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Encyclopedia > Pressure gauge

Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of reduced or increased pressures. Pressure gauges are either direct- or indirect-reading. Those that measure pressure by calculating the force exerted on the surface by incident particle flux are called direct reading gauges. Indirect gauges record the pressure by measuringagaspropertythatchangesinapredictable manner with gas density.


== Bourdon Tube Type ==Insertformulahere

A combination pressure and vacuum gauge (case and viewing glass removed)
Indicator Side with card and dial
Indicator Side with card and dial
Mechanical Side with Bourdon tube
Mechanical Side with Bourdon tube

In 1849 the Bourdon tube pressure gauge was patented in France by Eugene Bourdon. Pressure-vacuum gauge face and dial Image by User:Leonard G. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pressure-vacuum gauge face and dial Image by User:Leonard G. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Overview of pressure-vacuum gauge mechanical parts (back view) Image by User:Leonard G. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Overview of pressure-vacuum gauge mechanical parts (back view) Image by User:Leonard G. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Eugène Bourdon (b. ...


A pressure or vacuum gauge usually consists of a closed coiled tube connected to the chamber or pipe in which pressure is to be sensed. As the pressure increases the tube will tend to uncoil, while a reduced pressure will cause the tube to coil more tightly. This motion is transferred through a link to a gear train connected to an indicating needle. The needle is presented in front of a card face inscribed with the pressure indications associated with particular needle deflections. Pressure (symbol: p) is the force per unit area acting on a surface in a direction perpendicular to that surface. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For other uses, see vacuum (disambiguation) A vacuum is a volume of space that is empty of matter, including air, so that gaseous pressure is much less than standard atmospheric pressure. ... For information on linking pages within Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Links. ... Spur gears found on a piece of farm equipment. ...


In the following pictures the transparent cover face has been removed and the mechanism removed from the case. This particular gauge is a combination vacuum and pressure gauge used for automotive diagnosis:

Contents

Left side of a Ford Cologne V6 engine, clearly showing a (rusty) cast iron exhaust manifold - three exhaust ports into one pipe. ... The torr (symbol: Torr) or millimetre of mercury (mmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. ... Inches of mercury or inHg is a non SI unit for pressure. ... A fuel pump is an essential component on a car or other internal combustion engined device. ... In mathematics, a fraction is a way of expressing a quantity based on an amount that is divided into a number of equal-sized parts. ... The deprecated unit kilogram-force (kgf) or kilopond (kp) is the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in standard Earth gravity (defined as exactly 9. ... Pounds-force per square inch (lbf/in²) is a non-SI unit of pressure. ...


Mechanical details

Mechanical Details
Mechanical Details

Stationary parts: Annotated internals of a pressure gauge, contrast enhanced. ... Annotated internals of a pressure gauge, contrast enhanced. ...

  • A: Receiver block. This joins the inlet pipe to the fixed end of the Bourdon tube (1) and secures the chassis plate (B). The two holes receive screws that secure the case.
  • B: Chassis Plate. The face card is attached to this. It contains bearing holes for the axles.
  • C: Secondary Chassis Plate. It supports the outer ends of the axles.
  • D: Posts to join and space the two chassis plates.

Moving Parts:

  1. Stationary end of Bourdon tube. This communicates with the inlet pipe through the receiver block.
  2. Moving end of Bourdon tube. This end is sealed.
  3. Pivot and pivot pin.
  4. Link joining pivot pin to lever (5) with pins to allow joint rotation.
  5. Lever. This an extension of the sector gear (7).
  6. Sector gear axle pin.
  7. Sector gear.
  8. Indicator needle axle. This has a spur gear that engages the sector gear (7) and extends through the face to drive the indicator needle. Due to the short distance between the lever arm link boss and the pivot pin and the difference between the effective radius of the sector gear and that of the spur gear, any motion of the Bourdon tube is greatly amplified. A small motion of the tube results in a large motion of the indicator needle.
  9. Hair spring to preload the gear train to eliminate gear lash and hysteresis.

Hysteresis is a property of systems (usually physical systems) that do not instantly follow the forces applied to them, but react slowly, or do not return completely to their original state: that is, systems whose states depend on their immediate history. ...

Aneroid chamber (bellows) type

A pile of aneroid bellows in a Barograph
Enlarge
A pile of aneroid bellows in a Barograph

In gauges intended to sense small pressures or pressure differences, or require that an absolute pressure be measured, the gear train and needle may be driven by an enclosed and sealed bellows chamber, called an aneroid, which means "without liquid". (Early barometers used a column of liquid such as water or the liquid metal mercury suspended by a vacuum.) This bellows configuration is used in aneroid barometers (barometers with an indicating needle and dial card), altimeters, altitude recording barographs, and the altitude telemetry instruments used in weather balloon radiosondes. These devices use the sealed chamber as a reference pressure and are driven by the external pressure. Other sensitive aircraft instruments such as air speed indicators and rate of climb indicators (variometers) have connections both to the internal part of the aneroid chamber and to an external enclosing chamber. Image File history File links MUGGIANU_Jean-Marie_IMAG0002-1. ... Image File history File links MUGGIANU_Jean-Marie_IMAG0002-1. ... Schematic drawing of a simple mercury barometer with vertical mercury column and reservoir at base Table of Pneumaticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... A girl in a swimming pool full of water Water (from the Old English waeter; c. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 200. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For other uses, see vacuum (disambiguation) A vacuum is a volume of space that is empty of matter, including air, so that gaseous pressure is much less than standard atmospheric pressure. ... Aircraft altimeter as used in North America An altimeter is an active instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level. ... A barograph is a recording aneroid barometer. ... Rawinsonde weather balloon just after launch. ... radiosonde with measuring instruments A radiosonde (Sonde is German for probe) is a unit for use in weather balloons that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them to a fixed receiver. ... Airspeed Indicator The airspeed indicator is an instrument used in an aircraft to display the crafts airspeed, typically in knots, to the pilot. ... The term Variometer also refers to a type of tunable electrical transformer // Definition A variometer (also known as a rate-of-climb indicator, a vertical speed indicator (VSI), or a vertical velocity indicator (VVI)) is an instrument in an aircraft used to inform the pilot of the rate of descent...


Absolute pressure vs. gauge pressure

Pressure gauges can be further classified into those reading absolute pressure and those reading gauge pressure. Absolute gauges measure the pressure of a fluid referenced against a vacuum. Aneroid barometers and altimeters are good examples, and the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor used in the engine control systems of modern fuel-injected automobiles is another. Gauge-pressure gauges measure the pressure of a fluid referenced against ambient air pressure. The Bourdon tube gauge discussed above is an example. The displayed reading of such a gauge will vary as local atmospheric pressure changes. However, if the gauge is designed to read pressures of many atmospheres, the error between gauge pressure and absolute pressure is usually so small as to be negligible. Pressure (symbol: p) is the force per unit area acting on a surface in a direction perpendicular to that surface. ...


A differential pressure gauge is a special case of gauge-pressure measuring instrument, designed to display the difference in pressure between two points. A liquid-column manometer is one example of such a gauge. Such instruments have two inlet ports, each connected to one of the volumes whose pressure is to be monitored. In effect, such a gauge performs the mathematical operation of subtraction through mechanical means, obviating the need for an operator to watch two separate gauges and mentally determine the difference in readings. A manometer is a pressure measuring instrument, often also called pressure gauge. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pressure gauge
  • Pressure Gauges Manufacturers
  • Pressure Gauges Manufacturers
  • Pressure Gauges Manufacturers

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pressure Gauge Products From Ashcroft Set the Standard (360 words)
Pressure gauge from Dresser Instruments have set the standard for accuracy, quality, and dependability in pressure measurement for over 150 years.
Ashcroft pressure gauge products can be ordered with pressure ranges from inches of water to 100,000 psi; dial sizes from 23 mm to 12 inches; accuracy from 3 % full-scale to.05% full-scale and numerous bourdon tube materials are available for virtually every application.
Often, Ashcroft gauges are identified by the industry that they serve, such as, industrial pressure gauge, test gauges, process gauges, high-purity gauges, and commercial gauges.
Pressure - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1569 words)
Pressure (symbol: p) is the force per unit area acting on a surface in a direction perpendicular to that surface.
Pressure is still sometimes expressed in kgf/cm² or grams-force/cm² (sometimes as kg/cm² and g/cm² without properly identifying the force units).
Because pressure is commonly measured by its ability to displace a column of liquid in a manometer, pressures are often expressed as a depth of a particular fluid (e.g.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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