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Encyclopedia > President of Ireland
Republic of Ireland

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Ireland
Politics of Ireland (the Republic of Ireland) takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Taoiseach (Prime Minister) is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...



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The President of Ireland (Irish: Uachtarán na hÉireann [ˈuəxt̪ˠəɾˠaːn̪ˠ n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ]) is the head of state of Ireland. The President is usually directly elected by the people for seven years, and can be elected for a maximum of two terms.[1] The presidency is largely a ceremonial office, but the President does exercise certain limited powers at his/her absolute discretion. The office was established by the Constitution of Ireland in 1937. The President's official residence is Áras an Uachtaráin in Dublin. The current office-holder is Mary McAleese who took office on 10 November 1997. An amendment may be made to any part of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, but only by referendum. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... Cathaoirleach (pronounced, ka-here-loch) is the title of the speaker of the sixty-member Irish upper house, Seanad Éireann (pronounced sch-anad air-inn). ... Pat Moylan (born 1946) is an Irish politician and member of the 22nd Seanad Éireann for Fianna Fáil. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... The Ceann Comhairle1 is the chairman or speaker of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... John ODonoghue (Irish: ; born 28 May 1956 in Caherciveen, County Kerry) is a senior Irish Fianna Fáil politician and is the current Ceann Comhairle (speaker) of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas and a Teachta Dála for Kerry South. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ... The Council of State (Irish: Comhairle Stáit) is an institution established by the Constitution of Ireland to advise the President of Ireland in the exercise of many of his or her discretionary, reserve powers. ... The Presidential Commission (Irish: Coimisiún Uachtarán) is the collective vice-presidency of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Government (Irish: ) [ral̪ˠt̪ˠəs̪ˠ n̪ˠə heːɼən̪ˠ] is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... Bartholomew Bertie Ahern (Irish: ;[1] born 12 September 1951) is an Irish politician who, since 26 June 1997, has served as the tenth Taoiseach of Ireland. ... The Tánaiste (IPA: ; plural Tánaistí ), or, more formally, An Tánaiste[1], is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland. ... Brian Cowen (Irish: ; born 10 January 1960) is an Irish Fianna Fáil politician and the current Tánaiste of Ireland. ... The Irish Government contains a number of departments or ministries, known in the Republic of Ireland as a Department of State (Roinn Stáit in Irish). ... A Minister of State, in the Republic of Ireland, is a junior minister of non-cabinet rank, attached to one or more Departments of State of the cabinet. ... The Opposition Front Bench in the Republic of Ireland is a group of senior parliamentary opposition Teachtaí Dála who together under the leadership of the Leader of the Opposition form an alternative cabinet to the governments. ... The Leader of the Opposition (Ir Ceannaire an Fhreasúra) in the Republic of Ireland is the politician who, at least in theory, leads the Parliamentary Opposition bloc in the lower house of the Irish Parliament, Dáil Éireann. ... For the Australian singer of the same name, see Enda Kenny (singer) Enda Kenny (Irish: ; born 24 April 1951), an Irish politician, is the 10th leader of the Fine Gael party and Leader of the Opposition in Dáil Éireann. ... The civil service (an stát-sheirbhís in Irish) of the Republic of Ireland consists of two broad components, the Civil Service of the Government and the Civil Service of the State. ... The Attorney General (Irish: An Ard-Aighne) is the official adviser to the Irish Government in matters of law. ... This article is about courts in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Supreme Court (Irish: Chúirt Uachtarach) is the highest judicial authority in the Republic of Ireland. ... Chief Justice John L. Murray is the current Chief Justice of Ireland. ... The High Court (Irish: An Ard-Chúirt) of the Republic of Ireland is a court which deals at first instance with the most serious and important civil and criminal cases, and also acts as a court of appeal for civil cases in the Circuit Court. ... The Court of Criminal Appeal (Irish: An Chúirt Achomhaire Choiriúil) of Ireland hears appeals of indictable offences tried in the Circuit Court, the Central Criminal Court and the Special Criminal Court. ... The Special Criminal Court is a juryless criminal court in the Republic of Ireland which tries terrorist and organized crime cases. ... The Circuit Court (An Chúirt Chuarda in Irish) of Ireland consists of a President and thirty-three judges. ... The District Court (An Chúirt Dúiche in Irish) of Ireland consists of a President and fifty-four judges. ... The Republic of Ireland elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. ... The date for Irelands presidential election was set for 22 October 2004. ... The European Parliament Election, 2004 was the Republic of Ireland component of the European Parliament Election, 2004. ... The Irish general election of 2007 took place on 24 May 2007 after the dissolution of the 29th Dáil by the President on 29 April 2007, at the request of the Taoiseach. ... The lower house of the Irish parliament, Dáil Éireann, currently contains 166 Teachtaí Dála (TDs), representing 42 parliamentary constituencies throughout the Republic of Ireland. ... This is an incomplete list of Irish by-elections, with the names of the incumbent and victor and their respective parties. ... There are a number of political parties in the Republic of Ireland, and coalition governments are common. ... This is an incomplete list of public-representative office-holders, elected and appointed, past and present, in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... For much of its history, the island of Ireland was divided into 32 counties (Irish language contae or condae, pronounced IPA: ). Two historical counties, County Desmond and County Coleraine, no longer exist, while several county names have changed. ... Local government in the Republic of Ireland is governed by the Local Government Acts, the most recent of which (Local Government Act 2001) established a two-tier structure of local government. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... The Republic of Ireland is involved in a number of outstanding international disputes. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ... Áras an Uachtaráin (formerly the Viceregal Lodge) is the official residence of the President of Ireland, located in the Phoenix Park on the Northside of Dublin1. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...

Contents

Selection

The President is formally elected by the people once every seven years, except in the event of premature vacancy, when an election must be held within sixty days.[1] The President is directly elected by secret ballot under the Alternative Vote form of the Single Transferable Vote system.[2] While both Irish and UK citizens resident in the state may vote in elections to Dáil Éireann (the lower house of parliament), only Irish citizens, who must be at least eighteen years of age, may vote in the election of the President. The presidency is open to all citizens of the state who are at least 35.[3] A candidate must, however be nominated by one of the following:[4] Official Seal of the President of Ireland - fair use This work is copyrighted. ... Official Seal of the President of Ireland - fair use This work is copyrighted. ... The Official Seal of the President of Ireland (Irish: Séala Oifigeamhail Uachtarán na hÉireann) was presented to the first President of Ireland, Douglas Hyde and every subsiquent president to be affixed to every ...order, commission, warrant, or other instrument. ... Irish presidential elections elect the President of Ireland: the Republic of Irelands head of state. ... When the single transferable vote voting system is applied to a single-winner election it is sometimes called instant-runoff voting (IRV), as it is much like holding a series of runoff elections in which the lowest polling candidate is eliminated in each round until someone receives majority vote. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ...

  • At least twenty members of the Oireachtas (national parliament).[3]
  • At least four county or city councils.[3]
  • Themselves (in the case of an incumbent or former president that has served one term).[3]

Where only one candidate is nominated, he or she is deemed elected without the need for a ballot.[3] For this reason, where there is a consensus among political parties not to have a contest, the President may be 'elected' without the occurrence of an actual ballot. Since the establishment of the office this has occurred on six occasions. No one may be elected as President more than twice.[4] Under the wording of the constitution and the relevant statute law a candidate's election formally takes place in the form of a 'declaration' by the returning officer. Where more than one candidate is nominated, the election is 'suspended' so that a ballot can take place, allowing the electors to choose between candidates. The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ... County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ... A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ...


Ordinary duties and functions

The Irish Presidential Standard, a flag used by President of Ireland since 1945, shows a golden Clàrsach (Gaelic harp) with silver strings on a background of St. Patrick's Blue.

The Constitution of Ireland provides for a parliamentary system of government, under which the role of the head of state is largely a ceremonial one. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A clàrsach, now in the Museum of Scotland. ... Gael (Ancient people) : A Gael is a member of a distinct culture existing in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man whose language is one that is Gaelic. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ... The Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann)[1] is the founding legal document of the state known today both as Ireland and as the Republic of Ireland. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


Unlike the presidents of many other republics, the President of Ireland is neither the nominal nor de facto chief officer of the state. Rather, executive authority is expressly vested in the Government (cabinet). The Government is obliged, however, to keep the President generally informed on matters of domestic and foreign policy. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Most of the functions of the President may only be carried out in accordance with the strict instructions of the Constitution, or the binding 'advice' of the Government. The President does, however, possess certain personal powers that may be exercised at her or his discretion.


Ceremonial functions

  • Appoints the Government: The President appoints the Taoiseach (head of government) and other ministers, and accepts their resignations. The Taoiseach is appointed upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann (the lower house of parliament), and the remainder of the cabinet upon the nomination of the Taoiseach and approval of the Dáil. Ministers are dismissed on the advice of the Taoiseach and the Taoiseach must, unless there is a dissolution of the Dáil, resign upon losing the confidence of the house. On the advice of the Government, the President also appoints members of the judiciary.[4]
  • Convenes and dissolves Dáil Éireann: This power is exercised on the advice of the Taoiseach (government or Dáil approval is not needed). The President may only refuse a dissolution when a Taoiseach has lost the confidence of Dáil Éireann.[4]
  • Signs bills into law: The president is formally one of three tiers of the Oireachtas (national parliament). The President may not, unless exercising one of his/her reserve powers, veto a law that the Dáil and the Senate have adopted.[4]
  • Represents the state in foreign affairs:[4] This power is exercised only on the advice of the Government. The President accredits ambassadors and receives the letters of credence of foreign diplomats. Ministers sign international treaties in the President's name. This role was not exercised by the President prior to 1949, see Irish head of state from 1937–1949.
  • Is supreme commander of the Defence Forces,[5] in this role somewhat similar in statute to that of a commander-in-chief. This is a nominal position, the powers of which are exercised on the advice of the Government. See Minister for Defence.
  • Power of pardon: The President, on the advice of the Government, has "the right of pardon and the power to commute or remit punishment".[6] This power has only been used once, in the case of Nicky Kelly[7] in the case of the Sallins Train Robbery; it had been announced by the Irish Government that it would be used to pardon the so called IRA 'on the runs' as part of the Northern Ireland peace process, but the Government later abandoned this plan after the British Government similarly abandoned a de facto amnesty for 'on the runs'.

The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... The Irish Defence Forces encompass the army, navy, air force and reserve forces of the Republic of Ireland. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Minister for Defence is the senior minister at the Department of Defence (An Roinn Cosanta) in the Irish Government. ... Nicky Kelly is an Irish Labour party politician from Arklow in County Wicklow. ... The Sallins Train Robbery occurred on 31 March 1976 when the Cork to Dublin mail train was robbed near Sallins in County Kildare, Republic of Ireland. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... When discussing the history of Northern Ireland, the peace process is generally considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of the Troubles, the Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement, and subsequent political developments. ...

Special limitations

  • The President may not leave the state without the consent of the Government.[8]
  • Every formal address or message "to the nation" or to either or both Houses of the Oireachtas must have prior approval of the Government.[9] Other than on these two (quite rare) occasions there is no limitation on the President's right to speak. While earlier presidents were exceptionally cautious in delivering speeches and on almost every occasion submitted them for vetting, presidents Mary Robinson and Mary McAleese have made much more use of their right to speak without government approval, with Mary McAleese doing many live radio and television interviews. Nonetheless, by convention Presidents refrain from direct criticism of the government.

For the poet, see Mary Robinson (poet). ...

Discretionary powers

The President possesses the following powers exercised "in his (or her) absolute discretion" according to the English version of the Constitution. In the Irish version, these powers are exercised as a chomhairle féin which is usually translated as "under his own counsel." In the event of a clash between the Irish and English versions of the constitution, the Irish one is given supremacy, though it is not as well-worded legally. Lawyers have suggested that a clash may exist in this case between both versions of the constitution. While "absolute discretion" appears to leave some freedom for manoeuvre for a president in deciding whether to initiate contact with the opposition, "under his own counsel" has been interpreted by some lawyers as suggesting that no contact whatsoever can take place. As a result of this clash, it is considered grossly inappropriate for the president to be contacted by the leaders of any political parties in an effort to influence a decision made using the discretionary powers. It is required that, before exercising certain reserve powers, the President consult the Council of State. However, the President is not compelled to act in accordance with the council's advice. The Council of State (Irish: Comhairle Stáit) is an institution established by the Constitution of Ireland to advise the President of Ireland in the exercise of many of his or her discretionary, reserve powers. ...


Refusal of a Dáil dissolution

The historic Blue Hussars assembled at the inauguration of Douglas Hyde as first President of Ireland, in June 1938.
The Blue Hussars on horseback were disbanded in the late 1940s and replaced by motorbike outriders.

The Taoiseach is required to resign if he has "ceased to retain the support of a majority" of the Dáil, unless he asks the President to dissolve the Dáil. The President has the right to refuse such a request, in which case the Taoiseach must resign immediately. This power has never been invoked but the necessary circumstances existed in 1944, 1982 and 1994. The apparent discrepancy between the Irish and English versions of the Constitution has discouraged presidents from contemplating the use of the power and led to an ultra-strict application of a policy of non-contact with the opposition, most notably in January 1982 when President Hillery instructed an aide, Captain Anthony Barber, to ensure that no telephone calls from the opposition were to be passed on to him. (Nevertheless three opposition figures, including Fianna Fáil leader Charles Haughey, demanded to be put through to Hillery, with Haughey threatening to end Barber's career if the calls weren't put though. Hillery, as Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Forces, recorded the threat in Barber's file and recorded that Barber had been acting on his instructions in refusing the call[10]). Even without this consideration, refusing such a request would almost certainly create a constitutional crisis, as it is a strong constitutional convention that the head of state always grants a parliamentary dissolution. Download high resolution version (900x652, 162 KB) This work is copyrighted, and used with permission. ... Download high resolution version (900x652, 162 KB) This work is copyrighted, and used with permission. ... A Blue Hussar One of the Irish Presidents Mounted Escort. ... Douglas Hyde (Irish name Dubhghlas de hÍde) (17 January 1860 - 12 July 1949) was an Irish language scholar who served as the first President of Ireland from 1938 to 1945. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... Dr. Patrick John Hillery (born May 2, 1923) is an Irish Fianna Fáil politician and the sixth President of Ireland from 1976 until 1990. ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Charles Haughey Charles James Charlie Haughey (Irish: ; 16 September 1925–13 June 2006) was the sixth Taoiseach of Ireland. ... A constitutional crisis is a severe breakdown in the smooth operation of government. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ...


Reference of bills to the people

If requested to do so by a petition signed by a majority of the membership of the Senate, and one-third of the membership of the Dáil, the President may, after consultation with the Council of State, decline to sign into law a bill (other than a bill to amend the constitution) he/she considers to be of great "national importance" until it has been approved by either the people in an ordinary referendum or the Dáil reassembling after a general election, held within eight months. This power has never been used due to the fact that the government almost always commands a majority of the senate preventing the third of Dáil Éireann that usually makes up the opposition from combining with it. The ordinary referendum is a referendum in the Republic of Ireland in which the President may refer a bill directly to the electorate before it becomes law. ...


Other

  • Reference of bills to the Supreme Court: The President may, upon consultation with the Council of State, refer a bill to the Supreme Court to test its constitutionality. The Supreme Court then tests its constitutionality in toto and the President may not sign the bill into law if it is found to be unconstitutional. This is the most widely used reserve power and was indeed used by six of the eight presidents (most frequently by presidents Patrick Hillery and Mary Robinson), but this power may not be applied to: a money bill, a bill to amend the Constitution, or an urgent bill the time for the consideration of which has been abridged in the Senate.
  • Abridgement of the time for bills in the Senate: The President may, at the request of Dáil Éireann, and after consultation with the Council of State, impose a time-limit on the period during which the Senate may consider a bill. The effect of this power is to restrict the power of the Senate to delay a bill that the Government considers urgent.
  • Appointment of a Committee of Privileges: The President may, if requested to do so by the Senate, and upon consultation with the Council of State, establish a Committee of Privileges to solve a dispute between the two Houses of the Oireachtas (parliament) as to whether or not a bill is a money bill.[11]
  • Address to the Oireachtas: The President may, upon consultation with the Council of State, and provided the text is approved en bloc by the Government, address, or send a message to, either or both Houses of the Oireachtas. This power has been invoked on four occasions: by President de Valera once, by President Robinson twice, and by President McAleese once, on the eve of the year 2000.
  • Address to the Nation: The President may, upon consultation with the Council of State, and provided the text has been approved en bloc by the Government, address, or send a message to, the 'nation'. This power has been used twice, by Erskine Childers in 1974, and by President McAleese in 2001.
  • Convention of meetings of the Oireachtas: The President may, upon consultation with the Council of State, convene a meeting of either or both Houses of the Oireachtas. This power would allow the President to step in if, in extraordinary circumstances, the ordinary procedures for convening the houses had broken down.

The Supreme Court (Irish: Chúirt Uachtarach) is the highest judicial authority in the Republic of Ireland. ... Dr. Patrick John Hillery (born May 2, 1923) is an Irish Fianna Fáil politician and the sixth President of Ireland from 1976 until 1990. ... For the poet, see Mary Robinson (poet). ... A money bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending, as opposed to changes in public law. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ...

Succession

The President of Ireland has no vice president. In the event of a premature vacancy a successor must be elected within sixty days. In the interim the duties and functions of the office are carried out by a collective vice-presidency known as the Presidential Commission, consisting of the Chief Justice, the Ceann Comhairle (speaker) of Dáil Éireann, and the Cathaoirleach (chairperson) of the Senate. Since 1937 the Presidential Commission has taken the place of the President on a number of occasions. A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... The Presidential Commission (Irish: Coimisiún Uachtarán) is the collective vice-presidency of the Republic of Ireland. ... Chief Justice John L. Murray is the current Chief Justice of Ireland. ... The Ceann Comhairle1 is the chairman or speaker of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Cathaoirleach (pronounced, ka-here-loch) is the title of the speaker of the sixty-member Irish upper house, Seanad Éireann (pronounced sch-anad air-inn). ...


Technically each president's term of office expires at midnight on the day before the new president's inauguration. Therefore, between midnight and the inauguration the following day the presidential duties and functions are carried out by the Presidential Commission. The constitution also empowers the Council of State, acting by a majority of its members, to "make such provision as to them may seem meet" for the exercise of the duties of the president in any contingency the constitution does not foresee. The Council of State can therefore be considered the third in the line of succession. However, to date, it has never been necessary for the council to take up this role.


Official residence, salute, style and address

Áras an Uachtaráin is the official residence of the President.

The official residence of the President of Ireland is Áras an Uachtaráin, located in the Phoenix Park in Dublin. The ninety-two room building formerly served as the 'out-of-season' residence of the Irish Lord Lieutenant and the residence of two of the three Irish Governors-General: Tim Healy and James McNeill. The President is normally referred to as 'President' or 'Uachtarán', rather than 'Mr/Madam President' or similar forms. (Note that A hUachtaráin (vocative case) would be the correct address in Irish.) The style used is normally His Excellency/Her Excellency (Irish: A Shoilse/A Soilse); sometimes people may orally address the President as 'Your Excellency' (Irish: A Shoilse [ə hɘʎʃ̪ʲə]), or simply 'President' (Irish: A Uachtaráin [ɘ uːəxt̪ˠɘɾaːn̥]). The Irish presidential salute is taken from the National Anthem of Ireland, Amhrán na bhFiann. It consists of the first four bars followed by the last five,[12] without lyrics. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,272 × 1,704 pixels, file size: 891 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Áras an Uachtaráin, Dublin, Ireland The content of this image was reviewed by Kanchelskis and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,272 × 1,704 pixels, file size: 891 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Áras an Uachtaráin, Dublin, Ireland The content of this image was reviewed by Kanchelskis and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... Áras an Uachtaráin (formerly the Viceregal Lodge) is the official residence of the President of Ireland, located in the Phoenix Park on the Northside of Dublin1. ... Áras an Uachtaráin (formerly the Viceregal Lodge) is the official residence of the President of Ireland, located in the Phoenix Park on the Northside of Dublin1. ... Phoenix Park (in Irish, Páirc an Fhionn-Uisce) is a large park located 3 km to the north west of Dublin city centre in Ireland. ... Official standard of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (plural: Lords Lieutenant), also known as the Judiciar in the early mediaeval period and as the Lord Deputy as late as the 17th century, was the Kings representative and head of the Irish executive during the... The Governor-General (Irish: Seanascal) was the representative of the King in the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. ... Timothy Michael Healy Timothy Michael Healy, KC (May 17, 1855–March 26, 1931) was one of the most brilliant and most controversial of Irish politicians, with a career that spanned the period from Charles Stewart Parnells leadership of the Irish Parliamentary Party in the 1880s to the foundation of... James McNeill (27 March 1869, - 12 December 1938) was an Irish politician, who served as second Governor-General of the Irish Free State. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... (pronounced ) is the national anthem of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Presidential declaration

Inauguration of Erskine Childers as President of Ireland.
June 1973. Members of the Council of State, and the President's wife, Rita Childers are shown beside him on the dias. Just retired president Éamon de Valera, in his last public engagement of a fifty-six year political career, sits on the extreme left (foreground) of the picture.

Under the constitution, in assuming office the President must subscribe to a formal declaration, made publicly and in the presence of members of both Houses of the Oireachtas, Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Court, and other "public personages".[13] The inauguration of the President takes place in St Patrick's Hall in Dublin Castle. To date every President has subscribed to the declaration in Irish. In 1993 the United Nations Human Rights Committee expressed concern that, because of its religious language, the declaration amounts to a religious test for office. The declaration is specified in Article 12.8: Image File history File links Irishpres. ... Image File history File links Irishpres. ... Erskine Childers was the name of two Irish leaders of British birth who were key players in 20th century Ireland. ... The Council of State (Irish: Comhairle Stáit) is an institution established by the Constitution of Ireland to advise the President of Ireland in the exercise of many of his or her discretionary, reserve powers. ... Rita Childers is a former First Lady of the Republic of Ireland. ... Éamon de Valera[1][2] (IPA: ) (Irish: ) (born Edward George de Valera 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... The Inauguration of the President of Ireland is the formal ceremony by which the President of Ireland enters into office. ... Dublin Castle. ... The Human Rights Committee is a group of 18 experts who meet three times a year to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by United Nations member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. ...

  • In Irish: I láthair Dia na nUilechumhacht, táimse á ghealladh agus á dhearbhú go sollúnta is go fírinneach bheith i mo thaca agus i mo dhidín do Bhunreacht Éireann, agus dlíthe a chaomhnú, mo dhualgais a chomhlíonadh go dilís coinsiasach de réir an Bhunreacht is an dlí, agus mo lándícheall a dhéanamh ar son leasa is fónaimh mhuintir na hÉireann. Dia do mo stiúradh agus do mo chumhdach.
  • In English: In the presence of Almighty God I do solemnly and sincerely promise and declare that I will maintain the Constitution of Ireland and uphold its laws, that I will fulfil my duties faithfully and conscientiously in accordance with the Constitution and the law, and that I will dedicate my abilities to the service and the welfare of the people of Ireland. May God direct and sustain me.[13]

Impeachment and removal from office

The constitution provides for just two ways in which the President may be removed from office prior to the expiration of his or her term. The President can be removed from office if the Supreme Court, in a sitting of at least five judges, finds that he or she has become "permanently incapacitated".[1] Alternatively the President may be removed from office by the houses of the Oireachtas, but only for "stated misbehaviour".[14] Either house of the Oireachtas may impeach the President but only by a resolution approved by a majority of at least two-thirds, and a house may not consider a proposal for impeachment unless requested to do so by at least thirty of its members. Where one house impeaches the President, the remaining house investigates the charge or commissions another body or committee to do so. The investigating house can remove the President if it decides, by at least a two-thirds majority, that the President is guilty of the charge of which he or she is accused, and that the charge is sufficiently serious as to warrant his or her removal.[14] To date neither procedure for the removal of the President has yet been invoked. Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ...


Security and transport

The Inauguration of Seán T. O'Kelly as President of Ireland in 1945.
The 2nd Cavalry Squadron of the Blue Hussars escort the President, who travelled in the late Queen Alexandra's landau. The Landau and the Hussars were later scrapped.

As head of state of the Republic of Ireland, the President receives the highest level of protection in the land. The Áras is protected by armed guards at all times and is encircled by security fencing. At all times the President travels with an armed security detail which is provided by the Special branch (an elite wing of the Irish police force). The Presidential Limousine is a Mercedes-Benz S-Class LWB. The Presidential Limousine is always navy blue and carries the Presidential standard on the left front wing and the tricolour on the right front wing. When traveling the Presidential Limousine is always accompanied by support cars (normally Toyota Camrys driven by members of the Special Branch) which form a protective convoy around the car. The President also has the full use of all Irish Air Corps aircraft at his/her disposal if so needed. Image File history File links OKellyinaug. ... Image File history File links OKellyinaug. ... A Blue Hussar One of the Irish Presidents Mounted Escort. ... This page is about the wife of Edward VII of the United Kingdom. ...


History

The office of President of Ireland was established in 1937, in part as a replacement for the office of Governor-General that existed during the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. The seven year term of office of the President was inspired by those of the presidents of Germany and Austria. However the head of state of neither of those two nations serves a seven year term today. At the time the office was established critics warned that the post might lead to the emergence of a dictatorship. However, these fears were not borne out as successive Presidents played a limited, largely apolitical role in national affairs. The Governor-General (Irish: Seanascal) was the representative of the King in the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. ... This article is about the prior state. ...


Many argue that Mary Robinson, the seventh President of Ireland, liberalised what had previously been a conservative office during her term from 1990–1997. Robinson sought to develop a new sense of the states's economic, political and cultural links with other countries and cultures, especially those of the Irish diaspora. She placed emphasis during her presidency on the needs of developing countries, linking the history of the Great Irish Famine to today's nutrition, poverty and policy issues, attempting to create a bridge of partnership between developed and developing countries. Robinson was the first head of state to visit Rwanda in the aftermath of the 1994 genocide there. She was also the first head of state to visit Somalia following the crisis there in 1992, receiving the CARE Humanitarian Award in recognition of her efforts for that country. Emigrants Leave Ireland, engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusacks Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868 // The Irish diaspora (Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand... Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ...


Issues of controversy

Prerogative in Northern Ireland

The President of Ireland's wreath (in Green) laid at Ireland's Remembrance Day ceremonies in St. Patrick's Cathedral in 2005. Presidents have attended the ceremony since the 1990s.

The original text of the Constitution of Ireland, as adopted in 1937, in its controversial Articles 2 and 3, mentioned two geopolitical entities, a thirty-two county 'national territory' (i.e., the island of Ireland) and a twenty-six county 'state' formerly known as the Irish Free State (Articles 2 and 3 have since been amended). The implication behind the title 'President of Ireland' was that the President would function as the head of all Ireland. However, this implication was challenged by the Ulster Unionists and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which was the state internationally acknowledged as having jurisdiction over Northern Ireland. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 136 KB) Summary My image, given to WP by me under full unconditional licence. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 136 KB) Summary My image, given to WP by me under full unconditional licence. ... Remembrance Day also known as Poppy Day, Armistice Day (the event it commemorates), or Veterans Day in the United States is a day to commemorate the sacrifices of members of the armed forces and of civilians in times of war, specifically since the First World War. ... St. ... Article 2 and Article 3 of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, were adopted with the constitution as a whole in 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took full effect in 1999. ... This article is about the prior state. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... “UK” redirects here. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Ireland in turn challenged the proclamation by the British parliament of Queen Elizabeth II in 1952 as 'queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland'. The government of the Republic of Ireland refused to attend royal functions as a result; for example, President Hillery (1976–90) declined on Government advice to attend the wedding of the Prince of Wales to Lady Diana Spencer in 1981, to which he had been invited by Queen Elizabeth, while President Seán T. O'Kelly declined on government advice to attend the Coronation Garden Party at the British Embassy in 1953. Britain in turn insisted on referring to the President as 'President of the Republic of Ireland' or 'President of the Irish Republic.' Letters of Credence from Queen Elizabeth, on the British government's advice, appointing United Kingdom ambassadors to Ireland were not addressed to the 'President of Ireland' but to the president personally (for example: 'President Hillery'). Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... Diana Spencer redirects here. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Irish name: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced ) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ...


This dispute has largely been forgotten in recent years. President Robinson (1990–97) chose unilaterally to break the taboo by regularly visiting England for public functions, frequently to do with Anglo-Irish Relations or to visit the Irish emigrant community in Britain. In another breaking of precedent, she was invited to Buckingham Palace by Queen Elizabeth II. Interestingly, the Palace accreditation supplied to journalists covering the history-making visit referred to the "visit of the President of Ireland".[citation needed] In recent times, both Presidents Robinson and her successor Mary McAleese (1997– ) have visited the Palace on numerous occasions, while the Prince of Wales, Prince Andrew, Duke of York, Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh have all visited successive Presidents of Ireland in Áras an Uachtaráin. Presidents have also attended functions with the Princess Royal. Her Majesty the Queen and Her Excellency the President even jointly hosted a reception in St. James's Palace in London in 1995, to commemorate the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of the Queen's Colleges in 1845 (the Queen's Colleges are now known as Queen's University of Belfast, University College Cork - National University of Ireland, Cork and National University of Ireland, Galway (formerly University College, Galway)). Though the president's title implicitly claimed authority in Northern Ireland, in reality the Irish President needed government permission to visit Northern Ireland. (The Irish state in Article 3 explicitly stated that "pending the re-integration of the national territory" its authority was limited to the Republic of Ireland and did not apply to Northern Ireland. Presidents up to the presidency of Mary Robinson (1990–97) were regularly refused permission by the Government of the Republic of Ireland to visit Northern Ireland.) For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The term Anglo-Irish means British-Irish and is used frequently to describe formal contacts, negotiations or treaties between both states. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... The Prince Andrew, The Duke of York (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. ... The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, KG, KCVO, SOM (Edward Antony Richard Louis Mountbatten-Windsor; born 10 March 1964) is a member of the British Royal Family, the youngest child and third son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Earl of Wessex since 1999. ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921)[2] is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a royal Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip renounced these titles shortly before his marriage. ... Áras an Uachtaráin (formerly the Viceregal Lodge) is the official residence of the President of Ireland, located in the Phoenix Park on the Northside of Dublin1. ... Princess Anne redirects here. ... The Queens University of Belfast (QUB) is a university in Belfast, Northern Ireland; the university is often called Queens University Belfast. ... University College Cork - National University of Ireland, Cork - or more commonly University College Cork (UCC) - is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland and is located in Cork. ... The National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI, Galway) (Irish Ollscoil na hÉireann, Gaillimh or OÉ, Gaillimh) can trace its existence to 1845 as Queens College, Galway and was known until recently as University College, Galway (UCG) (Irish: Coláiste na hOllscoile, Gaillimh or COG). ...

Mary McAleese, the President of Ireland.

However, since the 1990s and in particular since the Good Friday Agreement, the president has regularly visited Northern Ireland. The current president, Mary McAleese, who is herself the first President of Ireland from Northern Ireland, continues on from Mary Robinson in this regard. In a sign of the warmth of the modern Anglo-Irish Relationship, she has been warmly welcomed by most leading unionists. At the funeral for a child murdered by the Real IRA in Omagh she symbolically walked up the main aisle of the church hand-in-hand with the Ulster Unionist Party leader and First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, MP. But in other instances, Mary McAleese has been criticized for sectarian comments, such as a reference to the way in which Protestant children in Northern Ireland had been brought up to hate Catholics just as German children had been encouraged to hate Jews under the Nazi regime, on 27 January 2005, following her attendance at the ceremony commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp.[15][16] These remarks caused outrage among unionist politicians, and McAleese later apologised[17] and conceded that her statement had been unbalanced. Despite the changes to Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution as part of the Good Friday Agreement the title of the office remains the "President of Ireland", as the Irish Constitution stipulates that the state's official name is simply "Ireland", and that the "Republic of" is merely its description, though there is now little dispute that the Presidency only has jurisdiction over the Republic of Ireland. However, she is regarded by many northern nationalists as their President and calls have been made for voting rights in Presidential elections to be extended to the whole island. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 567 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2184 × 2310 pixel, file size: 763 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 567 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2184 × 2310 pixel, file size: 763 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Organization stubs | Terrorist organizations in Northern Ireland | Rebellion ... , Omagh (from the Irish: An Ómaigh meaning The Sacred (or Virgin) Plain) is the county town of County Tyrone in Northern Ireland, situated where the rivers Drumragh and Camowen meet to form the Strule. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... The First Minister of Northern Ireland (Ulster Scots: Heid Männystèr o Norlin Airlann) and the Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland (Ulster Scots: Heid Männystèr Depute o Norlin Airlann) are the leaders of the Northern Ireland Executive, Northern Irelands home rule government set up in... The Lord Trimble William David Trimble, Baron Trimble, PC (born 15 October 1944), known as David Trimble, is a Northern Irish politician who served as leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and the first First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ...


Head of state from 1937 to 1949

During the period of 1937 to 1949 it was unclear whether the Irish head of state was actually the President of Ireland or George VI, the King of Ireland. This period of confusion ended in 1949 when the state was declared to be a republic. The 1937 constitution did not mention the king but nor did it state that the President was head of state. The President exercised some powers that could be exercised by heads of state but which could also be exercised by governors or governors-general, such as appointing the Government and promulgating the law. However, in 1936 George VI had been declared "King of Ireland" and, under the External Relations Act of the same year, it was this king who represented the state in its foreign affairs. Treaties, therefore, were signed in the name of the 'King of Ireland', who also accredited ambassadors and received the letters of credence of foreign diplomats. Representing a state abroad is seen by many scholars as the key characteristic of a head of state. This role meant, in any case, that George VI was the Irish head of state in the eyes of foreign nations. The Republic of Ireland Act 1948, which came into force in April 1949, proclaimed a republic and transferred the role of representing the state abroad from George VI to the President. No change was made to the constitution. During the period of 1936 to 1949 it was unclear whether or not the Irish state was a republic or a form of constitutional monarchy, and whether its head of state was the President of Ireland or the King of Ireland, George VI. The exact constitutional status of the state... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Executive Authority (External Relations) Act, 1936 was an enactment of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament) in 1936. ... The Republic of Ireland Act was an enactment of Oireachtas Éireann passed in 1948, which came into force on April 18, 1949[1] and which declared that the official description of the Irish state was to be the Republic of Ireland. ...


Suggestions for reform

There have been many suggestions for reforming the office of President over the years. In 1996, the Constitutional Review Group recommended that the office of President should remain largely unchanged. However, it suggested that the constitution should be amended to explicitly declare the President to be head of state (at present the term does not appear in the text) and that consideration be given to the introduction of a constructive vote of no confidence system in the Dáil, along the lines of that in Germany. If this system were introduced then the power of the President to refuse a Dáil dissolution would be largely redundant and could be taken away. The Constructive Vote of No Confidence (in German: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum) is a specialty of the 1949 German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ...


Due to the lack of a presidential election in 2004, many politicians said it should be made easier to gain nomination for the presidency. The former Tánaiste (deputy prime-minister), Mary Harney, suggested that five to ten TDs or Senators should be able to nominate a candidate, instead of the current twenty required, while many journalists suggested that a petition of citizens, for example the signatures of 10,000 registered voters, should be another method of nomination. The Tánaiste (IPA: ; plural Tánaistí ), or, more formally, An Tánaiste[1], is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland. ... Mary Harney (Irish: ; born 11 March 1953) is an Irish politician and the acting interim leader of the Progressive Democrats[1]. She is a TD for Dublin Mid West and served as Tánaiste from 1997–2006, and as Minister for Enterprise, Trade & Employment from 1997–2004, and is the...


List of Presidents of Ireland

# Name Picture Entered Office Left Office Nominated by
1. Douglas Hyde 25 June 1938 24 June 1945 All-party nomination
2. Seán T. O'Kelly 25 June 1945 24 June 1959 Fianna Fáil[18]
3. Éamon de Valera 25 June 1959 24 June 1973 Fianna Fáil[19]
4. Erskine H. Childers 25 June 1973 17 November 1974[20] Fianna Fáil
5. Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh 19 December 1974 22 October 1976[21] All-party nomination
6. Patrick Hillery 3 December 1976 2 December 1990 Fianna Fáil
7. Mary Robinson 3 December 1990 12 September 1997 Labour Party, The Workers Party
and Independents
8. Mary McAleese 10 November 1997 Incumbent Fianna Fáil / Independent
  • From the passing of the constitution of 1937 until the election of Douglas Hyde in 1938 and in the interregna of 1974, 1976 and 1997 the functions of the president were executed by the Presidential Commission.

Douglas Hyde (Irish name Dubhghlas de hÍde) (17 January 1860 - 12 July 1949) was an Irish language scholar who served as the first President of Ireland from 1938 to 1945. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Irish name: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced ) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... Éamon de Valera[1][2] (IPA: ) (Irish: ) (born Edward George de Valera 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (479 × 640 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date c. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... Erskine Hamilton Childers (Irish: ; 11 December 1905 – 17 November 1974), the son of Robert Erskine Childers (author of The Riddle of the Sands), served as the fourth President of Ireland from 1973 until his death in 1974. ... image of Erskine Hamilton Childers, 4th President of Ireland - from official President of Ireland website. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh (12 February 1911 – 21 March 1978) (pronounced karol o dawl-ie) served as fifth President of Ireland, from 1974 to 1976. ... Image from official President of Ireland website. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Patrick John Hillery (born May 2, 1923) is an Irish Fianna Fáil politician and the sixth President of Ireland from 1976 until 1990. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... For the poet, see Mary Robinson (poet). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Labour Party (Irish: Páirtí an Lucht Oibre) is a Democratic Socialist political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... Categories: Ireland-related stubs | Irish political parties | Republic of Ireland political parties | Northern Ireland political parties ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ... Image File history File links Mary_McAleese. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... The Presidential Commission (Irish: Coimisiún Uachtarán) is the collective vice-presidency of the Republic of Ireland. ...

Living former Presidents

After a President leaves office he or she can go on to a successful post-presidential career. An example of this is Mary Robinson who became UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.[22] Currently, there is one living former President: The purpose of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights involves the promotion and protection of human rights worldwide through direct contact with individual governments and the provision of technical assistance where appropriate. ...

For the poet, see Mary Robinson (poet). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Constitution of Ireland: Article 12.3
  2. ^ The Single Transferable Vote (STV) is also used in elections to Dáil Éireann, when it is known as proportional representation by means of the Single Transferable Vote (PR-STV). However, when, as in a presidential election, it is used for the election of just a single candidate, STV is one and the same as the Alternative Vote system. There are important differences between PR-STV and the Alternative Vote. The term the "Alternative Vote" is, however, rarely used in Ireland. The President is usually simply said to be elected by STV or, incorrectly, by "proportional representation". While the constitution itself states that the President is elected under the system of "proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote" (Article 12.2.3) this is technically incorrect, because the term proportional representation can only meaningfully be applied to an election in which more than a single candidate is returned. Both the Constitution Review Group and the All-Party Oireachtas Committee on the Constitution have therefore recommended that the words proportional representation be deleted from the article that provides for the election of the President.
  3. ^ a b c d e Constitution of Ireland: Article 12.4
  4. ^ a b c d e f Office of the President. www.president.ie (2005). Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  5. ^ Constitution of Ireland: Article 13.4
  6. ^ Constitution of Ireland: Article 13.6
  7. ^ Dáil Éireann - Volume 419 - Written Answers. - Nicky Kelly Case. Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas (1992-05-07). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  8. ^ Constitution of Ireland: Article 12.9
  9. ^ Constitution of Ireland: Article 13.7
  10. ^ Fergus Finlay, Snakes & Ladders (New Island Books, 1998). p.91. Finlay was informed from sources that Haughey's threat was "when I am in [power], I intend to roast your fucking arse if you don't put me through immediately."
  11. ^ Constitution of Ireland: Article 22
  12. ^ National Anthem. Department of the Taoiseach. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  13. ^ a b Constitution of Ireland: Article 12.8
  14. ^ a b Constitution of Ireland: Article 12.10
  15. ^ BBC NEWS | Northern Ireland | McAleese row over Nazi comments
  16. ^ BreakingNews.ie: Archives :2005-01-27
  17. ^ BBC NEWS | Northern Ireland | McAleese 'sorry' over Nazi remark
  18. ^ In 1952 Seán T. O'Kelly re-nominated himself, as was his right under the Constitution. This allowed him a free run, as he was not the nominee of a specific party, and the other parties could let him be re-elected unopposed without loss of face.
  19. ^ Unlike Seán T. O'Kelly in 1952, de Valera was renominated in 1966 by Fianna Fáil. As a result Fine Gael felt honour bound to nominate a candidate, albeit low key. In the event their candidate, Tom O'Higgins, came within a hair's breadth of winning.
  20. ^ Died in Office
  21. ^ Resigned
  22. ^ Mary Robinson: United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (1997–2002). Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (February 2001). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.

This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... Example Instant-runoff voting ballot Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting system most commonly used for single member elections in which voters have one vote, but can rank candidates in order of preference. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Government Buildings, Dublin, is the location of the Department of the Taoiseach The Department of the Taoiseach (Irish: Roinn an Taoisigh) is the government department of the prime minister of the Republic of Ireland, An Taoiseach (in the Irish language, the leader). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tom OHiggins (July 23, 1916 - February 25, 2003), was an Irish Fine Gael politician, a barrister, and a judge. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Constitution of Ireland – November 2004 edition. taoiseach.gov.ie (1 July 1937). Retrieved on 2007-07-29.

is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Official site – Áras an Uachtaráin
  • National Archives of Ireland – Presidential Official Seal
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into European Union. ... Heinz Fischer (born 9 October 1938) is the federal president of Austria. ... The Leopoldine Wing of Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna: home to the offices of the Federal President. ... Albert II, King of the Belgians (Albert Félix Humbert Théodore Chrétien Eugène Marie), (born June 6, 1934), is the current King of the Belgians and a constitutional monarch. ... Successive Belgian kings are Regents 1830-1831: Erasme Louis Surlet de Chokier 1944-1950: Charles, Count of Flanders None of these were King of Belgium: their title is King of the Belgians. ... Georgi Sedefchov Parvanov (Bulgarian: ) (born 28 June 1957) has been president of Bulgaria since 22 January 2002. ... This page will list the various republican heads of state of Bulgaria, as well as leaders of Bulgarias communist party during the time when it played the leading role in the Bulgarian state. ... Dimitris Christofias (Greek: Δημήτρης Χριστόφιας) is a chubby Cypriot politician who is the General Secretary of AKEL and the President of the House of Representatives (Cypriot Parliament). ... The President of Cyprus is the countrys head of state. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of presidents of the Czech Republic. ... Margrethe II (Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid) (born 16 April 1940) is the Queen regnant of Denmark. ... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... Toomas Hendrik Ilves [IPA: toːmÉ‘s hendrik ilves] (born December 26, 1953) is the current President of Estonia. ... The President of Estonia is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia. ... {{Infobox President|name= Tarja Halonen |order=11th President of Finland |image=Finland. ... The President of Finland is the Head of State of Finland. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Horst Köhler ( , born 22 February 1943) is the current President of Germany. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... Karolos Papoulias Karolos Papoulias (Greek: Κάρολος Παπούλιας) is the President of the Hellenic Republic, former minister and member of the Hellenic parliament. ... This is a list of presidents of Greece. ... László Sólyom, President of Hungary László Sólyom (pronounced ) born on January 3, 1942 is the President of Hungary, having overcome the Hungarian Socialist Party nominee Katalin Szili in the election on June 7, 2005. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ... Giorgio Napolitano (born June 29, 1925), is an Italian politician and former lifetime senator, the eleventh and current President of the Italian Republic. ... The President of the Italian Republic is the head of State of Italy, and represents national unity. ... Valdis Zatlers (born March 22, 1955) is president-elect of Latvia. ... President Valdas Adamkus Valdas Adamkus (born Valdemaras Adamkevičius on November 3, 1926) is the current President of the Republic of Lithuania. ... Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (given names: Henri Albert Gabriel Félix Marie Guillaume; born at Betzdorf Castle in Luxembourg, 16 April 1955) is the head of state of Luxembourg. ... Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy whose Head of State is the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (or Grand Duchess of Luxembourg in the exceptional but twice occurred event of the sovereign being female). ... Edward Fenech Adami (Dwardu Fenech Adami, born February 7, 1934, Birkirkara) was the Prime Minister of Malta from 1987 until 1996 and from 1998 until 2004. ... The office of the President of Malta (Maltese: ), came into being on 13 December 1974, when Malta became a Commonwealth republic. ... Beatrix (born January 31, 1938 as Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, Princess of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld) has been the Queen regnant of the Kingdom of the Netherlands since April 30, 1980. ... The Netherlands has been an independent monarchy since 16 March 1815, and has been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since. ...  , IPA: [] (born June 18, 1949) is the President of the Republic of Poland and a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS.) KaczyÅ„ski served as President of Warsaw from 2002 until December 22, 2005, the day before his presidential inauguration. ... Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is directly elected by the people to serve a term of five years. ... Aníbal António Cavaco Silva (pron. ... Categories: Lists of office-holders | Portugal | Presidents of Portugal ... Traian Băsescu (born November 4, 1951) is a Romanian politician and former Merchant Navy officer. ... The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania. ... Ivan GaÅ¡parovič (born March 27, 1941), Slovak politician and law professor, became President of Slovakia on June 15, 2004. ... Flag of the President of Slovakia This is a list of the Presidents of Slovakia. ... Danilo Türk (born 19 February 1952) was an Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs for the United Nations. ... Presidents of Slovenia: Milan Kučan (1990-2002) Janez Drnovšek (2002-2008) Categories: Lists of office-holders ... Juan Carlos I (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias; born January 5, 1938, Rome, Italy) is the reigning King of Spain. ... Coat of Arms of the King of Spain King of Spain redirects here. ... Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the current Swedish monarch and head of state of the Kingdom of Sweden. ... The Monarch of Sweden is the head of state of Sweden. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... List of Presidents of Albania Ahmet Zogu (1925-1928) Ramiz Alia (1991-1992) Sali Berisha (1992-1997) Rexhep Meidani (1997-2002) Alfred Moisiu (2002-Present) See also Albania Kings of Albania Prime Ministers of Albania Princes of Albania External links Presidency of Albania (official site) Categories: Lists of office-holders... Flag of the President of the Czech Republic This is a list of presidents of the Czech Republic. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... List of Presidents of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev (1990 - present) See also Politics of Kazakhstan Categories: Stub | Kazakhstan ... The President of the Republic of Kosovo (Albanian: or Serbian: ) is Head of State of the Republic of Kosovo. ... See also: Lists of office-holders Categories: Lists of office-holders | Latvia | Presidents of Latvia ... Early Lithuania The Grand Duchy of Lithuania Title: Kunigaikštis or Didysis Kunigaikštis (The Great Duke in Lithuanian) Mindaugas, 1238-1263 also crowned as a King Treniota, 1263-1264 Vaišvilkas (Vaišelga, Vaishyalga, Vaišalgas), 1264-1267 Švarnas (Svarnas, Shvarno), 1267-1269 Traidenis, 1269-1281 Daumantas, 1281-1285 Butigeidis, 1285-1291 Butvydas, 1291... The President of Montenegro is the head of state of the Republic of Montenegro. ... The Netherlands have been an independent monarchy since March 16, 1815, and have been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... Presidential Standard of Serbia The President of Serbia is the head of state of the Republic of Serbia. ... This is a list of the Presidents of Slovakia. ...

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The President of Ireland (Irish: Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland.
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