a gain of around 10-12dB. Sentech embarked on a huge programme in the late 1980's to effect replacement of these ageing FM transmitter and antenna systems. In world terms, it was the single largest contract awarded to a local manufacturer for the supply of FM transmitters. Sentech Tower Sentech Tower is the name of a 234 metre high TV tower in the Brixton suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ...


In South Africa, digital migration still has to happen. Currently, analogue TV occupies the VHF frequencies where digital radio needs to migrate. Once digital migration is done, South Africa will have Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) and listen to digital radio on the DAB system. For now, virtually all South Africans rely on analogue terrestrial (FM/AM/SW) broadcasts for their radio consumption. Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV or DTT) is an implementation of digital technology to provide a greater number of channels and/or better quality of picture and sound using aerial broadcasts to a conventional antenna (or aerial) instead of a satellite dish or cable connection. ... Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ...


Pretoria Transmitting Station

The main broadcast site for Pretoria is situated west of the city close to the Hartebeespoort Dam - designed to beam signals down into the valley ("moot") formed by the Magaliesberg. Twelve radio and six TV services are broadcast from this site. Hamerkop Kloof in the Magaliesberg Magaliesberg from Breedtsnek to Tonquani The Magaliesberg is a mountain range extending from Pretoria in the north-west of the Gauteng Province to a point south-east of Pilanesberg, in the North West Province, South Africa (see also Pilanesberg National Park). ...


RADIO

  • 87.90 MHz - SABC Thobela FM
  • 89.30 MHz - SABC Ligwalagwala FM
  • 91.00 MHz - SABC Motsweding FM
  • 92.40 MHz - SABC Metro FM
  • 94.20 MHz - Jacaranda 94.2
  • 95.60 MHz - SABC Munghana Lonene FM
  • 96.80 MHz - SABC Ikwekwezi FM
  • 97.50 MHz - SABC Radio 2000
  • 101.0 MHz - SABC Radio Sonder Grense
  • 102.4 MHz - SABC Ukhozi FM
  • 104.6 MHz - SABC SAfm
  • 106.0 MHz - Talk Radio 702

TV Jacaranda 94. ... Radio 702 is a commercial AM (soon-to-be FM) radio station found on AM 702 based in Johannesburg, South Africa, broadcasting to the greater Gauteng province. ...

SABC 1 is a South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) public service television channel that carries programming in English and African languages. ... SABC 2 is a South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) television channel that carries programming in English, Afrikaans and various African Languages. ... SABC 3 is a commercial South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) television channel that carries programming in English. ... M-Net (originally an abbreviation for Electronic Media Network) is a subscription-funded television channel in South Africa, established in 1986 by a consortium of newspaper companies, including Naspers. ... The title of this article should be e. ...

Sunnyside Transmitting Station

The Telkom Lukasrand Tower, which dominates the Pretoria skyline, carries four radio services and TV repeaters. This article is about the South African telecommunications provider. ...


RADIO

  • 90.50 MHz - Radio Rippel
  • 100.1 MHz - SABC Lotus FM
  • 103.6 MHz - SABC 5 FM
  • 107.2 MHz - Tuks FM

TV 5FM is a SABC radio station mainly based in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Tuks FM is the radio station of the University of Pretoria and one of South Africas most respected community broadcasters. ...

SABC 1 is a South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) public service television channel that carries programming in English and African languages. ... SABC 2 is a South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) television channel that carries programming in English, Afrikaans and various African Languages. ... SABC 3 is a commercial South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) television channel that carries programming in English. ... M-Net (originally an abbreviation for Electronic Media Network) is a subscription-funded television channel in South Africa, established in 1986 by a consortium of newspaper companies, including Naspers. ... The title of this article should be e. ...

Menlo Park Transmitting Station

This is a repeater station, designed as gap-filler for the eastern parts of Pretoria.


RADIO

  • 89.00 MHz - SABC Motsweding FM
  • 93.60 MHz - SABC Ikwekwezi FM
  • 95.30 MHz - Jacaranda 94.2
  • 98.60 MHz - SABC Radio 2000
  • 102.1 MHz - SABC Radio Sonder Grense
  • 105.7 MHz - SABC SAfm

TV Jacaranda 94. ...

SABC 1 is a South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) public service television channel that carries programming in English and African languages. ... SABC 2 is a South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) television channel that carries programming in English, Afrikaans and various African Languages. ... SABC 3 is a commercial South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) television channel that carries programming in English. ... M-Net (originally an abbreviation for Electronic Media Network) is a subscription-funded television channel in South Africa, established in 1986 by a consortium of newspaper companies, including Naspers. ... The title of this article should be e. ...

Pretoria North Transmitting Station

This is essentially a TV repeater station for the area north of the Magaliesberg.


RADIO

  • 89.90 MHz - SABC 5 FM

TV 5FM is a SABC radio station mainly based in Johannesburg, South Africa. ...

SABC 1 is a South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) public service television channel that carries programming in English and African languages. ... SABC 2 is a South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) television channel that carries programming in English, Afrikaans and various African Languages. ... SABC 3 is a commercial South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) television channel that carries programming in English. ... M-Net (originally an abbreviation for Electronic Media Network) is a subscription-funded television channel in South Africa, established in 1986 by a consortium of newspaper companies, including Naspers. ... The title of this article should be e. ...

Community Radio Stations on non-Sentech sites

  • 92.80 MHz - Kangala Community Radio (Verena-Renosterkop)
  • 93.00 MHz - Soshanguve Community Radio (Soshanguve)
  • 93.60 MHz - TUT TOP Stereo (Tshwane University of Technology-Pretoria West)
  • 96.20 MHz - TUT FM (Tshwane University of Technology-Soshanguve)
  • 103.0 MHz - Impact Radio (Magaliesberg)
  • 104.2 MHz - Radio Pretoria (Kleinfontein)
  • 106.6 MHz - Moretele Community Radio (Babelegi-Hammanskraal)

Medium wave (AM) and short wave radio stations

The following medium wave and short wave radio stations can also be heard in Pretoria. Some stations will be clearer at night. Short wave frequencies vary according to time of day. More information is at www.sentech.co.za.


MEDIUM WAVE (AM)

  • 576 kHz - SABC Metro FM (Meyerton, Gauteng)
  • 657 kHz - Radio Pulpit (Meyerton, Gauteng)
  • 909 kHz - Voice of America (Moepeng Hill, Botswana)
  • 1197 kHz - Family Radio (Lancers Gap, Maseru, Lesotho)

SHORT WAVE (all at Meyerton, Gauteng) Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... Family Radio Logotype Family Radio (Family Stations Inc. ...

The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world through multiple technologies. ... Channel Africa is the international broadcasting service of the South African Broadcasting Corporation. ... The National Body representing amateur radio in South Africa. ... Trans World Radio (TWR) is a multinational evangelistic broadcaster. ... Family Radio Logotype Family Radio (Family Stations Inc. ...

Broadcasts from outside the city

Due to Pretoria's proximity to Johannesburg, most radio services broadcast from the 234m high Sentech Tower in Brixton, Johannesburg can also be heard in the southern parts of Pretoria (where the line of sight is not blocked by the Magaliesberg or ridges) These include: Sentech Tower Sentech Tower is the name of a 234 metre high TV tower in the Brixton suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ...

  • 88.40 MHZ - SABC Lesedi FM
  • 93.20 MHz - SABC Umhlobo Wenene FM
  • 94.70 MHz - 94.7 Highveld Stereo
  • 95.90 MHz - Kaya FM
  • 99.20 MHz - Y-fm
  • 102.7 MHz - Classic FM
  • 107.8 MHz - SABC PhalaPhala FM

In certain areas of Pretoria (especially on hilltops) it is also possible to pick up radio stations transmitted from Sentech's sites at Thabazimbi, Limpopo and Middelburg, Mpumalanga. Highveld Stereo broadcasts on the 94. ...


Pretoria radio at a glance

Excluding the SA Radio League, there are 36 conventional (FM/AM/SW) radio stations available in Pretoria (including those broadcasting from Johannesburg).

  • 15 are owned by the national public broadcaster, the SABC (13 PBS; 2 PCBS)
  • 6 are privately-owned commercial enterprises (only two private stations has transmitters in Pretoria - Jacaranda 94.2 and Talk Radio 702)
  • 9 are single-transmitter community radio stations with limited reach
  • 11 broadcast only in English
  • 5 broadcast in Afrikaans or are bilingual (Afrikaans & English)
  • 14 broadcast in vernacular African languages
  • 12 have their studios situated in the Pretoria/Centurion area
  • 3 are international news and current affairs services (external services)
  • 3 are multilingual international Christian radio stations

Satellite broadcasting

Satellite television broadcasting is provided by South Africa's premier satellite TV provider - Multichoice's DStv and satellite radio broadcasting by WorldSpace Digital Satellite Radio. They utilise the IS-7 Ku-band and the AfriStar satellites respectively. Sentech also does satellite broadcasting via its Vivid system on PanAmSat PAS7 and PAS10 - primarily to distribute feeds to remote transmitter sites and business broadcasting, but the service is also available to the public and offers a small number of TV and radio channels which are not available on other platforms. Digital Satellite Television (also known as DStv) is MultiChoices multi-channel digital satellite TV service in Africa, launched in 1995. ... WorldSpaces AfriStar control center in Washington, D.C. WorldSpace is the worlds first digital satellite radio network. ...


Trivia

  • Pretoria's main street, Church Street is the longest urban street in South Africa and one of the longest straight streets in the world[citation needed].
  • Many of the city's streets are lined with Jacaranda trees that blossom mauve (purplish blue) in spring, giving rise to the city's nickname "Jacaranda City" (or "Jakarandastad" in Afrikaans).
  • The Cullinan Diamond (the largest gem diamond ever found) was discovered in the town of Cullinan near Pretoria at the Premier Mine on January 26, 1905.
  • Pax Praetoriana was named after Pretoria.
  • The initial full designation of the city was Pretoria Philadelphia (‘Pretoria of brotherly love’).
  • The band Seether is from Pretoria.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Species See text Jacaranda is a genus of 49 species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions of South and Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. ... This article is about the diamond called the Star of Africa. ... Cullinan is a small town 30 km east of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. ... The Premier Mine is an underground diamond mine owned by De Beers that is situated in the town of Cullinan, 40 kilometers east of Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Pax Praetoriana (or Pax Pretoriana) refers to the relative stability of modern South Africa and the foreign policy of the modern Republic of South Africa at dominating in the African continent (economically and politically) and attempting to make other countries to adopt the South African style of government, which is... Seether is a post-grunge band from South Africa. ...

See also

Pretoria CBD, April 2006, from Lukasrand (Muckleneuk Hill), to the SE of the CBD. The Central Business District (CBD) of Pretoria, South Africa is the traditional centre of government and commerce, although today most corporate office, small business, shops and many government departments can be found in the sprawling suburbs...

References

  1. ^ Joburg and satellites dominate economy
  2. ^ Pretoria name change is approved, BBC
  3. ^ SABC pulls 'Tshwane city' ads, News24
  4. ^ SA capital advert row sparks ad-alert threat, IOL
  5. ^ Media can't place Tshwane ads, FIN24
  6. ^ Down with Pretoria signs!: South Africa: Politics: News24

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... News24 is Southern Africa and Africas premier online news resource, with round-the-clock coverage to bring you local and international news as it happens, when it happens. ...

External links


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