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Encyclopedia > Pretender

A Pretender is a claimant to an abolished throne or to a throne already occupied by somebody else. The English word pretend comes from the French word prétendre, meaning "to put forward, to profess or claim". The term pretender is also applied to those persons on whose behalf a claim to a throne is advanced, regardless of whether that person himself actually makes an active claim.[citation needed] The papal equivalent of a pretender is an antipope. For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The word pretender has several different meanings: The claimant to an abolished throne two notable claimants to the English throne, the son and grandson of a deposed monarch, were known as The Old Pretender and The Young Pretender The Great Pretender, a song by The Platters (lyrics) The Pretender, an... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ...

Contents

Modern pretenders

The following list contains current pretenders. During the monarchical period of some countries listed here, there was no reigning house as it is known in the European sense – those are for example Tibet or the Central African Empire. These countries have a — in the column "House". This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The Central African Empire was the name of the Central African Republic when president Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared himself Emperor Bokassa in 1977. ...


* Some countries, names and dates are not listed here because of missing information, so the list is not complete yet.


Europe

Country

Pretender For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

born

Albania Crown Prince Leka 1939 1961 son of Zog I (self-proclaimed King from 1928 to 1939, afterwards unofficially in exile to 1961) Zogu Prince Leka 1982
Giorgio Castriota Scanderbeg c. 1955 1997 descendant of Scanderbeg Castriota-Scanderbeg
Austria-Hungary Crown Prince Otto[1] 1912 1922 son of Charles I (Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary etc. from 1916 to 1918) Habsburg-Lorraine Archduke Karl 1961
Bulgaria Simeon II 1937 1946 Tsar from 1943 to 1946[2] Wettin (Saxe-Coburg and Gotha line) Kardam, Prince of Turnovo 1962
Courland Prince Ernst-Johann Biron of Courland 1940 1982 descendant of Ernst Johann von Biron (Duke from 1737 to 1740 and 1763 to 1769) Biron Prince Michael 1944
England (Jacobite) Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 great-grandson of Maria Theresia of Austria-Este, heir of the House of Stuart Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
Finland Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse 1926 1980 descendant of Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse (nominal King from October to December 1918) Hesse Hereditary Prince Heinrich 1966
France (Legitimist) Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou 1974 1989 10th-generation descendant of Louis XIV (King from 1643 to 1715) Bourbon Juan Carlos I of Spain 1938
France (Orléanist and Unionist) Henri, Count of Paris, Duke of France 1933 1999 great-great-great-grandson of Louis-Philippe of France (King from 1830 to 1848) Orléans (sub-line of the House of Bourbon) François, Count of Clermont 1961
France (Bonapartist) Charles Napoléon 1950 1997 great-great-grandnephew of Napoléon I (self-proclaimed Emperor from 1804 to 1814 and in 1815) Bonaparte Jean-Christophe Napoléon 1986
Greece Constantine II 1940 1973 King from 1964 to 1973 Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (sub-line of the House of Oldenburg) Crown Prince Pavlos 1967
Ireland (Jacobite) Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 great-grandson of Maria Theresia of Austria-Este, heir of the House of Stuart Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
Lithuania Wilhelm Albert, Duke of Urach 1957 1991 grandson of Mindaugas II (nominal King in 1918) Urach (a morgantic subline of the House of Württemberg) Prince Karl Philipp 1992
Montenegro Prince Nikola 1944 1986 great-grandson of Nikola I (King from 1910 to 1918) Petrović-Njegoš Hereditary Prince Boris 1980
Portugal Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza 1945 1976 great-grandson of Miguel I (King from 1828 to 1834) Braganza (male-line descent from the House of Capet) Infante Afonso, Prince of Beira 1996
Romania Michael I 1921 1947 King from 1927 to 1930 and from 1940 to 1947 Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Frederick William, Prince of Hohenzollern 1924
Paul Lambrino 1948 2006 grandson of Carol II (King from 1930 to 1940) Lambrino (descended of an annulled Hohenzollern marriage) Alexander Lambrino 1961
Russia Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna 1953 1992 descendant of Alexander II (Tsar from 1855 to 1881) Romanov (a sub-line of the House of Holstein-Gottorp, a sub-line of the House of Oldenburg) Grand Duke George Mikhailovich 1981
Nicholas Romanov, Prince of Russia 1922 1992 descendant of Nicholas I (Tsar from 1825 to 1855) Prince Dmitri Romanovich Romanov 1926
Scotland (Jacobite) Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 great-grandson of Maria Theresia of Austria-Este, heir of the House of Stuart Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
Spain (Carlist) Carlos Hugo, Count of Montemolin 1930 1977 sons of Xavier, Duke of Parma, declared regent by Alfonso Carlos of Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime Bourbon Carlos, Duke of Madrid 1970
Sixtus, Duke of Aranjuez 1940 1979
Warsaw Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen 1926 1968 great great great grandnephew of Frederick Augustus I (Duke from 1807 to 1813) Wettin Prince Albert 1934
Yugoslavia[3] Crown Prince Alexander 1945 1970 son of Peter II (King from 1934 to 1945) Karageorgevich Hereditary Prince Peter 1980

Image File history File links KingdomOfAlbania. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zog I, Skanderbeg III of Albania (born Ahmet Zogolli, later changed to Ahmet Zogu) (October 8, 1895 – April 9, 1961) was King of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Zog of Albania King Zog (October 8, 1895–April 9, 1961) was an Albanian politician and the first king of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ... Prince Leka of the Albanians (Leka Anwar Zog Reza Baudouin Msiziwe Zogu, born March 26, 1982, Sandton, South Africa) is the titular Crown Prince of Albania. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The designation C: (sometimes C: ) is the drive letter that refers to the main partition (or portion of an hard drive) on an MS-DOS or Windows personal computer. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Scanderbeg sculpture Gjergj Kastrioti (Italian: Giorgio Castriota) (1405–January 17, 1468), better known as Skanderbeg or Skenderbej, was an Albanian leader who resisted the expanding Ottoman Empire for 25 years and is today considered a national hero of Albania. ... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary_flag_1869-1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Otto, Crown Prince of Austria or Otto von Habsburg (born 20 November 1912 as Archduke Franz Joseph Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xaver Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius of Austria) is the current head of the Habsburg family and the eldest son of Karl of Austria... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emperor Charles I of Austria The Blessed Charles I (Karl Franz Josef Ludwig Hubert Georg Maria von Habsburg-Lothringen) (17 August 1887 – 1 April 1922) (Hungarian: IV. Károly (Károly Ferenc József)) was (among other titles) the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary and Bohemia... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Archduke Karl of Austria (Karl Thomas Robert Maria Franziskus Georg Bahnam von Habsburg-Lothringen) Prince Imperial of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, (born January 11, 1961 at Starnberg, Bavaria, Germany) is the son of Otto von Habsburg and Princess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen and the grandson of the... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Simeon of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (born June 16, 1937) was head of state as the Tsar of Bulgaria, Tsar Simeon II, from 1943 to 1946. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The House of Wettin was a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors (Kurfürsten) and kings that ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding at times the kingship of Poland. ... Capitals Coburg and Gotha Head of State Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present-day states of Bavaria... Prince Kardam (born December 2, 1962), is eldest son of the deposed tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria and his wife Doña Margarita Gomez-Acebo y Cejuela, however born after his loss of the throne. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Prince Ernst-Johann Karl Oskar Eitel-Friedrich Peter Burchard Biron of Courland (born August 6, 1940) is the senior male line descendant of Ernst Johann von Biron and as such heir to the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Ernst Johann von Biron Ernest John von Biron, Duke of Courland (Russian: Эрнст Иоганн Бирон) (3 December 1690 - 28 December 1772), duke of Courland, was the grandson of a groom in the service of Jacob Kettler, Duke of Courland, who bestowed upon him a small estate, which Birens father inherited and where... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Biron is the name of several communes in France: Biron, in the Charente-Maritime département Biron, in the Dordogne département Biron, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... His Royal Highness the Duke of Bavaria Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern (born July 14, 1933), styled as His Royal Highness The Duke of Bavaria, is head of the Wittelsbach family, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Maria Theresia Henriette Dorothee von Habsburg-Lothringen, Archduchess of Austria-Este (July 2, 1849 - February 3, 1919) was the daughter and only child of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and his wife, Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria, born 21 January 1937 is the heir presumptive to both the Bavarian Royal House and the Jacobite Succession. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... HRH Moritz, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (full name: Moritz Friedrich Karl Emanuel Humbert Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel) (b. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Prince Frederick of Hesse (May 1, 1868 – May 28, 1940), officially Friedrich Karl Ludwig Konstantin, Prinz und Landgraf von Hessen und Brabant (in German), (Frederick Charles Louis Constantin, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse and Brabant), (Fredrik Kaarle or Fredrik Kaarlo in Finnish), (Fredrik Carl in Swedish), (Frederik Carl in Danish... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Hesse is a region of west-central Germany. ... Heinrich Donatus, Hereditary Prince of Hesse (Heinrich Donatus Philipp Umberto) (b. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Legitimists are Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... HRH Louis Alphonse de Bourbon, duc dAnjou (on his French National Identity Card; full name: Luis Alfonso Gonzalo Víctor Emanuel Marco de Borbón y Martínez-Bordiú, Duke of Anjou, born Madrid, April 25, 1974) is considered to be the head of the French Royal House by... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... “Louis XIV” redirects here. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Juan Carlos I (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias; born January 5, 1938, Rome, Italy) is the reigning King of Spain. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Orléanists were a French political faction or party which arose out of the French Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1870. ... Legitimists are Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Prince Henri Philippe Pierre Marie dOrléans, comte de Paris, duc de France (born June 14, 1933) is a claimant to the French throne. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... François Henri Louis Marie, Comte de Clermont and Dauphin de France (born 1960), is the eldest son and heir of the Orleanist pretender to the French throne, Henri, Comte de Paris, Duc de France. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... Napoléon VII, Prince Imperial (Charles Marie Jérôme Victor Napoléon) (born 19 October 1950) is a French politician, and claims to be the current head of the Imperial House of France as heir male to the rights and legacy established by his great-great-granduncle, Emperor Napol... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Jean-Christophe Louis Ferdinand Albéric Bonaparte was born on the 11 July 1986 in St. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Constantine of Greece, formerly Constantine II, King of the Hellenes (born June 2, 1940) was King of Greece from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1974. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (in Danish: Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Lyksborg (or Glücksborg), from Glücksburg in northernmost Germany, is a line of the House of Oldenburg that is descended from King King Christian III of Denmark, to which the royal houses of Denmark, Norway, and the exiled... The House of Oldenburg is a North German noble family and one of Europes most influential Royal Houses. ... Prince Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece, Prince of Denmark is the eldest son of Constantine II, King of the Hellenes from 1964 to 1973. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Leinster. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... His Royal Highness the Duke of Bavaria Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern (born July 14, 1933), styled as His Royal Highness The Duke of Bavaria, is head of the Wittelsbach family, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Maria Theresia Henriette Dorothee von Habsburg-Lothringen, Archduchess of Austria-Este (July 2, 1849 - February 3, 1919) was the daughter and only child of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and his wife, Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria, born 21 January 1937 is the heir presumptive to both the Bavarian Royal House and the Jacobite Succession. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Prince Wilhelm Albert of Urach, Count of Württemberg (Wilhelm Prinz von Urach, Graf von Württemberg) was born on 9 August 1957 in Schloss Hohenberg, Bayern, Germany. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Mindaugas II of Lithuania (March 3, 1864, Monaco - March 24, 1928, Rapallo, Italy) was elected King of Lithuania in 1918. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The title Duke of Urach was created for Friedrich Wilhelm Alexander Ferdinand, Count of Württemberg on March 28, 1857, with the style of HSH. Wilhelm was the son of Duke Wilhelm of Württemberg (1761-1830) and his morganatic wife, Baroness Wilhelmine von Tunderfeldt-Rhodis (1777-1822). ... Coat of Arms of the (formerly royal) Württemberg family, on a gate of the familys current residence, Schloss Altshausen in Altshausen, Germany // [edit] Counts of Württemberg Conrad I 1089-1122 Conrad II 1100-1130 John d. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... Prince Nikola of Montenegro (born 7 July 1944) is the pretender to the throne of Montenegro. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Coat of arms of Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ King Nikola I Mirkov Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Никола I Мирков Петровић-Његош) (October 7 [O.S. September 25] 1841 – March 1, 1921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as king from 1910 to 1918 and as prince from 1860 to 1910. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The House of Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ (Serbian Cyrillic: Петровић-Његоши) is the Royal House of Montenegro. ... Prince Boris Petrović-NjegoÅ¡, Grand Duke of Grahovo and Zeta (Born 21 January 1980 in Les Lilas, France) is the first son of Prince Nikola of Montenegro. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Portuguese flag 1830 - 1910 (for use at land) File links The following pages link to this file: Flag of Portugal ... Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza (Duarte Pio João Miguel Gabriel Rafael de Bragança; born May 15, 1945, Berne), pron. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Miguel I, King of Portugal/pron. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Royal House of Braganza (Portuguese: Casa Real de Bragança, pron. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Infante Afonso of Portugal, Prince of Beira (Afonso de Santa Maria Miguel Gabriel Rafael de Herédia de Bragança) born 25 March 1996, is the oldest son of Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza and his wife Isabel de Herédia. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... King Michael I of the Romanians (born October 25, 1921), Prince of Hohenzollern[1][2][3], reigned as King of the Romanians (in Romanian Maiestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor or Majestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor) from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Motto NIHIL SINE DEO Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in 1848 Capital Sigmaringen Language(s) German Religion Catholic Government Principality History  - Partition of the countship of Hohenzollern 1576  - Raised to Principality 1623  - Incorporation into the kingdom of Prussia 1850 The House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian... HH Friedrich Wilhelm, The Prince of Hohenzollern (Friedrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Joseph Maria Manuel Georg Meinrad Fidelis Benedikt Michael Hubert von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen) (Born 3 February 1924) is the head of the house of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Paul Philip Hohenzollern (born 13 August 1948 in Paris) also known as HRH Prince Paul of Romania or Paul Lambrino, is the son of the late Carol Hohenzollern. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carol II of Romania, (15 October 1893 – 4 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from June 8, 1930 until September 6, 1940. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... H.I.H. Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, Titular Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias Maria Vladimirovna of Russia, Mariya Vladimirovna Romanova (Мари́я Влади́мировна Рома́нова) (born December 23, 1953) is regarded by some Nobiliary Genealogists and Russian Monarchists as the Head of the Imperial Family of Russia and Titular Empress and Autocrat of... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... The House of Holstein-Gottorp, a branch of the Oldenburg dynasty, rose to several thrones. ... The House of Oldenburg is a North German noble family and one of Europes most influential Royal Houses. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Grand Duke Yurij Mikhailovich of Russia. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Nicholas Romanovich Romanov or Nikolai Romanovich Romanov (Николай Романович Романов), (born September 13, 1922) is the President of the Romanov Family Association. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Prince Dimitri Romanovich Romanov (born 4 March 1926) is an author and the younger brother of Nicholas Romanov, Prince of Russia a claimant to headship of the Imperial House of Russia. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... His Royal Highness the Duke of Bavaria Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern (born July 14, 1933), styled as His Royal Highness The Duke of Bavaria, is head of the Wittelsbach family, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Maria Theresia Henriette Dorothee von Habsburg-Lothringen, Archduchess of Austria-Este (July 2, 1849 - February 3, 1919) was the daughter and only child of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and his wife, Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria, born 21 January 1937 is the heir presumptive to both the Bavarian Royal House and the Jacobite Succession. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... Carlism restored the cross of Burgundy assimilated by the Spanish Bourbons throught the Spanish Habsburgs and used as flag of the Spanish empire. ... Carlos Hugo de Borbón Parma (baptized Carlos Hugo Xavier Marie Sixte Louis Robert Jean Georges) is the current head of the Ducal House of Parma. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Francisco Javier de Borbón y Braganza (Francis Xavier of Bourbon and Bragança). ... Alfonso Carlos of Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime Alfonso Carlos de Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime (London 12 September 1849-Vienna 29 September 1936) was the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France and the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sixto Enrique de Borbón, styled by his followers His Royal Highness Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma and Bourbon-Busset, Duke of Aranjuez, Infante of Spain, Prince of Parma and Piacenza, Regent of the Traditionalist Communion, Standard-bearer of Tradition, is the current Carlist pretender to the throne of Spain. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen (born January 31, 1926) is the head of the Royal House of Saxony. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick Augustus I (German: ; December 23, 1750 - May 5, 1827) was King of Saxony (1805-1827) from the House of Wettin. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... The House of Wettin was a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors (Kurfürsten) and kings that ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding at times the kingship of Poland. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Kingdom_of_Yugoslavia. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Crown Prince Alexander II (Alexander II Karageorgevich) (Serbian Cyrillic: Престолонаследник Александар II Карађорђевић), born July 17, 1945) is the claimant to the throne of Serbia. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter II of Yugoslavia, locally known as Kralj Petar II KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the second, as well as the last, King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The House of KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević (Serbian: Карађорђевићи; English: House of Karageorgevich) was a Serbian ruling dynasty descended from KaraÄ‘orÄ‘e (George Petrović). The family had a long blood feud with the Obrenović dynasty. ... Hereditary Prince Peter (Serbian name: Петар Карађорђевић) was born February 5, 1980 in Chicago, Illinois, United States. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...

Germany

Some of the former German monarchies are not listed here because the all eligible dynasts of the respective formerly reigning houses are extinct (year of the dynasty's end in brackets): The duchy of Saxe-Altenburg (1991). The principalities of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (since 1909 in personal union with Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt), became extinct in the male line in 1971 but there are potential claimants to the principalities. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small state in Germany, in the present-day state of Thuringia, with capital at Rudolstadt. ... Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small state in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with capital at Sondershausen. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ...

Country

Pretender

born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

born

Empire
Germany Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia 1976 1994 great-great-grandson of William II (Emperor from 1888 to 1918) Hohenzollern Prince Christian-Sigismund 1946
Kingdoms
Bavaria Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 great-grandson of Ludwig III (King from 1913 to 1918) Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
Hanover Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover 1954 1987 great-great-grandson of Georg V (King from 1851 to 1866) Hanover (a sub-line of the House of Welf, a sub-line of the House of Este) Prince Ernst August 1983
Prussia Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia 1976 1994 great-great-grandson of William II (King from 1888 to 1918) Hohenzollern Prince Christian Sigismund 1946
Saxony Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen 1926 1968 grandson of Frederick Augustus III (King from 1904 to 1918) Wettin Prince Albert 1934
Westphalia Charles Napoléon 1950 1997 great-great-grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte (King from 1807 to 1813) Bonaparte Jean-Christophe Napoléon 1986
Württemberg Carl, Duke of Württemberg 1936 1975 grand-nephew of William II (King from 1891 to 1918) Württemberg Hereditary Duke Friedrich 1961
Grand Duchies
Baden Maximilian, Margrave of Baden 1933 1963 great-grandnephew of Frederick II (Grandduke from 1907 to 1918) Zähringen Hereditary Prince Bernhard 1970
Frankfurt Nicolas, Duke of Leuchtenberg 1933 1988 descendant of Eugène de Beauharnais (Grand duke in 1813) Beauharnais Prince Constantin 1965
Hesse and by Rhine Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse 1926 1968 adoptive grandson (from the elder line of Hesse-Cassel) of Ernest Louis (Grand Duke from 1892 to 1918) Hesse Hereditary Prince Heinrich 1966
Hesse-Cassel (now united to Hesse and by Rhine, but actually an electorate and landgraviate)
Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz Duke Georg Borwin of Mecklenburg, Count of Carlow 1956 1996 morganatic descendant of Grand Duke Charles II (Strelitz line); bears a ducal title of Russian creation; allegedly recognized as a dynast Carlow[citation needed] (a morganatic subline of the House of Mecklenburg, a sub-line of the House of Nikloting) Duke Alexander 1991
Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia 1976 2001 heir-representative of the Margraves of Brandenburg, to whom Mecklenburg would have passed on the extinction of the house Hohenzollern Prince Christian-Sigismund 1946
Oldenburg Anton-Günther, Duke of Oldenburg 1923 1970 grandson of Frederick Augustus II (Grand Duke from 1900 to 1918) Holstein-Gottorp (a sub-line of the House of Oldenburg) Duke Christian 1955
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Officially the Grand Duchy of Saxony) Michael, Prince of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach 1946 1988 grandson of William Ernest (Grand Duke from 1901 to 1918) Wettin Prince Wilhelm Ernst 1946
Duchies
Anhalt Eduard, Prince of Anhalt 1941 1963 son of Joachim Ernst (Duke from April to November 1918) Ascania
Brunswick Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover 1954 1987 grandson of Ernest Augustus III (Duke from 1913 to 1918) Hanover (a sub-line of the House of Welf, a sub-line of the House of Este) Prince Ernst August 1983
Nassau Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg 1955 2000 great-great-grandson of Adolphe (Duke from 1839 to 1866) Bourbon Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume 1981
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Andreas, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 1943 1998 grandson of Charles Edward (Duke from 1900 to 1918) Wettin Hereditary Prince Hubertus 1975
Saxe-Meiningen Konrad, Prince of Saxe-Meiningen 1952 1984 grandnephew of Bernhard III (Duke from 1914 to 1918)
Principalities
Hohenzollern-Hechingen Frederick William, Prince of Hohenzollern 1924 1965 great-great-grandson of Karl Anton (Prince from 1848 to 1849) Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Hereditary Prince Karl Friedrich 1952
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Lippe Armin, Prince of Lippe 1924 1949 son of Leopold IV (Prince from 1905 to 1918) Lippe Hereditary Prince Stephan 1959
Reuss-Köstritz (Junior Line) Heinrich IV, Prince of Reuss-Köstritz 1919 1946 current head of the House after the extinction of the first hereditary line in 1945 Reuss Prince Heinrich XIV 1955
Reuss-Greiz (Senior Line) hereditary line ceased in 1928 through the death of Heinrich XXVII (Prince from 1908 to 1918), so the claim passed to the Köstritz line that year
Schaumburg-Lippe Alexander, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe 1958 2003 grandnephew of Adolf II (Prince from 1911 to 1918) Lippe Hereditary Prince Heinrich-Donatus 1994
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Friedrich Magnus, Count of Solms-Wildenfels 1927 1984 heir via application of semi-salic law, descendant of Friedrich Günther (Prince of Rudolstadt from 1793 to 1863) Solms Hereditary Count Michael 1949
Philip, Prince of Stolberg-Wernigerode 1967 2001 heir of Count Botho of Stolberg, to whom the Schwarzburg lands would have passed on the extinction of the house via a pact between the two houses Stolberg Prince Georg Heinrich 1970
Waldeck and Pyrmont Wittekind, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont 1936 1967 grandson of Friedrich Adolf (Prince from 1893 to 1918) Waldeck Hereditary Prince Carl Anton 1991

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Georg Friedrich Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia, (German: Georg Friedrich Ferdinand Prinz von Preußen) (born June 10, 1976 in Bremen) is the current head of the royal house of Prussia and the imperial house of Germany. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor von Preußen; English: Prince Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... Prince Christian-Sigmund of Prussia (born March 14, 1946) is the heir presumptive and uncle to Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, pretender to the titles of German Emperor, King of Prussia and Grand Duke of Mecklenburg. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(lozengy). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... His Royal Highness the Duke of Bavaria Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern (born July 14, 1933), styled as His Royal Highness The Duke of Bavaria, is head of the Wittelsbach family, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Ludwig III (Ludwig Leopold Joseph Maria Aloys Alfred), King of Bavaria, (January 7, 1845 – October 18, 1921) was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria, born 21 January 1937 is the heir presumptive to both the Bavarian Royal House and the Jacobite Succession. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ... Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (German: Ernst August Albert Otto Rupprecht Oskar Berthold Friedrich-Ferdinand Christian-Ludwig Prinz von Hannover, in English also known as Ernest Augustus of Hanover) (born 26 February 1954 in Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany) is the eldest son of Ernest Augustus IV, Prince of Hanover (1914... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... George V, King of Hanover and 2nd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August (27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was the only son of Ernst August I, King of Hanover and 1st Duke of Cumberland (fifth son of King George III of the United Kingdom... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... The possessions of the Guelfs in the days of Henry the Lion The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th century until the 20th century. ... For Tolkiens fictional character, see Estë To know more about the city, see Este The House of Este is a European princely dynasty. ... His Royal Highness Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (in English also known as Ernest Augustus of Hanover; born 26 February 1954 in Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany) is the oldest son of Ernest Augustus IV, Prince of Hanover (1914–1987) and his first wife, Ortrud Prinzessin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Gl... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Georg Friedrich Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia, (German: Georg Friedrich Ferdinand Prinz von Preußen) (born June 10, 1976 in Bremen) is the current head of the royal house of Prussia and the imperial house of Germany. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor von Preußen; English: Prince Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... Prince Christian-Sigmund of Prussia (born March 14, 1946) is the heir presumptive and uncle to Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, pretender to the titles of German Emperor, King of Prussia and Grand Duke of Mecklenburg. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen (born January 31, 1926) is the head of the Royal House of Saxony. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Friedrich August III Johann Ludwig Karl Gustav Gregor Philipp, King of Saxony (25 May 1865 -18 February 1932) was the son of King Georg I of Saxony (1832-1904) and his wife Maria Ana, Infanta of Portugal (1843-1884). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The House of Wettin was a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors (Kurfürsten) and kings that ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding at times the kingship of Poland. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Kingdom_of_Westphalia. ... The Kingdom of Westphalia is a historical state in present-day Germany that existed from 1807-1813. ... Napoléon VII, Prince Imperial (Charles Marie Jérôme Victor Napoléon) (born 19 October 1950) is a French politician, and claims to be the current head of the Imperial House of France as heir male to the rights and legacy established by his great-great-granduncle, Emperor Napol... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Jérôme Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte, King of Westphalia (November 15, 1784 - June 24, 1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon, who made him King of Westphalia (1807-1813). ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Jean-Christophe Louis Ferdinand Albéric Bonaparte was born on the 11 July 1986 in St. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flagge_Königreich_Württemberg. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Carl, Duke of Württemberg (Carl Maria Peter Ferdinand Philipp Albrecht Joseph Michael Pius Konrad Robert Ulrich Herzog von Württemberg) (born 1 August 1936) is the current Head of the House of Württemberg. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... William II King of Württemberg Wilhelm II, King of Württemberg (25 February 1848-2 October 1921) was son of Prince Friedrich of Württemberg (1808-1870) and his wife Catherine of Württemberg (1821-1898), daughter of King William I of Württemberg. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... // Counts of Württemberg Conrad I 1089-1122 Conrad II 1100-1130 John d. ... Friedrich, Hereditary Duke of Württemberg (Friedrich Philipp Carl Franz Maria von Württemberg) was born on 1 June 1961. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Großherzogtum_Baden_(1891-1918). ... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... HRH Maximilian, Margrave of Baden (Maximilian Andreas Friedrich Gustav Ernst August Bernhard, born 3 July 1933 in Schloss Salem, Salem, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden (born July 9, 1857 in Karlsruhe; died August 8, 1928 in Badenweiler) was the last Grand Duke of Baden. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Zähringen is the name of an old and influential German noble family, taken from the castle and village of that name. ... Bernhard, Hereditary Prince of Baden (Bernhard Max Friedrich August Gustav Ludwig Kraft, born 27 May 1970 in Schloss Salem, Salem, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Grand Duchy of Frankfurt was a German state of Napoleonic creation. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Eugène Rose de Beauharnais (September 3, 1781 - February 21, 1824) was the first child and only son of Joséphine de Tascher de la Pagerie and Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... HRH Moritz, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (full name: Moritz Friedrich Karl Emanuel Humbert Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel) (b. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Ernest Louis Charles Albert William (de: Ernst Ludwig Karl Albert Wilhelm), (25 November 1868-9 October 1937) was the last Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine from 1892 until his abdication in 1918. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Hesse is a region of west-central Germany. ... Heinrich Donatus, Hereditary Prince of Hesse (Heinrich Donatus Philipp Umberto) (b. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hesse. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip of Hesse and his eldest son Wilhelm IV inherited the northern portion and established his capital in Kassel. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Großherzogtümer_Mecklenburg. ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy in northern Germany, roughly consisting of the present day district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (the historical Stargarder Land), bordering areas of modern-day Brandenburg with the town of Fürstenberg and the area around Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. ... Duke Georg Borwin of Mecklenburg, Count of Carlow (Georg Borwin Friedrich Franz Karl Stephan Konrad Hubertus Maria, born 10 June 1956 at Freiburg) is a claimant to the grand duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Charles II in 1800 Charles II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (German: ) (October 10, 1741 - November 6, 1816) was first duke, then grand duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. ... The Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg, the more common name for the House of Nikloting, was a North German dynasty that ruled until 1918. ... The Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg, the more common name for the House of Nikloting, was a North German dynasty that ruled until 1918. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Georg Friedrich Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia, (German: Georg Friedrich Ferdinand Prinz von Preußen) (born June 10, 1976 in Bremen) is the current head of the royal house of Prussia and the imperial house of Germany. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Coat of Arms of the Margraviate of Brandenburg This article lists Margraves and Electors of Brandenburg during the period of time that Brandenburg was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... Prince Christian-Sigmund of Prussia (born March 14, 1946) is the heir presumptive and uncle to Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, pretender to the titles of German Emperor, King of Prussia and Grand Duke of Mecklenburg. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Oldenburg is a historical state in todays Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. ... Anton-Günther Friedrich August Josias, Duke of Oldenburg (born 16 January 1923) is the son of Hereditary Grand Duke Nikolaus of Oldenburg (1897-1970) and his first wife Princess Helene of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1899-1944). ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The House of Holstein-Gottorp, a branch of the Oldenburg dynasty, rose to several thrones. ... The House of Oldenburg is a North German noble family and one of Europes most influential Royal Houses. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... Michael Benedict Georg Jobst Carl Alexander Bernhard Claus Friedrich, Prince of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (b. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... William Ernest, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Wilhelm Ernst Karl Alexander Frederick Heinrich Bernhard Albert Georg Hermann, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (10 June 1876 - 24 April 1923) was the last Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The House of Wettin was a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors (Kurfürsten) and kings that ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding at times the kingship of Poland. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Order of Albert the Bear Coat of Arms, Duke of Anhalt Eduard Julius Ernst August Erdmann, Prince of Anhalt[1], titular Duke of Anhalt, was born on 3 December 1941,[2] the son of Joachim Ernst, Duke of Anhalt[2] (1901-1947), with four siblings. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joachim Ernst, Duke of Anhalt (11 January 1901-18 February 1947) was the last ruler of the Duchy of Anhalt. ... This article is about the nobility title. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Herzogtum_Braunschweig. ... Location of the Duchy of Brunswick within the German Empire Capital Braunschweig Government Monarchy Duke  - 1813-1815 Frederick William  - 1913-1918 Ernest Augustus History  - Restoration 1815  - Abdication 1918 Area  - 1910 3,672 km² Population  - 1910 est. ... Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (German: Ernst August Albert Otto Rupprecht Oskar Berthold Friedrich-Ferdinand Christian-Ludwig Prinz von Hannover, in English also known as Ernest Augustus of Hanover) (born 26 February 1954 in Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany) is the eldest son of Ernest Augustus IV, Prince of Hanover (1914... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Ernst August, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August) (17 November 1887, Penzing-30 January 1953, Castle Marienburg near Hanover), reigning Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (2 November 1913-8 November 1918), was a grandson of King George V of Hanover, whom the Prussians deposed in 1866. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... The possessions of the Guelfs in the days of Henry the Lion The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th century until the 20th century. ... For Tolkiens fictional character, see Estë To know more about the city, see Este The House of Este is a European princely dynasty. ... His Royal Highness Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (in English also known as Ernest Augustus of Hanover; born 26 February 1954 in Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany) is the oldest son of Ernest Augustus IV, Prince of Hanover (1914–1987) and his first wife, Ortrud Prinzessin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Gl... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... ... Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (Henri Albért Gabriel Félix Marie Guillaume), the head of state of Luxembourg was born at Betzdorf Castle in Luxembourg 16 April 1955, the eldest son of Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg and Grand Duchess Joséphine-Charlotte (née Princess Joséphine-Charlotte... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Grand Duke Adolphe of Luxembourg, Adolph Wilhelm August Karl Friedrich of Nassau-Weilburg (July 24, 1817 – November 17, 1905) was the last Duke of Nassau, and the fourth Grand Duke of Luxembourg. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg (Guillaume Jean Joseph Marie) born November 11, 1981, is the eldest child of Grand Duke Henri and his wife Maria Teresa Mestre. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flagge_Herzogtum_Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha_(1911-1920). ... Capitals Coburg and Gotha Head of State Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present-day states of Bavaria... HH Prince Andreas of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke in Saxony (Andreas Michael Friedrich Hans Armin Siegfried Hubertus) (b. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Leopold Charles Edward George Albert; in German Carl Eduard, Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 19 July 1884 - 6 March 1954) was the fourth and last reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, a duchy in Germany (from 30 July 1900 to... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The House of Wettin was a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors (Kurfürsten) and kings that ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding at times the kingship of Poland. ... Hubertus Michael, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was born on 16 September 1975. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Herzogtum_Sachsen-Meiningen. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... John Frederick Konrad Charles Edward Horst Arnold Matthew, Prince of Saxe-Meiningen, Duke of Saxony, German: Johann Friedrich Konrad Carl Eduard Horst Arnold Matthias Prinz zu Sachsen-Meiningen (b. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Bernhard III Frederick Wilhelm Albrecht Georg, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (b. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hohenzollern-Hechingen is a branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ... HH Friedrich Wilhelm, The Prince of Hohenzollern (Friedrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Joseph Maria Manuel Georg Meinrad Fidelis Benedikt Michael Hubert von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen) (Born 3 February 1924) is the head of the house of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Karl Anton Joachim Zephyrin Friedrich of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (7 September 1811 - 2 June 1885) was head of the house of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Prime Minister of Prussia. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Flag Motto NIHIL SINE DEO Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in 1848 Capital Sigmaringen Language(s) German Religion Catholic Government Principality History  - Partition of the countship of Hohenzollern 1576  - Raised to Principality 1623  - Incorporation into the kingdom of Prussia 1850 The House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian... Karl Friedrich, Hereditary Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (Karl Friedrich Emich Meinrad Benedikt Fidelis Maria Michael Gerold) was born on 20 April 1952 in Sigmaringen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Fürstentum_Lippe. ... Lippe within the German Empire Capital Detmold Government Principality History  - Established 1123  - Raised to County 1528  - Raised to Principality 1789  - German Revolution 1918 Lippe was a historical state in Germany. ... HSH Armin, Prince of Lippe (Armin Leopold Ernst Bruno Heinrich Willa August) was born on 18 August 1924. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold IV, Prince of Lippe Leopold IV, Prince of Lippe (30 May 1871-30 December 1949) was the last Prince of Lippe He was born in Oberkassel the son of Count Ernst of Lippe-Biesterfeld (1842-1904) and Princess Karoline of Wartensleben (1844-1905). ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The House of Lippe is a German royal house. ... HSH Stephan, Hereditary Prince of Lippe (Stephan Leopold Justus Richard) was born on 24 May 1959 in Detmold, Germany. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Fürstentum_Reuß_jüngere_Linie. ... Reuss (German: Reuß) is the name of several historical states in todays Thuringia, Germany. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternate use: Reuss River Reuss is the name of several historical states in todays Thuringia, Germany. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Reuss Elder Line within the German Empire Capital Greiz Government Principality History  - Established 1778  - German Revolution 1918  - Merged into Thuringia 1919 The Principality of Reuss Elder Line (German: ) was a state in Germany. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Fürstentum_Schaumburg-Lippe. ... Schaumburg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Alexander, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe (Ernst August Alexander Christian Viktor Hubert) (born 25 December 1958) is the head of the Princely House of Schaumburg-Lippe. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Adolf II, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe Adolf II, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe (23 February 1883-26 March 1936) was the last ruler of the small Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The House of Lippe is a German royal house. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small state in Germany, in the present-day state of Thuringia, with capital at Rudolstadt. ... Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small state in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with capital at Sondershausen. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Friedrich Günther, Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Friedrich Günther, Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (6 November 1793 - 28 June 1867) was a sovereign prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Solms-Wildenfels was a minor County of southern Hesse, Germany. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Stolberg-Wernigerode was a German County located in western Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, in the Harz region around Wernigerode. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Waldeck (or later Waldeck-Pyrmont) was a sovereign principality in what is now Lower Saxony and Hesse (Germany). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Friedrich, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont Friedrich, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont (Friedrich Adolf Hermann Prinz zu Waldeck und Pyrmont ) was born on 20 January 1865. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...

Italy

Modena, Naples and Parma do not mean the Italian cities but the former states on the territory of present-day's Italy. Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... For other uses, see Naples (disambiguation). ... Parma is a city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, famous for its architecture and the fine countryside around it. ...

Country

Pretender

born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

born

Etruria Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma 1940 1979 great-great-grandson of Charles II (Louis II) (King from 1803 to 1807) Bourbon Carlos, Prince of Piacenza 1970
Italy Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples 1937 1983 son of Umberto II (King from May to June 1946) Savoy Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice and Piedmont 1972
Amedeo, Duke of Aosta 1943 2006 cousin of Umberto II (King from May to June 1946) Prince Aimone, Duke of Apulia 1967
Mantua Prince Maurizio Gonzaga 1938 1943 descendant of Federico I Gonzaga (Marquess from 1478 to 1484) Gonzaga Prince Corrado Gonzaga 1941
Modena and Reggio Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este 1955 1996 head of the ducal family of Modena Habsburg-Lorraine Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este 1986
Naples Joachim, 8th Prince Murat 1944 1944 descendant of Joachim Murat (King from 1808 to 1815, appointed by Napoléon I of France) Murat Joachim, Prince of Pontecorvo 1973
Parma Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma 1930 1977 grandson of Roberto I (Duke from 1854 to 1859) Bourbon Carlos, Prince of Piacenza 1970
Piombino Prince Niccolò Boncompagni-Ludovisi 1941 1988 descendant of Antonio I Boncompagni-Ludovisi (prince from 1778 to 1801) Boncompagni Prince Francesco Boncompagni-Ludovisi 1965
Tuscany Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1966 1993 descendant of Ferdinand IV (Grandduke from 1859 to 1860) Habsburg-Lorraine Archduke Amadeo, Grand Prince of Tuscany 2001
Two Sicilies Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria 1938 1964 descendants of Ferdinand II (King from 1830 to 1859) Bourbon Prince Pedro, Duke of Noto 1968
Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Castro[4] 1926 1966 Prince Carlo, Duke of Calabria 1963

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Merchant flag of the Kingdom of Etruria. ... Carlos Hugo de Borbón Parma (baptized Carlos Hugo Xavier Marie Sixte Louis Robert Jean Georges) is the current head of the Ducal House of Parma. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Charles Louis of Bourbon-Parma (Carlo Ludovico di Borbone Parma) (22 December 1799–16 April 1883) was King of Etruria (1803–1807), Duke of Lucca (1824–1847), and Duke of Parma (1847–1848). ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples (Vittorio Emanuele Alberto Carlo Teodoro Umberto Bonifacio Amadeo Damiano Bernardino Gennaro Maria di Savoia) (born February 12, 1937) was the last Crown Prince of Italy and is considered to be a pretender to the defunct Italian throne. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Umberto II, occasionally anglicized as Humbert II, (September 15, 1904, Racconigi, province of Cuneo - March 18, 1983, Geneva, Switzerland), the last King of Italy, nicknamed the King of May (Italian: Re di Maggio), was born the Prince of Piedmont. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice and Piedmont (Emanuele Filiberto Umberto Reza Rene Maria di Savoia) (June 22, 1972 - ), a member of the House of Savoy and titular Prince of Venice and Piedmont, is the son of Vittorio Emanuele, a pretender to the defunct throne of Italy. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Amedeo Umberto Constantino Giorgio Paolo Elena Maria Fiorenzo of Savoy, (born 27 September 1943) is one of several claimants to the headship of the House of Savoy, the family which ruled Italy from 1861 to 1946. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Umberto II, occasionally anglicized as Humbert II, (September 15, 1904, Racconigi, province of Cuneo - March 18, 1983, Geneva, Switzerland), the last King of Italy, nicknamed the King of May (Italian: Re di Maggio), was born the Prince of Piedmont. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Aimone Umberto Emanuele Filiberto Luigi Amadeo Gustavo Elena Maria Fiorenzo of Savoy, (born 13 October 1967) is the second child and only son of Amedeo, 5th Duke of Aosta and his former wife, Princess Claude of Orléans. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Duchy of Mantua was an Italian state that was ruled by the Gonzaga family from 1328 to 1708. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Federico I Gonzaga at the Uffizi, Florence. ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... Year 1484 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... The Gonzaga family ruled Mantua in Northern Italy from 1328 to 1708. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Civil ensign of the Duchy of Modena, 1830-1859. ... HI&RH Prince Lorenz Otto Carl Amadeus Thadeus Maria Pius Andreas Marcus dAviano of Belgium, Duke of Modena, Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Imperial of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, Duke of Modena (Head of the House of Este) , styled His Imperial and Royal Highness Prince Lorenz... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Prince Amedeo of Belgium (Amedeo Marie Joseph Carl Pierre Philippe Paola Marcus dAviano, born February 21, 1986) Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Imperial of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, Hereditary Duke of Modena, is the first child of HI&RH Prince Lorenz, Archduke of Austria-Este and... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Murat Coat of Arms Prince Murat was a title created by Emperor Napoleon I for his brother-in-law Joachim Murat who would serve as King of Naples. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul IIIs illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered around the city of Parma. ... Carlos Hugo de Borbón Parma (baptized Carlos Hugo Xavier Marie Sixte Louis Robert Jean Georges) is the current head of the Ducal House of Parma. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Robert I Duke of Parma, (Roberto I Carlo Luigi Maria of Bourbon, Duke of Parma and Piacenza) (July 9, 1848 – November 16, 1907) was the ruler of Parma and Piacenza from 1854 until 1859, when the duchy was annexed to Italy. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Principate of Piombino was a state of Italy, which existed (initially as independent lordship) from 1399 to 1805, when Napoleon absorbed it into the Principate of Lucca and Piombino. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Baldassarre Boncompagni Baldassarre Boncompagni-Ludovisi (Rome, 10 May 1821 – Rome, 13 April 1894), prince of Piombino, was an Italian historian of mathematics. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... 1848 Grand Duchy of Tuscany flag. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ... Archduke Sigismund of Austria, Titular Grand Duke of Tuscany (Sigismund Otto Maria Josef Gottfried Henrich Erik Leopold Ferdinand von Habsburg-Lothringen) Prince Imperial of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, (born 21 April 1966 in Lausanne). ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany, (Italian: Ferdinando IV, Granduca di Toscana; 10 June 1835 – 17 January 1908) was the son of Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 1860 Flag drawn by Jaume Ollé, from FOTW Flags Of The World website File links The following pages link to this file: Two Sicilies Flag of Italy Categories: Conditional use images ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration... Infante Don Carlos of Spain, Prince of the Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (Carlos Maria Alfonso Marcel de Borbon-Dos Sicilias y de Borbon-Parma) (born January 16, 1938 in Lausanne) is the son of Don Alfonso of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (1901-1964) and Princess Alice of... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Ferdinand II (Ferdinando Carlo, January 12, 1810 – May 22, 1859) was the King of the Two Sicilies (Southern Italy) from 1830 until his death. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Ferdinand Maria Andrea Alfonso Marcus of Bourbon Two Sicilies, Duke of Castro (born 28 May 1926) is a claimant to the headship of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Carlo of Bourbon-Two Sicilies is one of two claimants to the title, Duke of Calabria. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Africa

Country

Pretender A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

born

Burundi Princess Rosa Paula Iribagiza 1934 1977 daughter of Mwambutsa IV (King from 1915 to 1966) Ntwero ?
Central Africa Jean-Bédel Bokassa II 1975 1996 son of Jean-Bédel Bokassa I (self-proclaimed Emperor from 1976 to 1979)
Egypt Fu'ād II 1952 1953 King from 1952 to 1953 Muhammad 'Ali Muhammad Ali, Prince of Said 1979
Ethiopia Zera Yacob Amha Selassie 1953 1997 grandson of Haile Selassie I (Emperor from 1930 to 1936 and from 1941 to 1974) Solomon Paul Wossen Sagad Makonnen 1947
Ethiopia (Iyasuist) Girma Yohannis Iyasu 1961  ? grandson of Iyasu V (Emperor from 1913 to 1916)
Kano Alhaji Ado Bayero 1930 1963 son of Abdullahi Bayero dan Muhammad Abbas (Emir from 1926 to 1953) ? ?
Libya Muhammad as-Senussi 1962 1992 great nephew of Idris I (King from 1951 to 1969) Senussi
Rwanda Kigeli V 1935 1961 King from 1959 (de facto from 1954) to 1961 Ndahindurwa
South Kasai Albert I Kalonji Ditunga 1919 or 1929 1961 proclaimed King in 1961
Sudan Fu'ād II 1952 1953 King from 1952 to 1953 Muhammad 'Ali Muhammad Ali, Prince of Said 1979
Tunisia Prince Muhammad Bey 1928 2006 descendant of Muhammad V an-Nasir (Bey from 1906 to 1922) Husainid ?
Zanzibar Jamshid bin Abdullah Al-Busaidi 1929 1964 Sultan from 1963 to 1964 Sa'îd Sayyid Ali bin Jamshid Al Busaidi ?

Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng (1912 - 1977) was the king of Burundi from December 16, 1915 to July 8, 1966. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ... Jean-Bédel Georges Bokassa, Crown Prince of Central Africa was born on the 2nd November 1975 the son of Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire and his wife Catherine Denguiadé, who became Empress on Bokassas accession to the throne. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Emperor Bokassa I, also known as Salah Eddine Ahmed Bokassa and Jean-Bédel Bokassa (IPA: , (February 22, 1921–November 3, 1996), was the military ruler of the Central African Republic from January 1, 1966 and the emperor of the Central African Empire from December 4, 1976, until his overthrow... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt_1922. ... King Fuad II of Egypt and the Sudan (Ahmed Fuad) (Arabic: الملك أحمد فؤاد الثاني) was born on 16 January 1952. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Muhammad Ali Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th Century. ... Prince Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Prince of Said born 5 February 1979 in Cairo, is the eldest son of the deposed King Fuad II of Egypt, he is thus the heir apparent to the defunct throne of Egypt. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia_(1897). ... Crown Prince Zera Yacob Amha Selassie Zera Yacob Amha Selassie (1953-) (Geez ዘርአ ያዕቆብ አምሃ ሥላሴ), styled the Crown Prince of Ethiopia is the grandson of Emperor Haile Selassie and son of Emperor-in-Exile Amha Selassie of Ethiopia. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The Solomonid dynasty is the traditional royal house of Ethiopia, claiming descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who is said to have given birth to the traditional first king Menelik I after her Biblically-described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince (Abeto Lij) Girma Yohannis Iyasu Menelik (born 1961) is the Iyasuist claimant to the abolished throne of Ethiopia. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Iyasu V (Geez ኢያሱ), also known as Lij Iyasu (Geez ልጅ ኢያሱ; 4 February 1887 - 25 November 1935) was the designated but uncrowned monarch of Ethiopia (1913 - 1916). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Kano State is a state located in North-Western Nigeria. ... Alhaji Ado Bayero is the current (as of 2005) Emir of the northern Nigerian province of Kano. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya_(1951). ... Crown Prince Muhammad as-Senussi Sayyid Muhammad bin Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Senussi (born on 20 October 1962) is the son of the Hasan as-Senussi, former Crown Prince of Libya, and of Fawzia bint Tahir Bakeer. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Idris I (Arabic: إدريس الأول) (March 12, 1890 - May 25, 1983) was the first King of Libya, reigning from 1951 to 1969. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The Senussi or Sanussi refers to a Muslim political-religious order in Libya and Sudan founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi, Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1791–1859). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie, President of the Crown Council of Ethiopia (L) and King Kigeli V of Rwanda (R). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Kasai. ... Flag of South Kasai South Kasai was a secessionist region in the area of south central Congo (Kinshasa) during the early 1960’s. ... Albert Kalongi (b. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan_(1956-1970). ... King Fuad II of Egypt and the Sudan (Ahmed Fuad) (Arabic: الملك أحمد فؤاد الثاني) was born on 16 January 1952. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Muhammad Ali Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th Century. ... Prince Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Prince of Said born 5 February 1979 in Cairo, is the eldest son of the deposed King Fuad II of Egypt, he is thus the heir apparent to the defunct throne of Egypt. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Muhammad V an-Nasir (1855 - 1922) was the ruler of Tunisia between 11 May 1906 and 10 July 1922. ... The Bey of Tunis is the title of the Head of state of Tunisia. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Husainid Dynasty is the former ruling dynasty of Tunisia originally of Cretan origin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Sultanate_of_Zanzibar. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... Jamshid bin Abdullah Al-Busaidi (Arabic: جمشيد بن عبد الله) (born September 16, 1929 in Zanzibar) was the last Arab Sultan of Zanzibar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... This page contains a list of Sultans of Zanzibar, which merged with Tanganyika in 1964 to form Tanzania. ...

Americas

Country

Pretender World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...

born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

born

Araucania and Patagonia Prince Felipe de Tounens 1927 1951 heir of Orélie Antoine I (self-proclaimed King from 1860 to 1878 Tounens ?
Brazil (Vassouras branch) Prince Luís Gastão of Orléans-Braganza 1938 1981 great-great-grandson of Pedro II (Emperor from 1831 to 1889) Orléans-Braganza (a sub-line of the House of Orléans, a sub-line of the House of Bourbon) Prince Bertrand of Orléans-Braganza 1941
Brazil (Petrópolis branch) Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza 1913 1940 great-grandson of Pedro II (Emperor from 1831 to 1889) Prince Pedro Carlos of Orléans-Braganza 1945
Mexico Don Maximilian von Götzen-Itúrbide 1944 1949 descendant of Salvador de Itúrbide y de Marzán, grandson of Agustín I (proclaimed Emperor from 1822 to 1823) Itúrbide Don Fernando von Götzen-Itúrbide 1992
Miskito Nation Norton Cuthbert Clarence  ? 1978 since 1978 pretender to the Miskito Kingdom and hereditary chief of the Miskito Nation ? ?

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Kingdom_of_Araucania_and_Patagonia. ... The Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia (also called New France) was a micronation founded by a French lawyer and adventurer named Orelie-Antoine de Tounens in southern South America in the mid 19th century. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Orelie-Antoine I, would-be-King of Araucania and Patagonia. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Second_Empire_of_Brazil. ... Prince Luís of Orléans-Braganza (born June 6, 1938) in Portuguese: Luís de Orléans e Bragança, whose baptismal name is Luís Gastão Maria José Pio, is the present Head of the Brazilian Imperial House and, according to legitimist claims, de jure Emperor of... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Dom Pedro II (pron. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... On September 7, 1822, Prince Pedro of Portugal, heir apparent to the Portuguese throne and the Kings representative in Brazil, declared the countrys independence from Portugal and proclaimed himself Emperor of Brazil. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Prince Bertrand of Orléans-Braganza: current Prince Imperial of the Brazilian Imperial House. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza (born Pedro de Alcántara Gastão João Maria Felipe Lourenço Humberto Miguel Gabriel Raphael Gonzaga de Orléans e Bragança on 19th February 1913 in Eu, France) is the titular 6th Prince of Grão Pará, and head... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dom Pedro II (pron. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico_1864. ... Maximiliano Gustav Richard Albrecht Agustin von Götzen-Itúrbide, Imperial Prince of Mexico, Prince of Itúrbide and Count of Götzen, was born on March 2, 1944 as the son of Count Maria Gustav von Götzen and María Gizella von Aschbrunn. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Don Salvador of Itúrbide (b. ... Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (September 27, 1783 – July 19, 1824) was Emperor of Mexico from 1822 to 1823. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...

Asia

Country

Pretender For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...

born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

born

Aceh Hasan di Tiro 1930 ? descendant of the Sultans of Aceh ? ?
Afghanistan Crown Prince Ahmad Shah 1934 2007 Eldest surviving son of Mohammed Zahir Shah, Shah from 1933 to 1973 Barakzai Prince Muhammad Zahir Khan 1962
Bukhara Seyyid Mir Ibrahim Khan 1903 1944 son of Seyyid Mir Mohammed Alim Khan (Emir from 1910 to 1920) Manġit ?
Champasak Keo Na Champassak 1944 1980 grandson of Ratsadanay (King from 1900 to 1904) Na Champassak Saysanasak na Champassak 1946
China (Qīng) Aisin Gioro Hêng Chen 1944 1997 descendant of Dàoguāng (Emperor from 1820 to 1850) Qīng[5] Aisin Gioro Chinsin 1977
China (Yuán) Vincent Yuán  ? 2003 great-grandson of Yuán Shìkǎi (self-proclaimed Emperor from 1915 to 1916) Jada Yuán  ?
Georgia Nugzar Petrovich Bagration-Gruzinski 1950 1984 descendant of George XII (Last King of Georgia from 1798 to 1800) Bagrationi Princess Anna Bagration-Gruzinski of Georgia 1976
Giorgi Bagrationi 1944 1977 descendant of Constantine II (King from 1478 to 1505) Prince Irakli Bagration-Mukhranski 1972
Iran (Pahlavī) Reza Pahlavī 1960 1980 son of Mohammad Rezā Pahlavī (Shah from 1941 to 1979) Pahlavī Ali-Reza Pahlavī II 1966
Iran (Qâjâr) Mohammad Hassan Mirza II 1949 1988 descendant of Mohammad Ali Shah Qâjâr (Shah from 1907 to 1909) Qâjâr Prince Arsalan Mirza ?
Iraq Prince Ra'ad bin Zeid 1936 1970 cousins of Faysal II (King from 1939 to 1958) Hāshim Prince Zeid Ra’ad Zeid Al-Hussein 1964
Sharif Ali bin al-Hussein 1956 1958[6] ?
Jerusalem Juan Carlos I 1938 1975 The Kingdom of Jerusalem was abolished in 1291. There are various succession theories as to how the claim were to pass and who the rightful heir or heiress is. Bourbon Felipe, Prince of Asturias 1968
Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou 1974 1989 Juan Carlos I 1938
Victor Emmanuel, Prince of Naples 1937 1983 Savoia Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice and Piedmont 1972
Otto von Habsburg 1912 1922 Habsburg-Lorraine Archduke Karl 1961
Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria 1938 1964 Bourbon Prince Pedro, Duke of Noto 1968
Prince Ferdinand Maria, Duke of Castro 1926 1966 Prince Carlo, Duke of Calabria 1963
Charles-Antoine Lamoral, Prince de Ligne de La Trémoille 1946 2005 Ligne Prince Edouard 1976
Patrick Guinness 1956 1999 Guinness Jasmine Guinness 1976
Kalat Agha Suleiman Jan 1967 1998 grandson of Ahmed Yar Khan (Khan from 1933 to 1955) Ahmadzai
Korea Yi Haewŏn [7] 1919 2006 granddaughter of Gwangmu (Emperor from 1863 to 1907) Yi[8]
Yi Won 1962 2005 adoptive son of Prince Yi Gu, grandson of Gojong (Emperor from 1863 to 1907) ?
Laos Soulivong Savang 1963 1978/
1984
grandson of Savang Vatthana (King from 1959 to 1975) Khun Lo Thayavong Savang 1964
Maldives Prince Muhammad Nur ud-din ? 1969 son of Hassan Nooraddeen Iskandar II (Sultan from 1935 to 1943) Huraa Prince Ibrahim Nur ud-din ?
Manchukuo Aisin Gioro Puren 1918 1994 brother of Kāngdé (Pǔyí) (Emperor from 1934 to 1945) Qīng Jin Yuzhang 1942
Mongolia Aisin Gioro Hêng Chen 1944 1997 descendant of Dàoguāng (Emperor of China from 1820 to 1850) Aisin Gioro Chinsin 1977
Myanmar Taw Phaya 1924 1962 grandson of Thibaw Min (King from 1878 to 1885) Konbaung Taw Phaya Myat Gyi 1945
Qu'aiti Ghalib II 1948 1967 Sultan from 1966 to 1967 Al-Qu'aiti Prince Saleh bin Ghalib al-Qu'aiti 1977
Ryūkyū Shō Mamoru ? 1996 descendant of Shō Tai (King from 1848 to 1879) Shō  ?
Sarawak Anthony Brooke[9] 1912 1946 nephew of Charles Vyner Brooke (White Raja from 1917 to 1946) Brooke James Bertram Lionel Brooke 1940
Singapore Tengku Sri Indra ? 1996 descendant of Sultan Ali Iskandar Shah (Sultan from 1835-1877) ?
Sulu Jamalul Kiram III 1938 1986 grandson of Jamalul Kiram I (Sultan from 1884 to 1899) Kiram ?
Tibet Tenzin Gyatso 1935 1940 Dalai Lama since 1940[10]
Turkey Ertuğrul Osman V 1912 1994 grandson of Abdul Hamid II (Ottoman Sultan and Caliph from 1876 to 1909) Osman Burhaneddin Djem 1920
Vietnam Bảo Thắng 1943 2007 second son of Bảo Đại (Emperor from 1925 to 1945) Nguyễn
Yemen Ageel bin Muhammad al-Badr 1974 1996 son of Muhammad al-Badr (King from 1962 to 1970) Al-Qasimi Muhammad al-Hassan bin 'Ageel ?

Image File history File links Flag_of_Aceh. ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... Hasan di Tiro (Born 4 September 1930) is the founder of the Free Aceh Movement (GAM), an organisation which has been seeking the independence of Aceh from Indonesia since the 1970s. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1615x1062, 108 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Iran national football team Flag of Afghanistan Luxembourg national football team Afghanistan national football team Afghanistan... Ahmad Shah Khan, Crown Prince of Afghanistan (born 23 September 1934) is the second son of Mohammed Zahir Shah, the former King of Afghanistan and current pretender to the throne of Afghanistan. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Barakzai or Barakzay is a Pashtun clan, belonging to Afghanistan and some also to Pakistan. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alim Khan (1880-1944), photographed by Prokudin-Gorskii in 1911, using three black-and white images through coloured filters before the widespread use of colour photography. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Manghit dynasty ruled the Emirate of Bukhara from 1756 to 1920. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag of Champasak Kingdom of Champasak (1713-1946) was a kingdom in southern Laos that broke away from the Lan Xang kingdom in 1713. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Ratsadanay was the last king of Champassack. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The na Champassak family were former royals in Laos before the communist take-over in 1975. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1889. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The Noble Hengchen (born 1944) is the son of Yuyan, descendant of the Daoguang Emperor. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Daoguang Emperor (September 16, 1782 – February 25, 1850) was the seventh emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The Noble Chinsin (born 1977) is a descendant of the Daoguang Emperor and the current heir to the Aisin Gioro clan, being the eldest son of the current head, Hengchen. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Prince Nugzar Bagration-Gruzinski of Georgia (born August 25, 1950, in Tbilisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic) is a claimant to the Headship of the Royal House of Georgia. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... George XII (Georgian: , Giorgi XII), sometimes known as George XIII (November 10, 1746 – December 28, 1800), of the House of Bagrationi, was the last king of Georgia (Kingdom of Kartli and Kakheti) from 1798 until his death in 1800. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... The Bagrationi royal dynasty (Georgian: ბაგრატიონთა სამეფო დინასტია or Bagrationta Samepo Dinastia) is a royal family whose ascendancy in Georgia lasted for more than a millennium, from the early 6th century until the early 19th century. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jorge de Bagration (born 1944) is a Spanish motor racer of Georgian origin who retired from racing in 1982. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Constantine II (Georgian: კონსტანტინე II, Konstantine II) (ca 1447-1505), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Georgia since 1478. ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Iran_flag_with_emblem_1964-1979. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, born October 31, 1960) is the former Crown Prince of Iran, the eldest son of late Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Empress Consort, Farah Diba. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution on February... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Mohammad_Khan_Flag. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... Prince Mohammad Hassan Mirza II is grandson of Ahmed Shah Qajar of Iran. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (1872 - 1925) A cartoon that shows Muhammad Ali Shahs treatment of the Constitutionalists and his Russian backing. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq_1924. ... Prince Raad bin Zeid (Arabic: ) (born 18 February 1936 in Berlin where his father was Iraqi ambassador at the time) is the son of Prince Zied of the Hashemite House and Princess Fahrelnissa Zeid (Fakhr un-nisa), a Turkish noblewoman. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Faisal II of Iraq Faisal II (May 2, 1935 - July 14, 1958) was the last king of Iraq from April 4, 1939 to 1958. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... Prince Zeid at a diplomatic reception for the International Criminal Court in 2003 Prince Zeid Ra’ad Zeid Al-Hussein (born 26 January 1964) is Jordans Permanent Representative to the United Nations and was an official candidate to succeed Kofi Annan as Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Adnan Pachachi, left, and Sharif Ali bin al-Hussein Sharif Ali Bin al-Hussein (Arabic: الشريف علي بن الحسين) was born in 1956, in Baghdad, Iraq as a member of the Hashemite House. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... Juan Carlos I (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias; born January 5, 1938, Rome, Italy) is the reigning King of Spain. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Don Felipe, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia) born January 30, 1968), is the third child of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía of Spain. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... HRH Louis Alphonse de Bourbon, duc dAnjou (on his French National Identity Card; full name: Luis Alfonso Gonzalo Víctor Emanuel Marco de Borbón y Martínez-Bordiú, Duke of Anjou, born Madrid, April 25, 1974) is considered to be the head of the French Royal House by... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Juan Carlos I (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias; born January 5, 1938, Rome, Italy) is the reigning King of Spain. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Victor Emmanuel, prince of Naples, or Vittorio Emanuele Alberto Carlo Teodoro Umberto Bonifacio Amedeo Damiano Bernardino Gennaro Maria de Savoie, born February 12, 1937, is the head of the house of Savoy. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice and Piedmont (Emanuele Filiberto Umberto Reza Rene Maria di Savoia) (June 22, 1972 - ), a member of the House of Savoy and titular Prince of Venice and Piedmont, is the son of Vittorio Emanuele, a pretender to the defunct throne of Italy. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Otto, Crown Prince of Austria or Otto von Habsburg (born 20 November 1912 as Archduke Franz Joseph Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xaver Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius of Austria) is the current head of the Habsburg family and the eldest son of Karl of Austria... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Archduke Karl of Austria (Karl Thomas Robert Maria Franziskus Georg Bahnam von Habsburg-Lothringen) Prince Imperial of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, (born January 11, 1961 at Starnberg, Bavaria, Germany) is the son of Otto von Habsburg and Princess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen and the grandson of the... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Infante Don Carlos of Spain, Prince of the Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (Carlos Maria Alfonso Marcel de Borbon-Dos Sicilias y de Borbon-Parma) (born January 16, 1938 in Lausanne) is the son of Don Alfonso of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (1901-1964) and Princess Alice of... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Ferdinand Maria of Bourbon Two Sicilies, Duke of Castro (born 28 May 1926) is a claimant to the headship of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Carlo of Bourbon-Two Sicilies is one of two claimants to the title, Duke of Calabria. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles-Antoine Marie Louis Eugène Lamoral de Ligne, Prince de Ligne de La Trémoille was born on 30 September 1946. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The House of Ligne is one of oldest and the most prestigious Belgian noble families. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Guinness family is an extensive aristocratic Irish family noted for their accomplishments in brewing, banking and diplomacy. ... Jasmine Leonora Guinness (born 28 September 1976) in Dublin is a fashion model[1] and an heiress[2] to the Guinness brewing fortune. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links KalatFlag. ... State of Kalat or State of Qalat (Urdu: ریاست قلات) was a princely state located in the centre of the modern province of Balochistan. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the title. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Her Highness Princess Yi Haewon of Korea (born 1919) a descendant of the Joseon Dynasty is the pretender to the throne of Korea. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gojong, the Gwangmu Emperor (July 25, 1852–January 21, 1919) was the twenty-sixth king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty and the first emperor of the Korean Empire. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Joseon Dynasty (alternatively, Choson or Chosun) was the final ruling dynasty of Korea, lasting from 1392 until 1910. ... His Imperial Highness Won, Hereditary Prince Imperial of Korea (born 1962), a descendant of the Joseon Dynasty (a. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gu, Prince of Korea (aka Yi Ku, I Gu, Lee Gu) (29 December 1931 – 16 July 2005) was a claimant to the throne of Korea, contested twenty-ninth head of the Korean Imperial Household, and the grandson of Gojong of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. ... Gojong, the Gwangmu Emperor (July 25, 1852–January 21, 1919) was the twenty-sixth king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty and the first emperor of the Korean Empire. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Crown Prince Soulivong Savang of Laos Crown Prince Soulivong Savang (born May 8, 1963), grandson of the last King of Laos, is the pretender to the Lao throne. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... Savang Vatthana (full name Samdach Brhat Chao Maha Sri Vitha Lan Xang Hom Khao Phra Rajanachakra Lao Parama Sidha Khattiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri Savangsa Vadhana) (13 November 1907 - 13 May (?), 1978 or 1984) was the last king of the Kingdom of Laos. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Thayavong Savang (born April 17, 1964) is a member of the now deposed royal family of Laos. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Image File history File links Flagtill65. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen (or Hassan Nooraddeen Iskandar II) was the sultan of the Maldives from 1935 to 1943. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The first king of the Huraa Dynasty is known as Dhon Bandaarain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Manchukuo. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Jin Youzhi (金友之) is currently the only surviving brother of Puyi, the Last Emperor of China. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Puyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Jin Yuzhang (Chinese:金毓嶂, b. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1889. ... The Noble Hengchen (born 1944) is the son of Yuyan, descendant of the Daoguang Emperor. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Daoguang Emperor (September 16, 1782 – February 25, 1850) was the seventh emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Noble Chinsin (born 1977) is a descendant of the Daoguang Emperor and the current heir to the Aisin Gioro clan, being the eldest son of the current head, Hengchen. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Thibaw Min of Upper Burma circa 1880 Thibaw Min (Burmese: ; born Maung Pu January 1, 1859 – December 19, 1916; or simply Thibaw, Theebaw, or Theobaw (referred to as Thibau by George Orwell in Burmese Days) was the last king of Burma, Konbaung Dynasty (now Myanmar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Konbaung Dynasty (Burmese: ; 1752-1885, sometimes called the Alaungpaya Dynasty) was the last in the history of the Burmese monarchy. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Quaiti (Arabic: قعيطي), officially the Quaiti State in Hadhramaut or the Quaiti State of Shihr and Mukalla (Arabic: سلطنة القعيطي في الشحر Ùˆ المكلا), was a sultanate in the southern Arabian Peninsula, in what is now Yemen. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The main building of Shuri Castle The flag of the Ryukyu Kingdom (1875-1879) The RyÅ«kyÅ« Kingdom (Ryukyuan: 琉球王国, Traditional Chinese: then officially 琉球國) was an independent kingdom which ruled most of the RyÅ«kyÅ« Islands from the 14th century to the 19th century. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Sarawak_Flag_1870. ... State motto: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti State anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku Capital Kuching Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Abang Muhammad Salahuddin  - Ketua Menteri Abdul Taib Mahmud History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - Brooke dynasty 1841   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 124,450... Anthony Walter Dayrell Brooke, (b. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Charles Vyner deWindt Brooke (September 30, 1874–May 9, 1963) was the third and final white Rajah of Sarawak. ... The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Brooke family is an English family that ruled Sarawak from 1842 until 1946. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Almarhum Sultan Ali ibni Almarhum Sultan Husain Shah was the sultan of Sultanate of Johor from 1835 to 1877. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For the province, see Sulu Location of Sulu in the Philippines Capital Jolo Language(s) Arabic (official), Tausug, Malay, Banguingui, Bajau languages Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan  - 1450-1480 Shariful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr  - 1884-1899 Jamal ul-Kiram I History  - Established 1450  - Annexed by USA 1899 The Sultanate... Jamalul D. Kiram III is the current Sultan of Sulu in Sulu, southern Philippines. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tibet. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Tenzin Gyatso (born 6 July 1935) is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Ertugrul Osman V (Full name: Devletlu Najabatlu ErtuÄŸrul Osman Efendi Hazretleri) (born August 18, 1912), is the 43rd Head of the Imperial House of Osman, which ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, when Turkey became a republic. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: ) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The Ottoman Empire, at its height, covered a significant portion of the Mediterranean World, including portions of three continents. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Prince Burhaneddin Djem Efendi (born February 2, 1920) is the heir apparent to the headship of the Ottoman dynasty. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Vietnam. ... Prince Bảo Thắng was born on September 30, 1943, in Dalat, Vietnam. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Mutawakkilite_Kingdom_of_Yemen. ... Ageel bin Muhammad al-Badr Hamidaddin (Born 1974) is the son of the last King of Yemen Muhammad al-Badr and al-Hirsi al-Ban. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... H.M. Muhammad al-Badr (1926 – 1996) (Arabic: المنصور محمد البدر بن أحمد) was the last king of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen), and leader of the monarchist regions during the North Yemen Civil War (1962-1970). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

India

Satara, Surat, Alwar, Balasinor, Banganapalle, Baroda, Bhopal, Gwalior, Hyderabad, Idar, Indore, Jodhpur Kolhapur Mysore and Udaipur do not mean the Indian cities but the former states on the territory of present-day's India. For the moth genus, see Satara (moth). ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Alwar is famous for its scenic landscape Alwar is a city in the Rajasthan state of western India. ... Balasinor is a city and a municipality in Kheda district in the state of Gujarat, India. ... Banganapalle is a town in Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. ... Vadodara, also known as Baroda, is the third-most populated town in Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat (the three towns with a population of over 1 million in Gujarat). ... For other uses, see Bhopal (disambiguation). ... , Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... Hyderabad may refer to: Hyderabad, the independent state Hyderabad State, the pre-1956 state India Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad district (India) Begumpet Airport, also known as Hyderabad Airport Hyderabad Central, a huge shopping mall in Hyderabad Hyderabad, Uttar Pradesh, a... Idar is a town in the Sabarkantha district of Gujarat, India, located about 20 km north of Himatnagar and 25 km from Gujarats border with Rajasthan. ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर ,Marathi:इंदूर)  , a large city in the Malwa region of Central India is the commercial capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... , Jodhpur   (जोधपुर), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... Kolhapur   (Marathi:कोल्हापुर) is a city situated in the south west corner of Maharashtra, India. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... Udaipur   (उदयपुर) is a city and a municipal council in Udaipur district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ...

Country

Pretender

born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

born

Political pensioners
Carnatic Muhammed Abdul Ali 1951 1993 descendant of Azimuddaula (Nawab from 1801 to 1819) Farukhi Muhammad Asif Ali Khan  ?
Khudadad Shahzada Asif 'Ali 1957 1983 descendant of Tipu Sultan Tipu Sultan
Mughal Empire Mirza Ghulam Moinuddin Muhammad[11] 1946 1975 descendant of Alam II (Shah from 1759 to 1806) Tīmūr Mirza Shahrukh Shah Jahan 1978
Punjab Beant Singh Sandhanwalia 1926 1978 heir of Duleep Singh Sandhu Jat Sukhdev Singh Sandhanwalia  ?
Satara Udayanraje Maharaj Bhonsle 1966 1978 descendant of Shivaji Maharaj Bhonsle
Surat Usman Alam Khan Sahib 1935 1989 descendant of Mir Jaafar Ali Khan head of the Surat family (1842 to 1863) Sehswani Maqbul Alam Khan Sahib  ?
Salute states
Alwar Tej Singh 1911 1947 Maharaja from 1937 to 1947 Kachwaha Jitendra Singh 1971
Balasinor Muhammad Salabat Khan II 1944 1947 Maharaja from 1945 to 1947 Babi Muhammed Salauddin Khan 1979
Banganapalle Fazli Ali Khan IV 1959 1983 grandson of Fazli Ali Khan III (Nawab from 1937 to 1948) Naqdi
Baroda Ranjitsinhrao Gaekwad 1938 1988 son of Pratapsinhrao Gaekwad (Maharaja Gaekwar from 1939 to 1949) Gaekwad Samarjitsinhrao Gaekwad 1967
Bhopal Begum Saleha Sultan 1940 1995 granddaughter of Hamidullah Khan (Nawab from 1926 to 1949) Orakzai
Gwalior Jyotiraditya Madhavrao Scindia 1971 1998 grandson of George Jiyajirao Scindia (Maharaja Scindia from 1925 to 1947) Scindia Mahanaryaman Scindia 1995
Hyderabad Barkat Ali Khan Mukarram Jah 1933 1967 grandson of Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII (Nizam from 1911 to 1949) Asif Jah Prince Azmet Jah 1960
Idar Rajendra Singh Idar 1938 1992 grandson of Hirmat Singh Daulat Singh (Maharaja from 1925 to 1947) Rathore
Indore Usha Devi Maharaj Sahiba Holkar XV Bahadur 1933 1961 daughter of Yeshwant Rao II (Maharaja Holkar from 1926 to 1947) Holkar
Jammu and Kashmir Karan Singh 1931 1949 son of Hari Singh (Maharaja from 1925 to 1949) Rathore Vikramaditya Singh 1964
Jodhpur Gaj Singh 1948 1952 son of Hanwant Singh (Maharaja from 1947 to 1949) Shivraj Singh 1975
Kolhapur Shahu II Bhonsle 1948 1983 son of Shahaji II Puar (Maharaja from 1947 to 1949) Bhonsle Shrimant Sambhaji 1971
Mysore Srikantha Datta Narasimharaja Wodeyar 1953 1974 Son of Jayachamaraja Wodeyar Bahadur (Maharaja from 1940 to 1950) Wodeyar
Sikkim Wangchuk Namgyal 1953 1982 Son of Palden Thondup Namgyal (Chogyal from 1963 to 1975) Namgyal
Travancore Martanda Varma V 1922 1991 brother of Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma (Maharaja from 1924 to 1949) Cheraman (Kulashekhara)
Udaipur (Mewar) Mahendra Singh 1941 1984 adoptive grandson of Bhupal Singh (Maharana from 1930 to 1949) Sisodia Vishvaraj Singh  ?

A pension is a steady income paid to a person (usually after retirement). ... // There are several theories as to the derivation of the term. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Nawabs of the Carnatic (also referred to as the Nawabs of Arcot), ruled the Carnatic region of South India between c. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Nawabs of the Carnatic (also referred to as the Nawabs of Arcot), ruled the Carnatic region of South India between c. ... Khudadad was the name of the radical Muslim empire established in a large part of India by Tipu Sultan, the son of Hyder Ali, based in the -usurped- former Hindu princely state of Mysore, which intended to unseat the Mughal empire which it considered weak and no longer truely Islamic... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Portrait of Tippu Sultan, 1792 Tippu (Tips) Sultan (full name Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu), also known as the Tiger of Mysore (November 20, 1750, Devanahalli – May 4, 1799, Srirangapattana), was the first son of Haidar Ali by his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-nissa. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... Mirza Ghulam Moinuddin Muhammad, Javaid Jah Bahadur, was born on the 16 May 1946 in Dehli the eldest son of Shahzada Muhammad Khair ud-din Mirza, Khurshid Jah Bahadur (1914-1975). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shah Alam II (1728–1806) was a Mughal emperor of India. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids (Chaghatay/Persian: - TÄ«mÅ«rÄ«yān), self-designated GurkānÄ« (Persian: ), were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran and modern Afghanistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Portrait of Duleep Singh by Franz Xaver Winterhalter Duleep Singh (Lahore, 6 September 1838 - Paris, 22 October 1893) was a Sikh ruler of the sovereign country of Punjab and the Sikh Empire. ... For the moth genus, see Satara (moth). ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Bhonsle or Bhonsale were a prominent Maratha clan who served as rulers of several states in India . ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A Salute state is a princely state (i. ... Alwar is famous for its scenic landscape Alwar is a city in the Rajasthan state of western India. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kachwaha (also spelled as Kacchavahas, Kachhawa, Kuchhwaha , Kushwaha, and includes Kacchapghata, Kakutstha, and Kurma) are a Suryavanshi Rajput clan which was ruling a number of kingdoms and princely states, including Jaipur, Alwar, Jammu and Kashmir, Amethi and Maihar, before Indias independence in 1947. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Balasinor is a city and a municipality in Kheda district in the state of Gujarat, India. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... There are several meanings of the term Babi Babi is the name of a baboon god in Egyptian mythology. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Banganapalle is a town in Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The Nawab of Banganapalle was the leader of Banganapalle, a fief of the Mughal empire which later became a princely state of British India, before being incorporated into Kurnool district of the the Madras Presidency. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Naqdi dynasty were Nawabs who ruled Banganapalle and Chenchelimala, Second Dynasty of Banganapalle Nawabs Categories: | ... Vadodara, also known as Baroda, is the third-most populated town in Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat (the three towns with a population of over 1 million in Gujarat). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Gaekwad or Gaekwar (once rendered as Guicowar) (Gujarati: ગાયકવાડ ; Marathi: गायकवाड) was a Maratha dynasty that ruled the princely state of Baroda in western India from the mid-eighteenth century until 1947. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gaekwad or Gaekwar (once rendered as Guicowar) (Gujarati: ગાયકવાડ ; Marathi: गायकवाड) was a Maratha dynasty that ruled the princely state of Baroda in western India from the mid-eighteenth century until 1947. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Bhopal state was an independent state of 18th century India, a princely state of British India from 1818 to 1947, and an Indian state from 1949 to 1956. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Major-General H.H Sikander Saulat, Ifthikhar ul-Mulk, al-Haj Nawab Sir Hafiz Muhammad Hamidullah Khan, Nawab of Bhopal, GCSI, GCIE,CVO (9 September 1894-4 February 1960) was the last ruling Nawab of the state of Bhopal prior to its merger with the state of Madhya Pradesh in... The Nawabs of Bhopal were the Muslim rulers of the princely state of Bhopal, located in the modern state of Madhya Pradesh, in medieval and British India. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Response International, United Kingdom has recently about to initiate training workshops on Child Health promotion in Orakzai Agency. ... Gwalior State was an Indian kingdom ruled by the Sindhia dynasty. ... Jyotiraditya Madhavrao Scindia (born 1 January 1971) is a member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India representing the Indian National Congress. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... George Jiyajirao Scindia (1916–1961) was the last reigning Maharaja of Gwalior state in central India, and the rajpramukh (appointed governor) of the erstwhile Madhya Bharat state of independent India. ... Sir Madhavrao Shinde Alijabahaddar, Gwalior The Scindia, also spelled Sindhia, Sindia, or Shinde, are a prominent Maratha family in India. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scindia Family of India. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The Asafia flag of Hyderabad This article is about Hyderabad State. ... Barkat Ali Khan Mukarram Jah Asaf Jah VIII (born 1933) is the pretender to the throne of Hyderabad. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Last Nizam of Hyderabad Osman Ali Khan Bahadur Fateh Jung (April 8, 1886 – February 24, 1967) , His Exalted Highness (the British conferred this upon him), also named Fath Jang Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan Asif Jah VII, was the last Nizam (or ruler) of the Princely State of Hyderabad... The Nizam of Hyderabads coat of arms Nizam-ul-Mulk, commonly shortened to Nizam, was the title taken by the Asif Jahi rulers of Hyderabad state in India. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nizam of Hyderabads coat of arms Nizam-ul-Mulk, commonly shortened to Nizam, was the title taken by the Asif Jahi rulers of Hyderabad state in India. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // A History Of The Idar State. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mehrangarh fort, Jodhpur The Rathore or Rathor or Rathod (Hindi: राठौड, IAST: or , Urdu: راٹھور) is a Rajput tribe of India. ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर ,Marathi:इंदूर)  , a large city in the Malwa region of Central India is the commercial capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jaswant Rao Holkar 1798-1811 AD Holkar of Indore Silver, Nazrana Rupee Minted at Indore in 1807 AD (1222 AH) Weight: 14. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... Karan Singh (1931- ) is an Indian politician, author and diplomat. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hari Singh was the last maharaja of the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mehrangarh fort, Jodhpur The Rathore or Rathor or Rathod (Hindi: राठौड, IAST: or , Urdu: راٹھور) is a Rajput tribe of India. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... , Jodhpur   (जोधपुर), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... HH, (titular) Maharaja Gaj Singh (b. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... HH Raj Rajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Shri Hanwant Singh of Jodhpur was ruler of the Indian princely state of Jodhpur from 1947 until 1952. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Shivraj Singh, Yuvraja of Jodhpur (born September 1975), is the Crown Prince of Jodhpur and the son of Maharajah Gaj Singh and Maharani Hemlata Rajye, daughter of the late Raja Shivratan Deo Singh of Poonch and H.R.H. Princess Nalini Rajye Lakshmi of Nepal in Dehra Dun. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kolhapur   (Marathi:कोल्हापुर) is a city situated in the south west corner of Maharashtra, India. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bhonsle or Bhonsale were a prominent Maratha clan who served as rulers of several states in India . ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... Srikantha Datta Narasimharaja Wodeyar is the present titular Maharaja of Mysore, and head of the royal Wodeyar dynasty that ruled the kingdom of Mysore between 1399 and 1947. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wodeyar dynasty (also spelt as Wadiyar-by the British and the Royal family members themselves and also as Odeyar by some) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1947, until the independence of India from British rule and the subsequent unification of... Image File history File links Sikkimflag. ... Statue of Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim in Namchi is the tallest statue of saint in the world. ... Chogyal Wangchuk Tenzing Namgyal (b. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Palden Thondup Namgyal (May 23, 1923 - January 29, 1982) was the 12th and last Chogyal (king) of Sikkim. ... The Chogyal were the monarchs of the former country of Sikkim. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chogyal were the monarchs of the former country of Sikkim. ... Image File history File links Travancore. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Maharaja Chithira Thirunal Shri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma (November 7, 1912 –July 19, 1991) was the last maharajah (ruler) of the Indian princely state of Travancore before Indias independence. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Udaipur   (उदयपुर) is a city and a municipal council in Udaipur district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... Mewar is a region of south-central Rajasthan state in western India. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year. ... Maharana is a variation on the Indian (mainly Hindu) royal title Maharaja, also meaning Great king in Hindi. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maharana Pratap, a Sisodia ruler The Sisodia (also known as Shishodya or Sisodya or Sisodhya) are a Rajput clan who ruled the kingdom of Mewar in Rajasthan. ...

Oceania

Country

Pretender For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ...

born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

born

Cocos (Keeling) Islands John Cecil Clunies-Ross (Ross V) 1928 1978 self-proclaimed King from 1944 to 1978 Clunies-Ross John George Clunies-Ross 1957
Hawaii Quentin Kūhiō Kawananākoa 1961 1998 current head of the descendants of Lili'uokalani (Queen from 1891 to 1893) Kawananākoa Kincaid Kawananākoa 1996
Akahi Nui ? 1998 descendant of Kamehameha I (King from 1795 to 1819) ?

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Cocos_(Keeling)_Islands. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The King of the Cocos Islands governed the islands from 1824 to 1944 when it became part of Australia. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto Ua mau ke ea o ka āina i ka pono Anthem Hawaii Ponoi Kingdom of Hawaii Capital Lahaina (until 1845) Honolulu (from 1845) Language(s) Hawaiian, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I  - 1891–1893 Liliuokalani Provisional Government  - 1893-1894 Committee of Safety History  - Inception 1795  - Unification... Quentin Kawananakoa and his wife, Elizabeth Broun Kawananakoa, are alii of Hawaii. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... LiliÊ»uokalani, Queen of HawaiÊ»i (September 2, 1838 – November 11, 1917), originally named Lydia KamakaÊ»eha, also known as Lydia KamakaÊ»eha Paki, with the chosen royal name of LiliÊ»uokalani, and later named Lydia K. Dominis, was the last monarch of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... House of Kawananakoa matriarch, Princess Abigail Kawananakoa, socializes with Edward Prince of Wales, future King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Akahi Nui is a pretender to the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaii. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... “Kamehameha” redirects here. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Pretenders in the Roman Empire

Ancient Rome knew many pretenders to the office of Roman Emperor, especially during the crisis of the Third Century. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Emperor Maximinus Thrax, ruled 235-238, was the first of the emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. ...


These are customarily referred to as the Thirty Tyrants, which was an allusion to the Thirty Tyrants at Athens some five hundred years earlier; although the comparison is questionable, and the Romans were separate aspirants, not (as the Athenians were) a Committee of Public Safety. The Loeb translation of the appropriate chapter of the Augustan History therefore represents the Latin triginta tyranni by "Thirty Pretenders" to avoid this artificial and confusing parallel. Not all of them were afterwards considered pretenders; several were actually successful in becoming Emperor in at least in part of the Empire for a brief period. The Thirty Tyrants, or Thirty Pretenders (Latin: Tyranni Triginta) were a group of thirty men and two women declared by the author of the notoriously unreliable Historia Augusta, writing under the name Trebellius Pollio, to have been pretenders to the throne of the Roman Empire in the time of the... The Thirty Tyrants were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens after Athens defeat in the Peloponnesian War in April 404 BC. Its two leading members were Tharamenes and Critias, a former acolyte of Socrates. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793-4) of the French Revolution. ... The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each... The Augustan History (Lat. ...


The Byzantine Empire

Disputed successions to the Empire continued at Constantinople. Most seriously, after the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade in 1204, and its eventual recovery by Michael VIII Palaeologus, there came to be three Byzantine successor states, each of which claimed to be the Roman Empire, and several Latin claimants (including the Republic of Venice and the houses of Montferrat and Courtenay) to the Latin Empire the Crusaders had set up in its place. There were sometimes multiple claimants to some of the inheritances, as well. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII (1225 – December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The Marquess of Montferrat is the title derived from Montferrat (in Italian, Monferrato), a territory in Piedmont south of the Po and east of Turin. ... Philip of Courtenay (1243, Constantinople – 1283, Viterbo) was titular Emperor of Constantinople 1273–1283. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ...


Cypriot pretenders

Following the defeat and death of King Jacques III of Cyprus in 1474, his younger and illegitimate brother, Eugene Matteo de Armenia (c1485-1523) had moved to Sicily, then Malta. He was acknowledged as Heir to Cyprus, Armenia, Jerusalem and Antioch, though never took it seriously. From a genealogical point, Eugene Matteo (de Lusignan) de Armenia was created a Sicilian title and worked as a Jurat in Malta and in Sicily. This article needs cleanup. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Maltese nobility consist of those titles of nobility recognised by the British and those titles never presented to, or failed recognition by, the Royal Commission, even though the titles were of historical relevance. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


French pretenders

Following the death of the childless legitimist pretender "Henry V", Comte de Chambord, grandson of King Charles X of France in the 1880s, the majority of French monarchists accepted his distant relative, the Orleanist pretender, the Comte de Paris, grandson of King Louis-Philippe (who descends from King Louis XIII) as the pretender to the French throne. A small minority refused to accept this designation, and chose instead a descendant of Louis XIV and the Spanish line. Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonne, Comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 - August 24, 1883) was the grandson of King Charles X of France, the posthumous son of Charless younger son Charles, Duc de Berry, who had been assassinated several months before Henris birth. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, Comte de Paris Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, Comte de Paris (August 24, 1838 – September 8, 1894) was the grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French. ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 - May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ...


The arguments are, on one side, that Philip V of Spain renounced any future claim to the French throne when he became King of Spain, and that the Dukes of Orleans were therefore recognized as the next heirs before the French Revolution. On the other side, that this renunciation was invalid and impossible, and (in some cases) that Philippe Égalité and Louis-Philippe forfeited any remaining right to the crown for disloyalty. Hence there are two pretenders to the French throne; though the Orleanist pretender, the present Comte de Paris, is accepted by most French monarchists as the pretender, as the list above shows. King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Louis-Philippe-Joseph dOrléans, by Antoine-François Callet Louis Philippe Joseph, Duke of Orléans (April 13, 1747 – November 6, 1793), called Philippe Égalité, was a member of a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon, the dynasty then ruling France. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... Comte de Paris, or Count of Paris is a title used by three claimants to the French throne: Louis-Philippe, Comte de Paris (1838-1894): French Orleanist monarchists referred to him as Louis-Philippe II, and then later when Henri, comte de Chambord died, he was recognized as the royalist...


There is also a pretender to the imperial throne of France, in the person of Charles Napoléon, descendant of the Prince Napoléon. Napoléon VII, Prince Imperial (Charles Marie Jérôme Victor Napoléon) (born 19 October 1950) is a French politician, and claims to be the current head of the Imperial House of France as heir male to the rights and legacy established by his great-great-granduncle, Emperor Napol... Portrait of Prince Napoleon by Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin in 1860 Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul, Prince Napoleon (September 9, 1822 – March 17, 1891) was the son of Jerome Bonaparte and Catharina of Württemberg. ...


Russian Pretenders

There is much debate over who is the legitimate heir to the Russian throne. Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna is considered by some to be the legitimate heir. She is the daughter of Grand Duke Vladimir who some considered the last male dynast. Unequal marriages have made tracking a legitimate heir to the Russian throne very difficult, and some believe there is no legitimate heir at all. Nicholas Romanov, Prince of Russia a descendant of Emperor Nicholas I and president of Romanov Family Association believes himself to be Grand Duke Vladimir's successor. He is regarded by some as the head of the family,[12] but supporters of Grand Duchess Maria's claim believe he is born of a morganatic marriage and therefore not entitled to inherit the throne under strict Russian succession law, Prince Nicholas disputes this and considers himself a Russian dynast. Those who impersonated the murdered daughters of Nicholas II were not pretenders to the throne, as women could not succeed to the Russian throne while a male dynast was alive. Anna Anderson attempted to prove she was the lost daughter of Nicholas II, Anastasia, but DNA testing on her remains proved her claim false. The Monarchy of Russia was abolished in 1917 following the February Revolution, which forced Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate. ... H.I.H. Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, Titular Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias Maria Vladimirovna of Russia, Mariya Vladimirovna Romanova (Мари́я Влади́мировна Рома́нова) (born December 23, 1953) is regarded by some Nobiliary Genealogists and Russian Monarchists as the Head of the Imperial Family of Russia and Titular Empress and Autocrat of... Grand Duke Vladimir Cyrillovich of Russia (Vladimir Kirillovich Romanov, cyrillic: Влад́имир Кир́иллович Ром́анов; August 30 (N.S.), 1917 - April 21, 1992) claimed to be the Head of the Imperial Family of Russia and Titular Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias from 1938 to his death. ... Nicholas Romanovich Romanov or Nikolai Romanovich Romanov (Николай Романович Романов), (born September 13, 1922) is the President of the Romanov Family Association. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... The Romanov Family Association, Obyedineniye Chlenov Roda Romanovykh (Объединение Членов Рода Романовых), is an organization for male-line descendants of Emperor Paul I of Russia. ... A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between persons of unequal social rank (unebenbürtig in German), which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ... Anastasia Manahan, usually known as Anna Anderson [1] (c. ... Nicholas II can refer to: Pope Nicholas II Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia (Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanova, (Russian: (June 18 [O.S. June 5] 1901 — July 17, 1918), was the youngest daughter of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, the last sovereign of Imperial Russia, and his wife Alexandra Fyodorovna. ...


English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh and British Pretenders

Pretenders to the thrones of the United Kingdom and its predecessor realms, as well as the other historical jurisdictions that are modernly England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, were essentially taken care of by making the Irish and English (and subsequently, British) monarchies purely statutory institutions. Ireland further precluded any and all possible pretenders by declaring itself a republic in 1949. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...


Prior to the Norman Conquest of 1066, Anglo-Saxon England used a system of elective kingship. England originated, in fact, about the year 802, as an amalgam of several kingdoms (Wessex, Sussex, Kent, Mercia, East Anglia, etc.) under the transnational leadership of Egbert of Wessex. The Witenagemot had the right to determine the kingship. Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events 31 October - Irene deposed as Emperoress of Byzantium and replaced by Nicephorus I. She is banished to Lesbos. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... Egbert (also Ecgbehrt or Ecgbert, means roughly The shining edge of a blade) (c. ... Biblical pharaoh depicted as an Anglo-Saxon king with his witan (11th century) The Witenagemot (also called the Witan, more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ...


The Norman Conquest eliminated elective kingship in England - for a few centuries - by replacing the Witenagemot with the Norman institution known as the Curia Regis, while the Thing simply disappeared. Gradually, however, the Normans became English; and modern forms of the old Anglo-Saxon institutions began to re-emerge. To this day, the form of Coronation contains vestigial elements of the consent of the people. In time, the new Parliament began to re-assert its ancient predecessor's right to choose the king, culminating in an Act of 1649, without the Royal Assent of Charles I, on the morning of his execution. However, the power is now held to be vested in the Crown in Parliament, so that an Act was necessary to effect the abdication of King Edward VIII in 1936. It is arguable whether or not the Sovereign has the right to withhold either the Sovereign's Consent to consider such a Bill, or the Royal Assent to such an Act) Curia Regis is a Latin term meaning Royal Council or Kings court. The Curia Regis in England was a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics that advised the king of England on legislative matters. ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... King Edward VIII King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King of Ireland Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VIII, (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David), later His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was the second British monarch of the...


The change was first noticeable in England following the accession of Henry VIII, after a long period of strife and civil wars that began when Henry IV deposed Richard II. When Henry drafted his deed of succession - naming, first, his son, Edward, to succeed him; then, his two daughters, Mary and Elizabeth, in birth order - he submitted the document to Parliament for approval. When the regents for Edward then tried to change the succession to skip the teenage king's sisters, in favour of his cousin Lady Jane Grey, Edward signed the document but it did not have the approval of Parliament. Jane is still counted England's first queen regnant, but she only reigned nine days before Mary Tudor arrived from Lincoln. Mary was instantly recognised as Queen without fuss or question. “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ...


Attempts to disrupt the statutory nature of the monarchy in England were made by some of the Stuart monarchs, who had not experienced the English checks on royal power when they ruled in Scotland. The Act of Settlement 1701 took care of that problem, and the Act of Union 1707 essentially extended the Act of Settlement to Scotland. The Act of Union 1800 subsequently extended the Act of Settlement to Ireland, but the Irish monarchy had already been made a statutory institution when Henry VIII of England was named King of Ireland by the Irish Parliament in 1542. Previously, the English kings had been styled Lord of Ireland. Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ...


Nevertheless, there have been some great pretenders over the centuries. A few famous ones are noted here, and a few passive claims are still made.


James Francis Edward Stuart was the Roman Catholic son of the deposed King James VII and II, forever eclipsed in the succession to the throne by the Act of Settlement 1701. Notwithstanding the Act of Union 1707, he claimed the separate thrones of Scotland, as James VIII, and of England and Ireland, as James III, until his death in 1766. In Jacobite thinking, Acts of Parliament (of England or Scotland) after 1688, (including the Acts of Union) did not receive the required royal assent of the "legitimate" (Jacobite) monarch and, therefore, were without legal effect. James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as... James VII and II (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ...


James's sons carried on their own claims. Charles Edward Stuart, the would-be Charles III, still famously known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, died in 1788. He is unquestionably the most famous pretender in British history, if not world history. His younger brother, Henry Benedict Stuart, took up the mantle after his death, if only symbolically, as the would-be Henry IX of England. He died in 1807. Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788), known in Scots Gaelic as Teàrlach Eideard Stiùbhairt, was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and was commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. ... Henry Benedict Cardinal Stuart (March 11, 1725 – July 13, 1807) was the fourth and last Jacobite to publicly claim the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


James VIII & III was commonly called "the King over the water", because he was resident in France (across the Channel) and is also known as The Old Pretender. (As no Jacobite monarch since has resided in Britain, Jacobites ever since have toasted 'the King/Queen over the water'.) Bonnie Prince Charlie is also called The Young Pretender. See Jacobitism, Jacobite succession and the related category for more information, and Franz, Duke of Bavaria for the current Jacobite "pretender". Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... The Jacobite Stuarts who claimed the thrones of England, Scotland, Ireland and France after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 were: James II and VII (February 6, 1685 – 16 September 1701). ... His Royal Highness the Duke of Bavaria Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern (born July 14, 1933), styled as His Royal Highness The Duke of Bavaria, is head of the Wittelsbach family, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria. ...


Owain Glyndŵr (1349-1416) is probably the best-known Welsh pretender, though whether he was pretender or Prince of Wales depends upon your source of information. Officially, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, who died in 1282, was the last native and arguably greatest Prince of Wales. Since 1301, the Prince of Wales has been the eldest living son of the King or Queen Regnant of England (subsequently of Great Britain, 1707, and of United Kingdom, 1801). The word "living" is important. Upon the death of Arthur, Prince of Wales, Henry VII invested his second son, the future Henry VIII, with the title. The title is not automatic, however, but merges into the Crown when a prince dies or accedes to the throne, and has to be re-conferred by the sovereign. Seal of Owain Glyndŵr The Banner of the Arms of Owain Glyndŵr showing his parentage Owain Glyndŵr [], sometimes anglicised as Owen Glendower (1359–c. ... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffydd (remembered by the alliterative soubriquet Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf meaning Llywelyn, Our Last Leader, c. ... Arthur Tudor (19 September/20 September 1486- 2 April 1502) was the first son and, therefore, heir of King Henry VII of England and Wales, and Elizabeth of York. ...


Nevertheless, it is Glyndŵr whom many remember as the last native Prince of Wales. He was indeed proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters on 16 September 1400, and his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was not quashed by Henry IV until 1409. Later, however, one of Glyndŵr's cousins, Owain Tudor, would marry the widow of Henry V, and their grandson would become Henry VII, from whom the current British monarch is descended (through his daughter Margaret Tudor, who was married off to James IV of Scotland). So, in a way, Glyndŵr might be said to have had the last laugh. Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) was King of Scots from 1488 to his death. ...


The business of Irish pretenders is rather more complicated because of the nature of kingship in Ireland before the Norman take-over of 1171. In both Ireland and Scotland, succession to kingship was elective, often (if not usually) by contest, according to matrilineal descent. That is, the head of state of any kingdom, sub-kingdom, high kingdom, etc., was always a king, but the king always inherited the crown through his mother, as a ranking princess royal, not through his father. (See, e.g., The Lion in the North: A Personal View of Scotland's History, by John Prebble ISBN 0-14-003652-0 ; among other works.)


Thus, you, as king, would not be succeeded by your own son but would normally be succeeded by your mother's other sons; then by your sisters' sons; then, your maternal aunt's sons; and so on, traveling through the female line of the royal house. This combination of male succession through matrilineal descent produced a cumbersome system under which the throne passed cyclically from brother to brother, then uncle to nephew, and then cousin to cousin, before starting over as brother to brother, uncle to nephew, etc. {See, e.g., The Lion in the North: A Personal View of Scotland's History, by John Prebble; among other works.} In Ireland, however, the high king from the time of Maelsheachlainn I (died 862) exercised a measure of control over the country. He belonged to the Ui Neill dynasty and under the Brehon laws, succession was open to any kinsman up to and including second cousin. His dynasty is today represented by the O'Neill family who would regard their head as the pretender. The O Conor dynasty provided two high kings and the head of the family, the O Conor Don, would also be considered a pretender to the Irish throne. The descendants of Brian Boroimhe are represented by Lord Inchiquin, who is also regarded as a claimant. In addition, pretenders or claimants exist to the localised kingdoms of Breifne, Fermanagh, Tyrconnel and Leinster. The O'Neills would also be regarded as claimants to the throne of Aileach and Lord Inchiquin to the throne of Thomond.


In Scotland, Malcolm II tried to get around this system by killing off all of the heirs between himself and his grandson, Duncan; except for Prince Lulach of Moray, who was just five years old at the time and - more importantly - was successfully rumoured to be half-witted (thus, he survived). Duncan I did become king, but Lulach's step-father, Maelbeth -rendered "Macbeth" in English - successfully claimed the throne in his own right and on Lulach's behalf. Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (anglicised Malcolm II) (c. ... Lulach (Lulach mac Gilla Comgain) (c. ... Donnchad mac Crínáin (Anglicised Duncan) (born 15 August 1001 died 14 August 1040)[1] was king of Alba. ... For other uses, see Macbeth (disambiguation). ...


Duncan I's son, Malcolm III 'Canmore', ultimately returned from exile in England and took the throne from Maelbeth and Lulach (the latter reigning 1057-1058, after the death of Maelbeth in battle against Malcolm). Malcolm was succeeded by his brother, as Duncan II, but then by four of his own sons - one of whom, Edgar (1097-1107), changed the official language of Scotland from Gàidhlig (then, still a Scottish dialect of Old Irish) to Scots (then, a language similar to English but missing the Saxon element that has always been part of standard English). Gaelic dominance of Scotland ended during the reign of Alexander I (1107-1124), and the old Celtic system of matrilineal kingship finally ended and was replaced by a system of primogeniture. Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Edgar of Scotland (Etgair mac Maíl Coluim) (1074 – January 8, 1107 ), was king of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. ... Alexander I (Alasdair mac Maíl Coluim) (c. ...


Such a transition never happened in Ireland, but civil war and the imposition of Anglo-Norman rule intervened. Although Ireland had been culturally unified for centuries, it was not politically unified, even as a tribal nation. The Romans having ignored the big green island west of Britain, the Gaels themselves were the last people to successfully invade Ireland and, notwithstanding 750 years of English rule, it is very arguable whether the Norman English ever truly conquered Ireland. (They controlled Ireland, certainly, but that is not all there is to conquest.) So, even serious coastal encroachments by the Vikings a millennium after their arrival did not prompt the Gaels of Ireland to see a need for political unity even to build a concerted national defence. When a people believe they and their country are immune from invasion, it takes a while for them to realise how vulnerable they actually are.


The High King of Ireland was essentially a ceremonial, pseudo-federal overlord (where his over-lordship was even recognised), who exercised actual power only within the realm of which he was actually king. In the case of the southern branch of the Uí Niall, this would have been the Kingdom of Meath (modernly the counties of Meath, West Meath and part of County Dublin). High Kings from the northern branch of the family ruled various kingdoms in what eventually became the province of Ulster.


Nevertheless, the Uí Niall were apparently powerful in ceremony if not in politic, so that political unification of Ireland was not aided by the usurpation of the high kingship from Mael Sechnaill II and the southern Uí Niall in 1002 by Briain ‘Boruma’ mac Cennédig, of the Kingdom of Munster. This was the third of the so-called "Three Usurpations of Brian Boru." A much later engraving of Brian Boru Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig (926 or 941[1] – 23 April 1014) (known as Brian Boru in English) was High King of Ireland from 1002 to 1014. ...


Brian Boru was a strong king who could have unified Ireland politically, and there is some suggestion he intended to make himself High King of Scotland as well. But he was killed in the Battle of Contarf in 1014, and twelve years as High King was not long enough to unify the island politically. Mael Sechnaill II was restored to the High Kingship but he died in 1022, too soon to undo the damage done by Brian's "coup." From 1022 through the Norman take-over of 1171, the High Kingship was held by "Kings with Opposition" - that is, whoever was strong enough to overthrow the High King of the day and take the Hill of Tara simply did so. This 150-year period of regnal unrest between families now called O'Brian, O'Conner, McLoughlin/O'Melaghlin, and others, was eventually immortalised in the children's game called "King of the Hill." The game is still popular among American children, who take turns trying to push each other off a low stool, chair, or other make-shift hill while arguing, "I'm king of the hill!" "No! I'm king!" The Hill of Tara (Irish Teamhair na Rí, Hill of the Kings), located near the River Boyne, is a long, low limestone ridge that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Leinster, Ireland. ...


Because the native Irish high kingship never transitioned to a system of nation-state kingship primogeniture but simply faded into an oblivion of civil war between competing Irish royal families, there are literally as many as a million or more people who can make a claim to the ancient high kingship of Tara that is as equally valid as anybody else's under the old system disrupted by what may be called Brian Boru's "coup de tribe." Indeed, as a reputed descendant of Brian Boru and of the Uí Niall Dynasty both through his late grandmother, the current heir to the statutory throne that includes Northern Ireland, Prince Charles, could be considered a viable pretender to the high kingship of Ireland, especially as he would be making the claim through the female line of his ancestry. {The British Royal Family has publicly claimed descent from Brian Boru through the late Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, and from other ancestors associated with the Ui Niall Dynasty - usually via marriage through the Royal Family's Scottish ancestry; see the history section of the Royal Family's website for bloodlines and timelines.) But see the remarks above regarding existing native dynasties, whose claims are more valid than those of the current British royal family. Prince Charles may refer to: Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, current heir-apparent to the British throne Any of the previous British royals named Charles, Prince of Wales The former Belgian regent, Prince Charles of Belgium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that...


The claims of the British House of Windsor to the Tara Throne of the High Kings of Ireland are baseless since the Irish provincial royal thrones, as well as that of the High Kings can only be claimed strictly through the agnatic male line. Of all the former or reigning European royal houses, none have adhered more strictly to the agnatic principle than those of Ireland. Only recently, the Provincial Throne of Leinster was declared dormant, despite the existence of legitimate female line heirs. The claims by modern royal genealogists-most notably the late Lord Lyon, Sir Thomas Innes of Learney- that the Celtic monarchies of Ireland and Scotland relied heavily on the right of female line of succession is a complete fallacy, and one which has been used to attempt to justify the claims of the House of Windsor. Only the Pictish monarchy of Eastern and northern Scotland embraced this form of succession. The Scottish monarchy adhered strictly to the elective agnatic male-line, until the accession of MalColm II in 1005. This monarch first introduced the concept of hereditary monarchy in Scotland, mainly to end the strife between rival elective claimants. MalColm's new law allowed for both male and female line succession, but not without great conflict and strife which carried on for generations in Scotland. The Irish monarchies never at any stage allowed the introduction of female line succession.


Interestingly, there was some talk right after the 1916 Easter Rising in Ireland about inviting the Kaiser's son, Prince Joachim of Prussia, to be King of Ireland. This was obviously anti-English sentiment following the execution of the leaders of the rebellion (except for Éamon De Valera, who was an American citizen - born in New York City). Paradoxically, Irish public opinion was against the Easter Rising and the leaders were spat upon when they surrendered - but when the government executed them instead of just sending them to prison, public opinion swung completely the other way, against Britain and for independence - except in the northeast, where the majority of people were (still are) an ethnic mix of Scots-Irish, Anglo-Irish, Norse-Irish, and native Irish minorities. Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera, IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ...


Insomuch as the whole of Ireland was a province of United Kingdom in 1916, Prince Joachim would never have become King of Ireland even if he had wanted the job. But if he had become king, and Ireland still had subsequently become a republic, Joachim's grandson, Franz Wilhelm, would be an Irish pretender; and, afterward, his son, George of Russia, would be an Irish as well as a Russian pretender. But if the Irish could not put up with the constitutional monarchs of Britain, it's highly unlikely they would ever have put up with the absolute monarchs of Germany and Russia. Prince Franz Wilhelm Victor Christoph Stephan of Prussia (born September 3, 1943) is a member of the House of Hohenzollern the royal house of Prussia. ... H.I.H. George Mikhailovitch, Tsarevitch and Grand Duke of Russia, with his mother, 1992 George Mikhailovich of Russia, Georgiy Mikhailovich Romanov (Георгий Михайлович Романов) (born June 22, 1982) is the Heir apparent to the disputed Headship of the Imperial Family of Russia, and claims the titles Tsarevich and Grand Duke of Russia. ...


Ottoman pretenders

Eldest son during the reign of his father, Mehmet the Conqueror claimed the Sultanate although he was defeated in battle months later by his eldest brother (by birth) Bayezid II. He fled to Rhodes Island then eventually to the Papal Territories. His descendants claimed Cem rights until Malta defeated the Ottomans in the 16th century. After the Ottoman empire was abolished, and the Republic of Turkey came into power, the successive heads of the Ottoman family claimed the throne of the Turkish empire. Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Sultan Beyazid II Bayezid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) (Arabic: بايزيد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Principe de Sayd. ... Cems portrait. ...


Kingdom of Jerusalem

Since the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, many European rulers have claimed to be its rightful heir. None of these, however, have actually ruled over a part of the former Kingdom. Today there are several potential claimants on the basis of the inheritance of the title. None of the claimants have any power in the area of the former Kingdom. See the article Kings of Jerusalem for a list of potential claimants. Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ...


False pretenders

A number of individuals have claimed to be princes who disappeared or died under somewhat mysterious circumstances:

There have also been individuals who claimed to be descendants of royalty: Anastasia Manahan, usually known as Anna Anderson [1] (c. ... Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna (1901-1918) Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia (Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanova, in Russian: Великая Княжна Анастасия Николаевна ) (June 18, 1901 – July 17, 1918) was the youngest daughter of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and Empress Alexandra. ... Baldwin I (July 1172 – 1205, Bulgaria), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the... Lambert Simnel (c. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Contemporary painting of Warbeck Perkin Warbeck (c. ... Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York and 1st Duke of Norfolk (17 August 1473–1483?) was the second son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville and, thus, the younger brother of King Edward V. In January 1478, when he was about 4 years old, he married... Emelyan Pugachov Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachev (Russian: ), born in 1740 or 1742 and executed in 1775, was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great Cossack insurrection during the reign of Catherine II. Alexander Pushkin wrote a remarkable history of the rebellion; and he recounted some of the events... Grand Duke Peter, 1753, by Alexei Antropov Peter III (February 21, 1728 - July 17, 1762) (Russian: Пётр III Федорович or Pyotr III Fyodorovitch) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... False Dmitriy is the term used to denote any pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be the son of Ivan the Terrible, Dmitry, miraculosly escaped the assasination attempt. ... Karl Wilhelm Naundorff (1785? - August 10, 1845) was a German clock- and-watchmaker who until his death claimed to be Prince Louis-Charles. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis...

Eugenio Lascorz y Labastida (1886 -?) was a pretender who claimed connection to the royal house of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Laskaris or Lascaris (Greek: Λάσκαρις) family was the dynasty ruling the Empire of Nicaea. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Alexis Brimeyer (1946-1995) was a false pretender who claimed connection to various European thrones. ... Pierre Athanase Marie Plantard (born March 18, 1920, died February 3, 2000) was the principal figure associated with the known history of the Priory of Sion, and is widely believed to have been the main creator of many of the claims about the Priorys supposed past history that later... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Dagobert II (c. ... Michael James Alexander Stewart of Albany The self styled Prince Michael of Albany Michael Roger Lafosse, also known as Michael James Alexander Stewart of Albany, (born in Brussels in 1958) claims to be a descendant of Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) and thus the legitimate Jacobite claimant to the... Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788), known in Scots Gaelic as Teàrlach Eideard Stiùbhairt, was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and was commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. ... The Nanboku-cho period (Japanese: 南北朝時代, nanbokuchō-jidai, South and North courts period), also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... King Milan Obrenovic Milan Obrenović IV, (August 22, 1854–February 11, 1901), was King Milan I of Serbia from 1882 to 1889. ... Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo-Bragança, aka Hilda Toledano Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo-Bragança (March 13, 1907 - May 6, 1995), also known as Hilda Toledano, the pseudonym she used to write books, claimed to be an illegitimate child of King Carlos I of Portugal. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Illegitimacy is the status that was once commonly ascribed to individuals born to parents who were not married. ... Carlos I, King of Portugal KG pron. ...

See also

This is a list of regnant and non-regnant Princely, Royal and Imperial Houses of the World. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... Hundreds of princely states in British India existed prior to the independence of India and Pakistan (including the present Bangladesh) in 1947, ruled by semi-independent potentates. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Otto von Habsburg "renounced" his claim in order to pass freely into Austria. However, he continues to act (and is supported) as Head of the House of Habsburg.
  2. ^ Simeon was democratically elected as Prime Minister of Bulgaria in June 2001 under the name Simeon Sakskoburggotski, and served from July 2001 to August 2005.
  3. ^ including the present-day states Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia.
  4. ^ Prince Ferdinand's father Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro was unanimously declared Head of the Bourbon Two Sicilies by all relatives except for Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria and his children due to the fact that the Infante's senior branch of the family abdicated their claims in order to be in line for the Spanish throne.
  5. ^ The Emperors of the Qīng the dynasty descend from the Aisin Gioro clan (chinese 爱新觉罗, „Àixīnjuéluó“).
  6. ^ Inofficially.
  7. ^ Declared Empress of Korea symbolically in 2006.
  8. ^ The Yi family consists of descendants of the Chosŏn Emperors.
  9. ^ Anthony Brooke was appointed hereditary Rajah Muda of Sarawak on August 27, 1937 but has since renounced any claim to the title.
  10. ^ Officially religious and secular head of Tibet − since the Chinese occupation in 1950 administration from Indian exile as far as possible.
  11. ^ The Indian government recognizes Mirza Ghulam Moinuddin Muhammad as current head of the House of Tīmūr.
  12. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pretender - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3680 words)
A Pretender is a claimant to an abolished or already occupied throne.
There is also a pretender to the imperial throne of France, in the person of Charles Bonaparte, descendant of the Prince Napoléon.
Pretenders to the thrones of the United Kingdom and its predecessor realms, as well as the other historical jurisdictions that are modernly England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, were essentially taken care of by making the Irish and English (and subsequently, British) monarchies purely statutory institutions.
Pretender (2459 words)
Nicholas Romanoff, the president of Romanov Family Association, a junior male descendant of the imperial family, is regarded by some as the head of the family, but he is born of a morganatic marriage and therefore not entitled to inherit the throne under strict Russian succession law.
Pretenders to the thrones of the United Kingdom and its predecessor realms and other historical jurisdictions of England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, were essentially taken care of by making the Irish and English (and subsequently, British) monarchies purely statutory institutions.
Owain Glyndwr (1349-1416) is probably the best-known Welsh pretender, though whether he was pretender or Prince of Wales depends upon your source of information.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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