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Encyclopedia > President of Iraq
Iraq

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Iraq
Image File history File links COA_of_Iraq. ... The politics of Iraq takes place in a framework of a more or less federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Iraq is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...



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The President of Iraq is Iraq's head of state. The Presidency Council of Iraq, under the Transitional Administrative Law, serves collectively as the head of state. ... Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: / Celal Talebanî / Jelal Talebaní Arabic: , ) (born 1933), is an Iraqi politician, who was elected State President of Iraq on April 6, 2005, (sworn in the next day, April 7, and once again on April 22, 2006, by the Iraqi National Assembly). ... The Council of Ministers of Iraq is the executive branch of the (now transitional) government of Iraq. ... Kingdom of Iraq (1921-1959) The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraqs head of government. ... Nouri Kamel Mohammed Hassan al-Maliki (Arabic: نوري كامل المالكي, transliterated Nūrī Kāmil al-Mālikī; born c. ... The Council of Representatives of Iraq (Arabic: ) is the main elected body of representatives in Iraq. ... Mahmud Dawud al-Mashhadani is an Iraqi politician and the President (the title is most often translated into English, incorrectly, as Speaker) of the Iraqi National Assembly. ... The Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal (formerly known as the Iraqi Special Tribunal) is a body established under Iraqi national law to try Iraqi nationals or residents accused of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes or other serious crimes committed between 1968 and 2003. ... This article lists political parties in Iraq. ... Elections in Iraq gives information on election and election results in Iraq. ... The Independent Electoral Commission of Iraq (IECI) is Iraqs electoral commission. ... Iraqi police officers hold up their index fingers marked with purple indelible ink, a security measure to prevent double voting. ... Iraqis in the predominantly Sunni city of Husaybah, wait in lines to vote, during the national election, December 15. ... The electorate of Iraq went to the polls on 15 October 2005 to vote in a referendum on whether or not to ratify the proposed constitution of Iraq. ... Iraq is divided into 18 governorates or provinces (muhafazah): The current set of governorates were established in 1976. ... Below the 18 governorates, Iraq is divided into 111 districts (qadaa). ... Regions of Iraq is a subdivision created by the constitution that was ratified in October 2005. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Human rights in post-invasion Iraq have caused many concerns and controversies since the 2003 invasion. ... Minority politics in Iraq are represented by its various ethnic groups. ... Foreign aid to Iraq has increased to handle reconstruction efforts. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...

Republic of Iraq (1991-2004)

Contents

Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ...

Republic of Iraq (1958-2003)

For most of the country's history, Iraq's presidents have been authoritarian dictators occupying an office without a clearly designed constitutional structure. Such presidents exercised all power single-handedly, operating only with the consultation of a small cabinet. The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...

Name Born-Died Took Office Left Office Party Notes
Muhammad Najib ar-Ruba'i 1904 - 1983 July 14, 1958 February 8, 1963 Military deposed
Abdul Salam Arif 1921 - 1966 February 8, 1963 April 13, 1966 Military / Arab Socialist Union died in office
Abd ar-Rahman al-Bazzaz (acting) 1913 - 1973 April 13, 1966 April 16, 1966 Military
Abdul Rahman Arif 1916 - 2007 April 16, 1966 July 17, 1968 Military / Arab Socialist Union deposed
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr 1914 - 1982 July 17, 1968 July 16, 1979 Military / Ba'ath resigned
Saddam Hussein 1937 - 2006 July 16, 1979 April 9, 2003 Ba'ath deposed

This does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Abdul Salam Arif (1921, Baghdad - April 13, 1966), president of Iraq (1963-1966). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The Arab Socialist Union (Arabic: , ; French: lUnion Socialiste Arabe) is one of a number of loosely related political parties based on the principles of Nasserist Arab socialism in a number of countries. ... Abdul Rahman Arif al-Bazzaz (1913 - 1973) was an Iraqi administrator, military officer and politician. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Abdul Rahman Arif (Arabic عبد الرحمان عارف) (born 1916 or 1918) was president of Iraq from April 16, 1966 to July 16, 1968. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Arab Socialist Union (Arabic: , ; French: lUnion Socialiste Arabe) is one of a number of loosely related political parties based on the principles of Nasserist Arab socialism in a number of countries. ... General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (Arabic أحمد حسن البكر ) (July 1, 1914 - October 4, 1982), was President of Iraq from 1968 to 1979. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ...

Iraq Interim Governing Council and Coalition Provisional Authority (2003-2004)

Coalition Provisional Authority Seal (2004)

The Iraqi Governing Council. ... The Seal of the CPA in Iraq The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as a transitional government following the invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom and the other members of the multinational coalition which was formed to oust the government of Saddam Hussein in 2003. ... Seal of the Coalition Provisional Authority (Iraq) This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ...

Presidents of Interim Governing Council

Following the overthrow of Saddam Hussein in 2003 an interim council ran Iraq under the American-led Coalition Provisional Authority. The council decided to have a 9-member collective presidency, in which formal chairmanship of the group would rotate on a monthly basis. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... The Seal of the CPA in Iraq The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as a transitional government following the invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom and the other members of the multinational coalition which was formed to oust the government of Saddam Hussein in 2003. ...

Name Born-Died Term in Office Ethnic Group
Mohammed Bahr al-Uloum (1st time, acting) 1923- 13 July - 31 July 2003 Shiite Arab
Ibrahim al-Jaafari 1947- August 2003 Shiite Arab
Ahmed Chalabi 1944- September 2003 Shiite Arab
Iyad Allawi 1945- October 2003 Shiite Arab
Jalal Talabani 1933- November 2003 Kurdish
Abdel-Aziz al-Hakim 1950- December 2003 Shiite Arab
Adnan Pachachi 1923- January 2004 Sunni Arab
Mohsen Abdel Hamid 1937- February 2004 Sunni Arab
Mohammed Bahr al-Uloum (2nd time) 1923- March 2004 Shiite Arab
Massoud Barzani 1946- April 2004 Kurdish
Ezzedine Salim 1943-2004 1 May - 17 May 2004 Shiite Arab
Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer 1958- 17 May - 28 June 2004 Sunni Arab

Mohammed Bahr al-Uloum (born 1923?) is a prominent Islamic leader and politician in Iraq. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Ibrahim al-Jaafari Dr. Ibrahim abd al-Karim Hamza al-Ashaiqir al-Jaafari (Arabic: ) (born 1947) is the former Prime Minister of Iraq in the Iraqi Transitional Government following the elections of January 2005. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi1 (Arabic: أحمد الجلبي Ahmad al-JalabÄ«) (born October 30, 1944) was interim oil minister in Iraq[1] in April-May 2005 and December-January 2006 and deputy prime minister from May 2005 until May 2006. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Allawi at a ceremony for the transfer of governmental authority to the Iraqi Interim Government. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: / Celal Talebanî / Jelal Talebaní Arabic: , ) (born 1933), is an Iraqi politician, who was elected State President of Iraq on April 6, 2005, (sworn in the next day, April 7, and once again on April 22, 2006, by the Iraqi National Assembly). ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Abdul Aziz al-Hakim (b. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Adnan Pachachi Adnan Pachachi (born on May 14, 1923 in Baghdad), is the scion of a Sunni Arab family with a long tradition in Iraqi politics. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Mohsen Abdel Hamid was a member of the Interim Iraq Governing Council (president, February 2004), created following the United Statess 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Mohammed Bahr al-Uloum (born 1923?) is a prominent Islamic leader and politician in Iraq. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Massoud Barzani Massoud Barzani (born August 16, 1946) is the head of the Autonomous Kurdish Government in Iraq and leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Ezzedine Salim, Arabic عزالدين سليم, also known as Abdelzahra Othman Mohammed (1943 - 17 May 2004), was an Iraqi politician. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Ghazi al-Yawer Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer (born 1958? in Mosul, Iraq) is a Vice-President of Iraq under the Iraqi Transitional Government of 2005, and was President of Iraq under the Iraqi Interim Government from 2004 to 2005. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...

Directors of Coalition Provisional Authority

The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was a caretaker government that held executive, legislative, and judicial power over Iraqi affairs from 2003 to 2004. It grew out of the Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA), which was established by the U.S. government prior to its March 2003 invasion of Iraq. A caretaker is a term mainly used in the United Kingdom, meaning a concierge or janitor. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...

Name Took Office Left Office
Jay Garner April 9, 2003 May 11, 2003
L. Paul Bremer May 11, 2003 June 28, 2004

Jay Montgomery Garner (born April 15, 1938) is a retired United States Army general who was appointed in 2003 as Director of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance for Iraq following the 2003 invasion of Iraq but was soon replaced by L. Paul Bremer. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 411 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1981 × 2887 pixel, file size: 4. ... Paul Bremer Lewis Paul Bremer III (born September 30, 1941), known as Paul Bremer and also nicknamed Jerry Bremer, was named Director of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance for post-war Iraq following the Iraq War of 2003, replacing Jay Garner on May 6, 2003. ... Download high resolution version (1000x1504, 228 KB)Ambassador Paul Bremer responds to a reporters question during a Pentagon news briefing on Sept. ...

State of Iraq (2004-Present)

State of Iraq

In 2004 the council approved an interim constitution, called the Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period. Following the transfer of sovereignty to the Iraqi people on June 28, 2004, Iraq's new Head of State is a "President of State", chosen by the elected National Assembly and run the three-person executive Presidency Council. The State President's powers are limited, with most executive authority belonging to the Prime Minister of Iraq. For other uses, see Iraq (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Law of Administration for the State of Iraq The Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period (also called the transitional administrative law or TAL)is the Iraqi constitution signed on March 8, 2004 by the Iraq Interim... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iraqi National Assembly is the unicameral parliament of Iraq which meets in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad. ... Kingdom of Iraq (1921-1959) The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraqs head of government. ...

Name Born-Died Term start Term end Political Party Ethnic Group
Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer 1958- 28 June 2004 6 April 2005 The Iraqis Sunni Arab
Jalal Talabani 1933- 7 April 2005 Present Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Kurdish
  • In May 2004, outgoing council president Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer was chosen by the council to serve as the first Interim Iraqi State President under the Iraqi Interim Government until parliamentary elections could be held.
  • On April 6, 2005 Jalal Talabani, the head of the PUK, became the first State President to be properly chosen by the newly-elected National Assembly.
  • In April 2006, after the ratification of the new Iraqi Constitution in 2005, Jalal Talabani was elected as President of the Republic of Iraq under the new Constitution, and thus became the first President of the permanent Government established by the new constitutional order.
  • During the trial of Saddam Hussein from 2004-2006, Hussein often referred to himself as "Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq", despite the fact he had been overthrown. However, some international law scholars and critics of the U.S. invasion of Iraq argued that under international law, Hussein was still legally the President of Iraq even though he no longer was in power. Under international law, a head of state can lose his position only by actions undertaken by the indigenous people of that nation; e.g. defeat in a popular election, or a military coup. Since the Iraqi people did not take action against Hussein or demand his resignation as did the Indonesian people with Suharto in 1998, it was not considered valid that he lost his status. Hussein's removal from office was a result of the US invasion, which may also be questionable under international law as to its legitimacy. Hussein was executed in 2006.

Ghazi al-Yawer Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer (born 1958? in Mosul, Iraq) is a Vice-President of Iraq under the Iraqi Transitional Government of 2005, and was President of Iraq under the Iraqi Interim Government from 2004 to 2005. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iraqis is an Iraqi political party led by interim President Ghazi al-Yawar. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: / Celal Talebanî / Jelal Talebaní Arabic: , ) (born 1933), is an Iraqi politician, who was elected State President of Iraq on April 6, 2005, (sworn in the next day, April 7, and once again on April 22, 2006, by the Iraqi National Assembly). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) (est 1975) (Kurdish: Yakêtî Nîştimanî Kurdistan) is a Sunni political party in Iraqi Kurdistan. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... The Iraqi Interim matt chokes on cock Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the Iraqi Transitional Government was installed following the Iraqi National Assembly election conducted on January 30th, 2005. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: / Celal Talebanî / Jelal Talebaní Arabic: , ) (born 1933), is an Iraqi politician, who was elected State President of Iraq on April 6, 2005, (sworn in the next day, April 7, and once again on April 22, 2006, by the Iraqi National Assembly). ... The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) (est 1975) (Kurdish: Yakêtî Nîştimanî Kurdistan) is a Sunni political party in Iraqi Kurdistan. ... The Council of Representatives of Iraq (Arabic: ) is the main elected body of representatives in Iraq. ... The current constitution of Iraq was approved by a referendum that took place on 15 October 2005. ... Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: / Celal Talebanî / Jelal Talebaní Arabic: , ) (born 1933), is an Iraqi politician, who was elected State President of Iraq on April 6, 2005, (sworn in the next day, April 7, and once again on April 22, 2006, by the Iraqi National Assembly). ... Saddam Hussein during his first appearance before the Iraqi Special Tribunal Saddam Hussein (April 28, 1937 - December 30, 2006), the former President of Iraq, was tried by the interim Iraqi government for crimes against humanity. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
President of Iraq - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (374 words)
The President of Iraq is Iraq's head of state.
Iraq became a republic after the overthrow of the monarchy in 1958.
In April 2006, after the ratification of the new Iraqi Constitution in 2005, transitional President Jalal Talabani was elected as President of the Republic of Iraq under the new Constitution, and thus became the first President of the permanent Government established by the new constitutional order.
President Bush Outlines Iraqi Threat (3301 words)
Iraq's weapons of mass destruction are controlled by a murderous tyrant who has already used chemical weapons to kill thousands of people.
The inspectors discovered that Iraq had an advanced nuclear weapons development program, had a design for a workable nuclear weapon, and was pursuing several different methods of enriching uranium for a bomb.
Iraq has attempted to purchase high-strength aluminum tubes and other equipment needed for gas centrifuges, which are used to enrich uranium for nuclear weapons.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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