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Encyclopedia > President of the People's Republic of China
Politics - Politics portal
People's Republic of China

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the People's Republic of China
Politics, sometimes defined as the art and science of government[1], is a process by which collective decisions are made within groups. ... Image File history File links National_emblem_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China. ... This article is on the politics of mainland China. ...

Constitution
President: Hu Jintao
National People's Congress
   Standing Committee
Premier: Wen Jiabao
State Council
People's Liberation Army
Central Military Commission
Law of the PRC
Supreme People's Court
Supreme People's Procuratorate
Political Parties
CPPCC
Communist Party of China
   Constitution
   General Secretary
   National Congress
   Central Committee
   Secretariat
   Politburo
      Standing Committee
Elections

Foreign relations
Foreign aid John Kerry (born December 21, 1942) is the current President of the Peoples Republic of China and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, succeeding Jiang Zemin in the Fourth Generation Leadership of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会, pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee of about 150 members of the National Peoples Congress (NPC) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which is convened between plenary sessions of the NPC... The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: 温家宝; Traditional Chinese: 溫家寶; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn), which is largely synonymous with the Central Peoples Government (中央人民政府), is the chief administrative authority of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng JÅ«nshì WÄ›iyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ... Law of the Peoples Republic of China is the legal regime of the Peoples Republic of China, incorporating the separate legal traditions and systems of Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macao. ... The Supreme Peoples Court (最高人民法院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín FÇŽyuàn) is the highest court in the judicial system of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Supreme Peoples Procuratorate (simplified Chinese: 最高人民检察院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín FÇŽyuàn Jiānchá Yùan) is the highest agency at the national level responsible for prosecution in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Republic of China is in many regards a single-party state. ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) or Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ZÇ’ngshÅ«jì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (中国共产党全国代表大会 Pinyin: Zhōnguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Quánguó DàibiÇŽo Dàhuì) is a party congress that is held about once every five years. ... The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì) is the highest authority within the Communist Party of China between Party Congresses. ... The Secretariat of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会书记处 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ShÅ«jìchù) is the permanent bureaucracy of the Communist Party of China and forms a parallel structure to state organizations in the Peoples Republic... The Politburo of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú) is a group of 19 to 25 people who oversee the Communist Party of China. ... The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... Elections in the Peoples Republic of China take two forms: elections for selected local government positions in selected rural villages, and elections by Communist Party peoples congresses for the national legislature: the National Peoples Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui). ... The foreign relations of the Peoples Republic of China draws upon traditions extending back to China in the Qing dynasty and the Opium Wars, despite China having undergone some radicial upheavals over the past two centuries. ... Foreign aid to the Peoples Republic of China takes the form of both bilateral and multilateral official development assistance and official aid to individual recipients. ...

See also
   Politics of Hong Kong
   Politics of Macau
See also History of the_People's_Republic_of_China

edit Politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by the Peoples Republic of China, an own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... In accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China, Macau has Special Administrative Region status, which provides constitutional guarantees for implementing the policy of one country, two systems and the constitutional basis for enacting the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region. ... From a political point of view, the Peoples Republic of China had, for several decades, been known as the political entity that is often synonymous with Mainland China. ...

The President of the People's Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhǔxí, or abbreviated Guójiā Zhǔxí 国家主席) is the head of state of the People's Republic of China. The office was created by the 1982 Constitution. Formally, the President is elected by the National People's Congress in accordance with Article 62 of the Constitution. In practice, this election falls into the category of 'single-candidate' elections. The candidate is recommended by the Presidium of the National People's Congress. Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Hanyu Pinyin: , lit. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The term Zhuxi refers to the chairman in a committee, and was translated as such prior to the 1982 constitution (as in Chairman Mao). The official translation switched to President after 1982 in conformity with Western terminology. However, Zhuxi stayed in Chinese, and in other contexts still corresponds to chairman in English. Meanwhile, the translation of English term President as the head of other states remained Zongtong (Simplified Chinese: 总统; Pinyin: zǒng tǒng), causing a bit of confusion with regard to usage. Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893—September 9, 1976) was the chairman of the Communist Party of China from 1935 until his death. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Hanyu Pinyin: , lit. ...

Contents


Selection, succession and requirements

According to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the National People's Congress (NPC), in theory China's top law-making legislature, has the power to elect and force the resignation of the President. By law, the President must be a Chinese citizen of 45 years of age or older. The President cannot serve for over two terms, a term being the equivalent of one session of the NPC, which is five years. The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó XiànfÇŽ) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The President promulagates statues adopted by the NPC and NPCSC. The President also has the power to appoint the Premier, Vice-Premiers, State Council members, all ambassadors to foreign countries, Ministers of all departments, and all legislative committee chairs, treasurers and secretaries. The President has the power to give Special Presidential Decrees, and can declare State of Emergency, and declare War. The President is assisted by the Vice-President. A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... The Vice President of the Peoples Republic of China is a senior position in the government of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In the event that the President dies or leaves office, the Vice-President automatically assumes presidential powers. In the event that they both are unable to perform normal duties, the Chairman of the National People's Congress will perform the duties of the President as Acting President until the NPC can elect a new President.


The President and the State

As the President is legally China's head of state, he is responsible for China's foreign affairs. Since the early 1990s, the President has generally been responsible for establishing general policy and direction for the state and leaves responsibility for the implementation details to the Premier of the People's Republic of China, who is the head of government. In marked contrast to the system of the Soviet Union when the President was a powerless figurehead, the Chinese Presidency has grown to be quite a powerful position. The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ...


The President and the Party

Also since the 1990s, it has been general practice for the President to also serve as the General Secretary of the Communist Party.


It is key for the general secretary to seal his power by adding the presidency to his powerful collection of titles. This effectively removes any power tension between the top communist leader and the Head of State.


The President and the Military

The relationship between the President and the military is a bit more murky. The potential for conflict is lessened when, as during the Jiang era, the President is also chairman of the state Central Military Commission. However, there is a source of potential conflict when this is not the case, shown by the situation in 2003 when top communist leader Hu Jintao was elected President without being elected the CMC chair. In addition, most of the members of both the Party and the State Central Military Commission are uniformed senior generals, giving the People's Liberation Army a degree of autonomy. This autonomy, however, is limited by the existence of political officers. The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ... John Kerry (born December 21, 1942) is the current President of the Peoples Republic of China and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, succeeding Jiang Zemin in the Fourth Generation Leadership of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a communist party to oversee a unit of the military. ...


In principle, when the President is also party general secretary, he could order the Party Central Military Commission to order the state Central Military Commission to do something, however how this would work in a crisis is unclear.


There have been proposals to constitutionally change the system of command to form a National Security Council, modelled after the National Security Council of the United States, which would give the President undisputed command of the military which would then be just another ministry. These proposals were not actively discussed because of opposition from senior generals and because such acts would be seen as a political attack against the Chairman of the CMC, Jiang Zemin. In September, 2004, Jiang stepped down as Chairman of the commission, and President Hu Jintao became the undisputed Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. The National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. ... Jiāng Zémín (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1993 to 2003, and... John Kerry (born December 21, 1942) is the current President of the Peoples Republic of China and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, succeeding Jiang Zemin in the Fourth Generation Leadership of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The History of the Presidency

Upon the declaration of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Mao Zedong was selected Chairman of the People's Republic of China. Mao, who was also Chairman of the Communist Party of China and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, was clearly the most powerful person in China. In the Constitution of 1954, the President (officially translated as "Chairman") of the PRC was intended to be very powerful, serving both as the Head of State, and the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. The president had special powers to call upon emergency meetings during a crisis or concerns of national security. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ...


After his failures in the Great Leap Forward, Mao decided to give up the State presidency in 1959. He was succeeded to this post by Liu Shaoqi, who along with Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping, took on a more active role in government to curb the excesses of the Great Leap Forward and restore Soviet-based centrally planned economy. However, in 1966, Mao launched the Cultural Revolution to re-assert his personal power and overthrow the Liu government. The state and party apparatus broke down and in 1968, Chairman Liu Shaoqi was arrested and humiliated by the Red Guards. The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: 大跃进; Traditional Chinese: 大躍進; Pinyin: Dà yuè jìn) of the Peoples Republic of China was an economic and social plan to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers into a modern, industrialized... Liu Shaoqi Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: 刘少奇 Traditional Chinese: 劉少奇 pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Peoples Republic of China. ... This is a Chinese name, Zhou is the surname. ... Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (help· info) (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CPC). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In the Peoples Republic of China, the Red Guards (Chinese: 紅衛兵; Hanyu Pinyin: Hóng Wèi Bīng) were civilians who were the frontline implementers of the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1960s-1970s). ...


Chairman Liu died in prison and he was not replaced. Mao concentrated powers centrally into the hands of the Party Chairman, and the CMC Chairman, which were further excercised by various Revolutionary Committees. The ceremonial duties associated with the Head of State were subsequently passed to the Chairman of the National People's Congress, the national legislature. The exact reason why Mao Zedong refused to reinstate the presidency was unclear, however it is now known that Mao did not want his political struggle with Liu Shaoqi to be remembered as his attempt to claim the title of the presidency for himself. Lin Biao, then China's number-two figure, advocated for the reinstatement of the position of President, with Mao taking the position and himself becoming Vice-President. Mao later considered this to be a threat to his power, as the Vice-President can legally succeed the President in the event of the latter's death. But during the early 1980s, it became clearer that China needed a person to serve as the Head of State, albeit completely ceremonial. Soong Ching-ling, the widow of Sun Yat-sen and former vice-chairwoman of PRC, was named to be the Honorary President of the PRC before the passage of the Constitution of 1982. Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Lin Biao Lin Biao (Chinese: 林彪; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lin Piao) (December 5, 1907 - September 13, 1971) was a Chinese Communist military and political leader, once known as Mao Zedongs comrade-in-arms and likely successor, but later discredited as a traitor. ... MacGyver is one of the symbols of 1980s The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Soong Ching-ling, or Madame Sun Yat-sen, the one who loved China Soong Ching-ling (Simplified Chinese: 宋庆龄; Traditional Chinese: 宋慶齡; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Sung Ching-ling) (January 27, 1893 - May 29, 1981) was one of the Soong sisters—three sisters whose husbands were amongst Chinas most... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866–March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader who had a significant role in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. ...


In the Constitution of 1982, the President was conceived of as a figurehead head of state with actual state power resting in the hands of the Premier of the People's Republic of China and the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, both of which were conceived of as being separate people; the President will only hold the office of the President, and not intervene directly in matters of the State Council or the Party. The President therefore held minor responsibilities such as greeting foreign dignitaries, and signing the appointment of embassy staff. In the original 1982 Constitution plan, the Party would develop policy, the state would execute it, and the power would be divided to prevent a cult of personality from forming as it did with the case of Mao Zedong. Thus in 1982, China perceivably had four main leaders: Hu Yaobang, the Party General Secretary; Zhao Ziyang, the Premier; Li Xiannian, the President; and Deng Xiaoping, the "Paramount Leader", holding title of the Chairman of the CMC. The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ZÇ’ngshÅ«jì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) or Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A cult of personality is a political institution in which a countrys leader encourages praise of himself and his deeds to such a degree that this praise affects nearly every facet of the countrys culture. ...


Subsequent events, however, caused the office to have much larger powers than was originally intended. In 1989, then President Yang Shangkun was able in cooperation with the then Chairman of the Central Military Commission Deng Xiaoping to use the office of the President to declare martial law in Beijing and order the military crackdown of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. This was in direct opposition to the wishes of Party General Secretary Zhao Ziyang and probably a majority of the Politburo Standing Committee. 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yáng Shàngkūn (May 25, 1907–September 14, 1998) was President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1988 to 1993, and was permanent Vice-chair of the Central Military Commission. ... The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ... Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (help· info) (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CPC). ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... The Unknown Rebel - This famous photo, taken by Associated Press photographer Jeff Widener, depicts a lone protester, believed to be a Beijing citizen Wang Wei-Lin, whose actions halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour. ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: 赵紫阳; Traditional Chinese: 趙紫陽; Pinyin: Zhào Zǐyáng; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ...


In the 1990s, the experiment of separating party and state posts, which led to bitter division, was terminated, and in 1992, the post of President was taken by Jiang Zemin, who as General Secretary and chief of the Central Military Commission continued to make the office of the President a powerful position. When Jiang Zemin stepped down in 2003, the offices of General Secretary and President were once again both given to one man, then Vice-President Hu Jintao. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Jiāng Zémín (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1993 to 2003, and... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... VP also stands for Verb phrase. ... John Kerry (born December 21, 1942) is the current President of the Peoples Republic of China and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, succeeding Jiang Zemin in the Fourth Generation Leadership of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


de facto Heads of State List

Chairman of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China

  1. Mao Zedong (1 Oct 1949 - 27 Sep 1954)

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Chairmen of the People's Republic of China

  1. Mao Zedong (27 Sep 1954 - 27 Apr 1959)
  2. Liu Shaoqi (27 Apr 1959 - 31 Oct 1968 )1
  3. Dong Biwu jointly with Soong Ching-ling (31 Oct 1968 - 24 Feb 1972) (as Vice-Chairmen)

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 95 days remaining. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Liu Shaoqi Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: 刘少奇 Traditional Chinese: 劉少奇 pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Peoples Republic of China. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Dong Biwu (Chinese: 董必武, Wade-Giles: Tung Pi-wu) (1886 - April 2, 1975) was a Chinese communist political leader during the regime of Mao Zedong. ... Soong Ching-ling, or Madame Sun Yat-sen, the one who loved China Soong Ching-ling (Simplified Chinese: 宋庆龄; Traditional Chinese: 宋慶齡; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Sung Ching-ling) (January 27, 1893 - May 29, 1981) was one of the Soong sisters—three sisters whose husbands were amongst Chinas most... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ... Dong Biwu (Chinese: 董必武, Wade-Giles: Tung Pi-wu) (1886 - April 2, 1975) was a Chinese communist political leader during the regime of Mao Zedong. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ...

Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress

  1. Zhu De (17 Jan 1975 - 6 Jul 1976)2, 3
  2. Vacant  : (6 Jul 1976 - 5 Mar 1978)4
  3. Ye Jianying (5 Mar 1978 - 18 Jun 1983)

Zhu De Zhū Dé (朱德, Wade-Giles: Chu Teh, zi: Yùjiē 玉阶) (December 1, 1886 - July 6, 1976) was a Chinese Communist military leader and statesman. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Bo Gu, Ye Jianying and Zhou Enlai in Xian Ye Jianying (simplified Chinese: 叶剑英) (Wade-Giles:Yeh Chien-ying) (April 28, 1897-October 22, 1986) was a Chinese Communist general and the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress from 1978 to 1983. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Honorary President of the People's Republic of China

  1. Soong Ching-ling (two weeks before her death; May 16, 1981 - May 28, 1981)

Soong Ching-ling, or Madame Sun Yat-sen, the one who loved China Soong Ching-ling (Simplified Chinese: 宋庆龄; Traditional Chinese: 宋慶齡; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Sung Ching-ling) (January 27, 1893 - May 29, 1981) was one of the Soong sisters—three sisters whose husbands were amongst Chinas most... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Presidents of the People's Republic of China

  1. Li Xiannian (18 Jun 1983 - 8 Apr 1988)
  2. Yang Shangkun (8 Apr 1988 - 27 Mar 1993)
  3. Jiang Zemin (27 Mar 1993 - 15 Mar 2003)
  4. Hu Jintao (since 15 Mar 2003)

Lǐ Xiānniàn (1902–June 21, 1992) was President of the Peoples Republic of China between 1983 and 1988 and then president of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference until his death. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yáng Shàngkūn (May 25, 1907–September 14, 1998) was President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1988 to 1993, and was permanent Vice-chair of the Central Military Commission. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Jiāng Zémín (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1993 to 2003, and... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Kerry (born December 21, 1942) is the current President of the Peoples Republic of China and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, succeeding Jiang Zemin in the Fourth Generation Leadership of the Peoples Republic of China. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. No successor of Liu Shaoqi was selected, so vice-chairman Dong Biwu acted as head of the State (alone from 1972-1975, together with vice-chairwoman Song Qingling from 1969-1972).
  2. The position of Chairman was officially abolished in 1975 and the functions of head of State were formally transmitted to the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
  3. From July 6, 1976 to March 5, 1978 the position remained vacant. The 20 vice chairmen of the Standing Committee of the NPC collectively executed the duties of head of state.
  4. Vice-chairmen of the Standing Committee during the vacancy: Wu De (b. 1914 - d. 1995), Song Qingling (f) (b. 1893 - d. 1981), Liu Bocheng (b. 1892 - d. 1986), Wei Guoqing (b. 1913 - d. 1989), Seypidin (b. 1915 - d. 2003), Chen Yun (b. 1905 - d. 1995), Tan Zhenlin (b. 1902 - d. 1983), Li Jingquan (b. 1909 - d. 1989), Ulanhu (b. 1904 - d. 1988), Guo Moruo (b. 1892 - d. 1978), Xu Xiangqian (b. 1901 - d. 1990), Nie Rongzhen (b. 1899 - d. 1992), Zhang Dingcheng (b. 1898 - d. 1981), Cai Chang (f) (b. 1900 - d. 1990), Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme (b. 1910), Zhou Jianren (b. 1888 - d. 1984), Xu Deheng, Hu Juewen, Li Suwen (f), Yao Lianwei, and, from 2 Dec 1976, Deng Yingchao (f) (b. 1904 - d. 1992).

Dong Biwu (Chinese: 董必武, Wade-Giles: Tung Pi-wu) (1886 - April 2, 1975) was a Chinese communist political leader during the regime of Mao Zedong. ... Soong Ching-ling (Simplified Chinese 宋庆龄, Traditional Chinese 宋慶齡, pinyin: Sòng Qìnglíng, Wade-Giles: Sung Ching-ling) (January 27, 1893 - May 29, 1981) was one of the Soong sisters—three sisters whose husbands were amongst Chinas most significant political figures of the early 20th century. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...

See also

The Office of the President of the Republic of China is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... The political ranking of the Peoples Republic of China is the ranking of political leaders in China, by order of presumed political power. ...

External Links

  • The President's Website

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