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Encyclopedia > Presidential Medal of Freedom
The Presidential Medal of Freedom
The Presidential Medal of Freedom

The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an act of Congress). It is designed to recognize individuals who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors." Presidential Medal of Freedom File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Presidential Medal of Freedom File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Civilian decorations of the United States are civil decorations of the United States of America which are bestowed by various agencies of the United States government for acts of accomplishment benefiting the government as a whole. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal should not be confused with the Medal of Honor (commonly called the Congressional Medal of Honor), which is also awarded by Congress, but only to military members as the highest military decoration of the United States. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican...

Contents

History of the award

It was established by President Harry Truman in 1945 to honor service during World War II. President John F. Kennedy revived the medal in 1963 through Executive Order 11085, and expanded its purpose. For the victim of Mt. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... An executive order is an edict issued by a member of the executive branch of a government, usually the head of that branch. ...


The medal is awarded annually, on or near the Fourth of July, and at other times as chosen by the President. Recipients are selected by the President, either on his initiative or based on recommendations. The order reviving the medal also expanded the size and the responsibilities of the Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Board so it could serve as a major source of such recommendations. In the United States, Independence Day (commonly known as the Fourth of July or July Fourth) is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from Great Britain. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... A board created for recommending civilians for awards from the U.S. Federal government for distinguished service. ...


The medal may be awarded to an individual more than once (for example, John Kenneth Galbraith and Colin Powell), and may also be awarded posthumously (for example, John F. Kennedy and Roberto Clemente). John Kenneth Galbraith John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908–April 29, 2006) was an influential Canadian-American economist. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Roberto Clemente Walker (August 18, 1934 – December 31, 1972) was a Major League Baseball right fielder and right-handed batter. ...


Insignia

Medal and other accessories
Ronald Reagan receives his Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1993.

The badge of the Presidential Medal of Freedom is in the form of a golden star with white enamel, with a red enamel pentagon behind it; the central disc bears thirteen gold stars on a blue enamel background (taken from the Great Seal of the United States) within a golden ring. Golden American eagles with spread wings stand between the points of the star. It is worn around the neck on a blue ribbon with white edge stripes. The general badge of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with its various components. ... The general badge of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with its various components. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... Obverse The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the United States government. ... Genera Several, see below. ...


A special grade of the medal, known as the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction, has the above mentioned medal worn as a star on the left chest; in addition, the above-mentioned ribbon is worn as a sash on the right shoulder, with its rosette (blue with white edge, bearing the central disc of the medal at its center) resting on the left hip.


The medal may also be worn on the above-mentioned ribbon on the left chest, with a silver American eagle with spread wings on the ribbon (or a golden eagle if a medal "With Distinction").


See also

This is a list of well-known recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, grouped by the aspect of life in which they are/were renowned. ... The Presidential Citizens Medal is the second highest civilian award in the United States awarded by the President of the United States, second only to the Presidential Medal of Freedom. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... Awards and decorations of the United States military are military decorations which recognize a service members service and personal accomplishments while a member of the United States armed forces. ...

External links

  • Article from the JFK Library
  • Text of the order re-establishing the medal
  • Recipients by Year.
  • List of recent recipients, from the United States Senate website
  • President Bush Honors Medal of Freedom Recipients, 2006

  Results from FactBites:
 
Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipient Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu (2367 words)
Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipient Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu being congratulated by President Bill Clinton on receiving the Medal of Freedom.
The Medal of Freedom was one of 15 awards presented by Clinton yesterday on what would have been Martin Luther King Jr.'s 69th birthday.
Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipient Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu with fellow Presidential Medal of Freedom and Congressional Gold Medal Recipient Rosa Parks.
Presidential Citizens Medal Recipients - The Presidential Citizens Medal was established in 1969 to recognize U.S. ... (192 words)
Presidential Citizens Medal Recipients - The Presidential Citizens Medal was established in 1969 to recognize U.S. citizens who have performed exemplary deeds of service for the nation.
The medal is bestowed by the president and may be conferred posthumously.
The Presidential Citizens Medal is one of the highest honors the President can confer upon a civilian, second only to the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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