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Encyclopedia > President of Mexico
President of the United Mexican States

Seal of the Office of the President
Incumbent:
President Felipe Calderón.
Origins:
Guadalupe Victoria October 10, 1824
Mexico

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Mexico
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1089x1545, 553 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Felipe Calderón Mexican general election, 2006 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa (b. ... Guadalupe Victoria, born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix in the state of Durango, served as the first President of Mexico from 1824 to 1829. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Seal_of_the_Government_of_Mexico. ... Politics of Mexico takes place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...



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The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the head of government and the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces. The current President is Felipe Calderón. Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa (b. ... The Mexican Executive Cabinet is a part of the executive branch of the Mexican government. ... Congress (formally: Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. ... The Senate (Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) is the upper house of Mexicos bicameral Congress. ... The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of Mexicos bicameral legislature, the Congress of the Union. ... The LX Legislature (60th) of the Congress of Mexico is meeting from September 1, 2006, to September 1, 2009. ... The Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation (Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación, or SCJN) is the highest federal court in the United Mexican States. ... This article lists political parties in Mexico. ... Politics of Mexico Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Mexico ... The general election was held in Mexico on Wednesday, July 6, 1988. ... On Sunday August 18, 1991 they were held in Mexico legislative elections, in which they were chosen to federal level: 32 Senators. ... The general election was held in Mexico on Sunday, August 21, 1994. ... On Sunday July 6, 1997 they were held in Mexico legislative elections, in which they were chosen to federal level: 32 Senators. ... Mexico held a general election on Sunday, 2 July 2000. ... A number of elections, both federal and local, took place in Mexico during 2003: // Chamber of Deputies – 500 federal deputies Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2003 Colima state election Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2003 Nuevo León state election Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2003 Sonora... A number of local elections took place in Mexico during 2004: // Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2004 Chihuahua state election Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2004 Durango state election Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2004 Zacatecas state election Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2004 Aguascalientes state... A number of local elections took place in Mexico during 2005: // Governor, five mayors, and 21 (15+6) local deputies See: 2005 Baja California Sur state election Governor, mayors, and local congress See: 2005 Guerrero state election Governor, eight mayors, and 25 (15+10) local deputies See: 2005 Quintana Roo... A number of elections on the federal and local level took place in Mexico during 2006. ... A number of elections on the local level are scheduled to take place in Mexico during 2007. ... The Federal Electoral Institute (IFE) is an autonomous, public organization responsible for organizing federal elections in Mexico, that is, those related to the election of president of the United Mexican States and to the election of Lower and Upper Chamber members that constitute the Mexican Union Congress. ... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México) is a federal republic made up of 31 states (estados) and one Federal District, (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... Traditionally, the Government of Mexico has sought to maintain its interests abroad and project its influence largely through moral persuasion. ... The Mexican military forces are composed of the Mexican Army (which includes the Mexican Air Force as a subordinate entity) and the Mexican Navy. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Mexican military forces are composed of the Mexican Army (which includes the Mexican Air Force as a subordinate entity) and the Mexican Navy. ... Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa (b. ...


Currently, the office of the President is considered to be revolutionary, in that he is the inheritor of the Mexican Revolution and the powers of office are derived from the Revolutionary Constitution of 1917. Another legacy of the Revolution is its ban on re-election: Mexican Presidents are currently limited to one six-year term. The constitution and the office of the President closely follow the presidential system of government. This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ... This article is about the current Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Requirements to hold office

Chapter III of the Constitution deals with the executive branch of government and establishes the following: In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ...

  • Supreme Executive Power of the Union is vested in one individual, styled the President of the United Mexican States.
  • The election for president will be direct and according to the current Electoral Law.

To be eligible to run for president, the following requirements must be met:

  • A Mexican citizen by birth, with a father or mother who is Mexican by birth, and having resided in the country for at least 20 years.
  • 35 years old or older at the time of the election.
  • Resident in the country for the entire year prior to the election.
  • Not an official of any church or religious denomination.
  • Not in active military service during the six months prior to the election.
  • Not a secretary or under-secretary of state, attorney general, or governor of a state at least six months prior to the election.
  • Not having been president already (by election, or other causes).

The President of Mexico serves one six-year term, called a sexenio, and is not eligible for re-election.


Presidential elections

Presidential elections have been held every six years since 1934 (the constitution previously provided for a four-year mandate). However, only since the year 1994 have these elections approached an acceptable standard of democratic transparency and cleanliness. Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


The president is elected by direct, popular, universal suffrage. A simple plurality of all the votes cast in the country decides who becomes president and, unlike many other presidential systems, there is no second round. Former President Vicente Fox was elected with a plurality of 43% of the popular vote, whereas his predecessor Ernesto Zedillo won with a majority of 50%. The current President, Felipe Calderón, won with 36.38% of the votes, and less than a 1% lead to his closest competitor. Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) was the President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ... Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) was President of Mexico from 1994 to 2000. ... Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa (b. ...


The History of Mexico has not been a peaceful one. After the fall of dictator Porfirio Díaz in 1910 because of the Mexican Revolution, there was no stable government until all the military generals united in one political party: the Party of the Mexican Revolution, which later changed its name to the National Revolutionary Party, and later to the Institutional Revolutionary Party, or Partido Revolucionario Institucional. The PRI enacted a strict internal discipline and government presence in the country, and electoral fraud became common. After the country regained its peace this pattern of fraud continued, with the opposition losing every election until the later part of the 20th century. The first presidential election broadly considered legitimate was the one held in 1994, when the PRI's Ernesto Zedillo took office, and in his term several reforms to ensure fairness in elections were made. Partly as a consequence of these reforms the 1997 federal congressional election saw the first opposition Chamber of Deputies ever, and the 2000 elections saw Vicente Fox of a PAN/PVEM alliance become the first opposition candidate to win an election since 1911. This historical defeat was accepted on election night by PRI in the voice of President Zedillo; while this calmed fears of violence, it also fueled questions about the role of the president in the electoral process and to whom the responsibility of conceding defeat should fall in a democratic election. Mexico is a country in North America and the largest Spanish-speaking country in the world. ... José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mory (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915), Mexican war volunteer and French intervention hero; later President. ... This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ... The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican political party that wielded hegemonic power in the country – under a succession of names – for more than 70 years. ... The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) held power in Mexico for more than 70 years. ... The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) held power in Mexico for more than 70 years. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) was President of Mexico from 1994 to 2000. ... The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of Mexicos bicameral legislature, the Congress of the Union. ... Mexico held a general election on Sunday, 2 July 2000. ... Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) was the President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ... The National Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Nacional), known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian Democratic party and one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... The Green Ecological Party of Mexico (Spanish: Partido Verde Ecologista de México, known by the abbreviation PVEM) is one of the six political parties to enjoy representation in the Mexican Congress. ...


The role of unions in the new balance of power and future elections is documented in works like historian Enrique Krauze's Analysis of the Corporative System. This article is about the occupation of studying history. ... Enrique Krauze - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Presidential powers

Since the presidential institution stabilized after the Revolution, the president held almost absolute power over the country, decreasing somewhat into the later years of the 20th century. Held as the most important PRI member, the unwritten rules of the party allowed him to designate party officials and candidates, the latter winning every election usually by electoral fraud. So, he had an important (but not exclusive) influence over the political life of the country (part of his power had to be shared with unions and other groups, but as an individual he had no peers). This, and his constitutional powers, made some political commentators describe the president as a six-year dictator, and to call this system "Imperial Presidency". This power reached its peak around the early 1980s, when a grave economic crisis created discomfort both in the population and inside the party, and the President's power was no longer absolute but still impressive.


An important characteristic of this system (its first example the harsh treatment meted out by new president Lázaro Cárdenas to Plutarco Elías Calles in the 1930s) is that the new president was chosen by the old one (as a candidate with an assured win) but once he assumed power, the old one lost all power and influence (no reelection is a cornerstone of Mexican politics). This renewed command helped maintain party discipline and avoided the stagnation associated with a single man holding power for decades, prompting Peruvian novelist Mario Vargas Llosa to call Mexico's political system "the perfect dictatorship". This article is about Gen. ... Plutarco Elías Calles (September 25, 1877 – October 19, 1945) was a Mexican general and politician. ... Mario Vargas Llosa in his youth. ...


With the democratic reforms of recent years and fairer elections, the Constitution has begun to be applied and the President's powers are legally limited. His current powers and rights include the following:

  • Supreme executive power to run and administer the country.
  • The right to appoint the Attorney General
  • The right to appoint the Attorney General and the Chief of Police of the Federal District
  • The right to appoint the Secretaries of State and all the members of the Mexican Executive Cabinet
  • The right to appoint all Mexican Ambassadors
  • Supreme power over the army, navy, and air force
  • The power to declare war and peace (with prior congressional authorization)
  • The power of negotiating foreign treaties
  • The power to issue decrees
  • The right to nominate Supreme Court justices
  • The power to veto laws (and, after a Supreme Court ruling about the controversial 2004 budget, also the power to veto decrees from Congress).
  • The right to introduce bills in Congress for their consideration.

A decree is a legislative instrument that has an expiration date and that is issued by one of the three branches of government. Congress may issue decrees, and the President may issue decrees as well. However, they have all the power of laws, but cannot be changed except by the power that issued them. Decrees are very limited in their extent. One such decree is the federal budget, which is issued by congress. The president's office may suggest a budget, but at the end of the day, it is congress that decrees how to collect taxes and how to spend them. A Supreme Court ruling on Vicente Fox's veto of the 2004 budget suggests that the President may have the right to veto decrees from Congress. In Mexico the Attorney Generals Office (Spanish: Procuraduría General de la República) is an institution belonging to the Federal executive branch that is responsible of the investigation and prosecution of federal crimes. ... United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, a Secretary of State is a senior Cabinet Minister in charge of a Government Department. ... The Mexican Executive Cabinet is a part of the executive branch of the Mexican government. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... The Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation (Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación, or SCJN) is the highest federal court in the United Mexican States. ... Congress (formally: Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. ...


Since 1997, the Congress has been plural, usually with opposition parties having a majority. Major reforms (tax, energy) have to pass by Congress, and the ruling President usually found his efforts blocked: the PRI's Zedillo by opposing PAN/PRD congressmen, and later the PAN's Fox by the PRI and PRD. The PAN would push the reforms it denied to the PRI and viceversa. This situation, novel in a country where Congress was +90% dominated by the president's party for most of the century, has led to a legal analysis of the president's power. Formerly almost a dictator (because of PRI's party discipline), the current times show the president's power as somewhat limited. In 2004, President Fox threatened to veto the budget approved by Congress, claiming the budget overstepped his authority to lead the country, only to learn no branch of government had the power to veto a decree issued by another branch of government (although a different, non jurisprudence-setting ruling stated he could return the budget with observations). Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) was the President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ...


Oath of Office

Upon taking office, the President takes the following oath (translated from Spanish):

I swear to follow and uphold the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States and the laws that emanate from it, and to perform the job of President of the Republic which the people have conferred upon me with loyalty and patriotism, in all actions looking after the good and prosperity of the Union; and if I do not fulfill these obligations, the Nation will demand them of me.

Presidential residence

The President's principal workplace and official residence is Los Pinos located inside the Bosque de Chapultepec (Chapultepec Park). The President has the right to use this residence for the six-year term of office. Los Pinos is Mexicos official presidential residence, the home – for a six-year period – of the President of Mexico. ... Chapultepec Park with Polanco at the right, as seen from Torre Mayor observation deck. ...


The National Palace, a building facing the Mexico City Zócalo, is used only for national holidays like Independence Day or Revolution Day. It holds some areas open to the public (as an historic building) and government offices. Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... The Zócalo, Mexico City Catedral Metropolitana Zócalo is a Mexican Spanish term for a town square or town center where social and business transactions take place. ... (Redirected from 16 September) September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... (Redirected from 20 November) November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Succession

Article 84 of the Mexican Constitution states that "in case of absolute absence of a President" the following should happen:

  • If Congress is not in session, then the Permanent Commission elects a Provisional President (Presidente Provisional), and then calls Congress to an extraordinary session, at which point the process continues as below.
  • If the absence (death, impeachment, etc.) should occur in the first two years of the term, Congress (if in session, or after being called to extraordinary session by the Permanent Commission) must elect, by a majority of votes in a secret ballot with at quorum of at least two-thirds of its members, an Interim President (Presidente Interino). Congress must also call for elections in no less than 14 months and no more than 18 months after the absence of the President; the person elected then will be President for the remainder of the original six-year presidential term.
  • If the absence should occur in the last four years of the term, Congress (if in session, or after being called to extraordinary session by the Permanent Commission) will select a Substitute President (Presidente Substituto) by a majority of votes in a secret ballot as above. The Substitute President will be President of the United Mexican States until the end of the original six year presidential term, at which point regular elections are held.

No person who has already served as President, whether elected, Provisional, Interim, or Substitute, can be designated as Provisional, Interim, or Substitute President.


Former presidents

Former presidents of Mexico continue to carry the title "President" until death but are rarely referred by it; they are commonly called ex-Presidents. They are also given protection by the Estado Mayor Presidencial. Former presidents are also given a lifelong pension. The Estado Mayor Presidencial (EMP) is the institution charged with protecting and safeguarding the President of Mexico. ...


Contrary to what happens in many other countries, former presidents of Mexico do not continue to be important national figures once out of office, and usually lead a discreet life. This is partly because they do not want to interfere with the government of the new president and partly because they may not have a good public image. This tradition can be traced back to the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas; after his policies were criticized publicly by former president Calles, Cárdenas had Calles escorted out of the country by military police. Calles had personally selected Cárdenas, and had exerted powerful influence over his previous successors. Cárdenas himself remained silent on the policies of his successor, establishing a tradition that former presidents should not interfere with their successors. This article is about Gen. ...


For example, Ernesto Zedillo holds important offices in the United Nations and in the private sector, but outside of Mexico. It is speculated he lives in a self-imposed exile to avoid the hatred of some of his fellow members of the PRI for having recognized the PRI's defeat in the 2000 presidential election. Carlos Salinas de Gortari also lived in a self-imposed exile in Ireland, but returned to Mexico. He campaigned intensely to have his brother, Raúl Salinas de Gortari, freed after he was jailed in the early days of Zedillo's term, accused of drug trafficking and planning the assassination of José Francisco Ruiz Massieu). Carlos Salinas also wrote a book on neo-liberal Mexico, secured a position with the Dow Jones Company in the United States, and worked as a professor at several prestigious universities in that country. Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) was President of Mexico from 1994 to 2000. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) held power in Mexico for more than 70 years. ... Carlos Salinas de Gortari (born April 3, 1948 in Mexico City) was President of Mexico from 1988 to 1994. ... Raúl Salinas de Gortari (b. ... José Francisco Ruiz Massieu (July 22, 1946 – September 28, 1994) was a Mexican political figure. ... Dow Jones & Company NYSE: DJ, based in the United States, is a publishing and financial information firm. ...


Three other surviving former presidents, Luis Echeverría Álvarez, Miguel De la Madrid Hurtado, and Vicente Fox still live in Mexico. On June 30, 2006, Echeverría was placed under house arrest under charges of genocide for his role as Secretary of the Interior during the 1968 Tlatelolco Massacre.[1] De la Madrid has served as head of the Fondo de Cultura Económica, a prestigious government publishing house for academic books. Vicente Fox has announced his intention of building a museum, writing a book, and giving lectures. He is currently a widely recognized conferencist, and serves currently as the Co-President of the Centrist Democrat International. Luis Echeverría Álvarez (born 17 January 1922) was the President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976. ... Term of office: December 1, 1982 – December 1, 1988 Preceded by: José López Portillo Succeeded by: Carlos Salinas de Gortari Date of birth: December 12, 1934 Place of birth: Colima, Colima Profession: Lawyer First Lady: Paloma Cordero Tapia Political Party: PRI Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado (born December 12... Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) was the President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... A 1978 silkscreen poster by Rini Templeton and Malaquías Montoya created to commemorate the ten-year anniversary of the massacre. ... Fondo de Cultura Económica (FCE, Fondo) is the most important publishing house in Mexico[1][2] and one of the most important ones in Latin America. ... The Christian Democrat International (CDI) was formerly known as the Christian Democrat and Peoples Parties International. ...


Living former presidents

List of Presidents of Mexico

See: List of Presidents of Mexico

// Between the time of Emperor Agustín de Iturbides abdication (March 19, 1823) and Guadalupe Victorias assumption of the office of President (October 10, 1824), there was a brief period when the executive power of the government was held by a committee. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]

 
 

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