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Encyclopedia > President of India
India

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Politics and government of
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Image File history File links Emblem_of_India_color. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Union Government The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of...

Constitution

Executive The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... The Preamble of the Constitution of India — Indias fundamental and supreme law The Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties are sections of the Constitution of India that prescribe the fundamental obligations of the State to its citizens and the duties of the citizens to the...

Legislative The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... This article is about the Prime Minister of India. ... List of Indian ministers in the current government elected in 2004: Names in italics are women ministers. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ...

Judiciary Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... Pratibha Patil (Marathi: प्रतिभा पाटील) (born December 19, 1934) is the 12th and current President of India. ... The Vice-President of India is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Government of India after the President. ... Mohammad Hamid Ansari (born April 1, 1937) is the current Vice President of India. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the presiding officer of the lower house of Parliament of India. ... Somnath Chatterjee (born July 25, 1929 in Tezpur, Assam) is a politician in India. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... The Vice-President of India is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Government of India after the President. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ...

Local The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... The Chief Justice of India is the highest position obtainable by a judge in India. ... Justice K.G. Balakrishnan; First Dalit cheif justice of India Konakuppakatil Gopinathan Balakrishnan aka Justice K G Balakrishnan, an Indian Judge and member of the Indian Supreme Court, has been appointed as the next Chief Justice of India. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Composition and Jurisdiction of District Courts In India : administration of justice at district level is done through law courts which are presided over by a judge. ... Localism describes a range of political philosophies which prioritise the local. ...

Elections in India The Panchayat is a South Asian political system. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


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The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. In theory, the President possesses considerable power. In practice, the President's role is comparable to those of a constitutional monarch, and indeed the office replaced that of the British monarch (represented by the Governor General) in 1950 three years after India's independence. With few exceptions, most of the authority vested in the President is in practice exercised by the Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister. The Election Commission of India held indirect 13th presidential elections of India on 19 July 2007[1]. Pratibha Patil with 638,116 votes won over her nearest rival Bhairon Singh Shekhawat who got 331,306 votes. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Election Commission of India is a constitutional body created to hold free and fair elections in India. ... The Chief Election Commissioner heads the Election Commission of India, a body constitutionally empowered to conduct free and fair elections to the national and state legislatures. ... The State Assembly elections in India are the elections in which the Indian electorate choose the members of the Vidhan Sabha (or Legislative/State Assembly). ... Political parties in India lists political parties in India. ... An Indian political scandal commonly refers to some action by a politician deemed unacceptable in law or by custom, or which is held to be morally unacceptable to the politicians peers or the electorate. ... The Republic of India, the second most populous country and one of the fastest growing economies in the world, is considered as a major power and a potential superpower. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The military of India, officially known as the Indian armed forces, is the primary military organisation responsible for the territorial security and defense of India. ... A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... A Governor-General is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors. ... List of Indian ministers in the current government elected in 2004: Names in italics are women ministers. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ...


The President is elected by the elected members of the Parliament of India (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) as well as of the state legislatures (Vidhan Sabhas), and serves for a term of five years. Incumbents are permitted to stand for re-election. A formula is used to allocate votes so there is a balance between the population of each state and the number of votes assembly members from a state can cast, and to give an equal balance between State Assembly members and National Parliament members. If no candidate receives a majority of votes there is a system by which losing candidates are eliminated from the contest and votes for them transferred to other candidates, until one gains a majority. The Vice-President is elected by a direct vote of all members (elected and nominated) of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... Vidhan Sabha, the name of the state-level legislature assemblies in India. ... Open seat redirects here. ... The Vice-President of India is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Government of India after the President. ...


The president of India resides in a mansion in New Delhi known as the Rashtrapati Bhavan (which roughly translates as President's Abode). The presidential retreat is "The Retreat" in Chharabra, Shimla and Rashtrapati Nilayam (President's Place) in Hyderabad. , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... Immediately in front of Rashtrapati Bhavan is the Jaipur Column, topped by a star. ... Chharabra is a small village situated approximately 8250 feet (2514 m) above sea level, 13 km from Shimla, India. ... , Shimla   (Hindi: शिमला), originally called Simla, is a city in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. ... Rashtrapati Nilayam is the official Retreat Residence of the President of India in Hyderabad. ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ...


The 13th current President of India is Pratibha Patil, the first woman to serve in the office, who was sworn in on 25 July 2007. Pratibha Patil (Marathi: प्रतिभा पाटील) (born December 19, 1934) is the 12th and current President of India. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Contents

History

India became formally independent from the United Kingdom on August 15, 1947. However, the country remained a Commonwealth realm, and continued in a personal union relationship with the other countries who each regarded the same person as their monarch and Head of State. The Monarch of India was represented by the Governor-General of India, now appointed by the Monarch of the United Kingdom upon the advice of the Prime Minister of India, instead of the British government. is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A Governor-General is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors. ...


This was a temporary measure, however, as the continued existence of a shared monarch in the Indian political system was not considered appropriate for a truly sovereign nation. The first Governor General of India, Lord Mountbatten, was also the last British Viceroy of India before independence. He soon handed power over to C. Rajagopalachari, who became the first, last and only ethnically Indian governor general. In the meantime, the Constituent Assembly led by Dr. Rajendra Prasad . The drafting was finished on November 26, 1949, and the Constitution was formally adopted on January 26, 1950—a date of symbolic importance as it was on January 26, 1930, that the Congress Party had first issued the call for complete independence from Britain. When the constitution took effect, the Governor General and King were replaced by an elected president, with Rajendra Prasad serving as the first President of India. Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900–27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (Tamil: சக்ரவர்தி ராஜகோபாலாச்சாரி) (b. ... Dr. Rajendra Prasad (December 3, 1884–February 28, 1963) was the first President of India. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Rajendra Prasad (Hindi: डाक्टर राजेन्द्र प्रसाद) (December 3, 1884 – February 28, 1963) was the first President of India. ...


The move ended India's status as a Commonwealth realm, but the republic remained in the Commonwealth of Nations. Nehru argued that a nation should be allowed to stay in the Commonwealth simply by observing the British monarch as "Head of the Commonwealth" but not necessarily head of state. This was a ground-breaking decision that would set a precedent in the second half of the twentieth century for many other former British colonies to remain in the Commonwealth after becoming newly-independent republics. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British...


Qualifications required to become the President

A citizen of India who is of 35 years of age or above may be a Presidential candidate. The Presidential candidate should be qualified to become a member of the Lok Sabha and should not hold any office of profit under the government. Certain office-holders, however, are permitted to stand as Presidential candidates. These are: The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ...

In the event that the Vice President, a State Governor or a Minister is elected President, they are considered to have vacated their previous office on the date they begin serving as President. The Vice-President of India is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Government of India after the President. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... India is subdivided into 28 states, 6 union territories and a national capital territory. ...


Election of the President

Whenever the office becomes vacant, by an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both houses of the Parliament and the elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies (Vidhan Sabha). The election uses the Single Transferable Vote method of proportional representation. Voting takes place by secret ballot. This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ... Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ...


Each elector casts a different number of votes. The general principle is that the total number of votes cast by Members of Parliament equals the total number of votes cast by State Legislators. Also, legislators from larger states cast more votes than those from smaller states. Finally, the number of legislators in a state matters; if a state has few legislators, then each legislator has relatively more votes; if a state has many legislators, then each legislator has fewer votes.


The actual calculation for votes cast by a particular state is calculated by dividing the state's population by 1000, which is divided again by the number of legislators from the State voting in the electoral college. This number is the number of votes per legislator in a given state. For votes cast by those in Parliament, the total number of votes cast by all state legislators is divided by the number of members of both Houses of Parliament. This is the number of votes per member of either house of Parliament.


The President is elected for a five year term. The salary of the President is Rs. 150,000 per month and their emoluments cannot be reduced during their term of office.


Constitutional role

Article 52 of the Indian Constitution states "There shall be a President of India". Article 53(1)vests in the President the executive powers of the Union which are exercised by him (??) either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution. Although the Constitution explicitly says that the president is the executive head of the state, real executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister. This is inferred from Article 74 of the Indian Constitution, providing for a "... council of ministers to aid and advise the President who shall, in exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice". The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... List of Indian ministers in the current government elected in 2004: Names in italics are women ministers. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ...


The president of India swears before entering the office of the president that he/she shall protect, preserve and defend the Constitution (Article 60), which provides for an executive head of state who is nominal or ceremonial. The powers of the President are intended to be similar to those of the British Crown, in that they would 'reign and not rule'. The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ...


Powers and functions

The President of India enjoys the following powers: Image File history File links Rastrapati_ke_angarakshak. ... Image File history File links Rastrapati_ke_angarakshak. ... The Presidents Bodyguard is a regiment of the Indian Army. ...


Executive powers

The Constitution vests in the President of India all the executive powers of the Central Government. The President appoints as Prime Minister the person most likely to command the support of the majority in the Lok Sabha (usually the leader of the majority party or coalition). The President then appoints the other members of the Council of Ministers, distributing portfolios to them on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ...


The Council of Ministers remains in power during the 'pleasure' of the President. In practice, however, the Council of Ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a President were to dismiss the Council of Ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the Council of Ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it commands the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha. A constitutional crisis is a severe breakdown in the smooth operation of government. ...


The President is responsible for making a wide variety of appointments. These include:

  • Governors of States
  • The Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts
  • The Attorney General
  • The Comptroller and Auditor General
  • The Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners
  • The Chairman and other Members of the Union Public Service Commission
  • Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countries.

The President also receives the credentials of Ambassadors and High Commissioners from other countries. India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... The Chief Justice of India is the highest position obtainable by a judge in India. ... The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The President is the de jure Commander in Chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The Indian Armed Forces is the primary military organization responsible for the territorial security and defence of India. ...


The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person, particularly in cases involving punishment of death. Commutation of sentence involves the reduction of legal penalties, especially of terms of imprisonment. ...


The decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the Prime Minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, however, the President exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the Prime Minister.


Judicial powers

The president appoints the Chief Justice of the Union Judiciary and other judges on the advice of the Chief Justice. In practice, these judges are actually selected by the Union cabinet. The President dismisses the judges if and only if the two Houses of the Parliament pass resolutions to that effect by two-thirds majority of the members present.


If they consider a question of law or a matter of public importance has arisen they can ask for the advisory opinion of the Supreme Court. They may or may not accept that opinion. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ...


Legislative powers

The President summons both houses of the Parliament and prorogues them. He can even dissolve the Lok Sabha. These powers are formal, and by convention, the President uses these powers according to the advice of the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ...


They inaugurate the Parliament by addressing it after the general elections and also at the beginning of the first session each year. Their address on these occasions is generally meant to outline the new policies of the government. This address is essentially identical in nature to a Speech from the Throne. Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne (or Throne Speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or a representative) reads a prepared speech to a complete session of parliament, outlining the governments agenda for the...


A bill that the Parliament has passed, can become a law only after the President gives their assent to it. They can return a bill to the Parliament, if it is not a money bill, for reconsideration. However, if the Parliament sends it back to them for the second time, they are obliged to assent to it.


When the Parliament is not in session and the government considers it necessary to have a law, then the President can promulgate ordinances. These ordinances are submitted to the Parliament at its next session. They remain valid for no more than six weeks from the date the Parliament is convened unless approved by it earlier.


Emergency powers

The President can declare three types of emergencies:

The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ...

National emergency

National emergency is caused by war, external aggression or armed rebellion in the whole of India or a part of its territory. Such an emergency was declared in India in 1962 (Indo-China war), 1965 (Indo-Pakistan war), 1975 and 1977 (declared by Indira Gandhi on account of "internal disturbance"). A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in...


The President can declare such an emergency only on the basis of a written request by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. Such a proclamation must be approved by the Parliament within one month. Such an emergency can be imposed for six months. It can be extended by six months by repeated parliamentary approval. The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ...


In such an emergency, Fundamental Rights of Indian citizens can be suspended. The six freedoms under Right to Freedom are automatically suspended. However, the Right to Life and Personal Liberty cannot be suspended. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Preamble of the Constitution of India — Indias fundamental and supreme law The Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties are sections of the Constitution of India that prescribe the fundamental obligations of the State to its citizens and the duties of the citizens to the...


The Parliament can make laws on the 66 subjects of the State List (which contains subjects on which the state governments can make laws). Also, all money bills are referred to the Parliament for its approval. The term of the Lok Sabha can be extended by a period of up to one year, but not so as to extend the term of Parliament beyond six months after the end of the declared emergency. The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ...


State emergency

State emergency is declared due to failure of constitutional machinery in a state. Not all states have undergone this type of an emergency[citation needed]. This emergency is also known as President's rule. Presidents rule is enabled by article 356 of the constitution of India. ...


If the President is satisfied, on the basis of the report of the Governor of the concerned state or from other sources that the governance in a state cannot be carried out according to the provisions in the Constitution, they can declare emergency in the state. Such an emergency must be approved by the Parliament within a period of six months.


It is imposed for six months and can last for a maximum period of three years with repeated parliamentary approval every six months. If the emergency needs to be extended for more than three years, this can be achieved by a constitutional amendment, as has happened in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ...


During such an emergency, the President can take over the entire work of the executive, and the Governor administers the state in the name of the President. The Legislative Assembly can be dissolved or may remain in suspended animation. The Parliament makes laws on the 66 subjects of the state list (see National emergency for explanation). All money bills have to be referred to the Parliament for approval. The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ...


On October 9, 2007, the President's rule has been imposed on the south Indian State of Karnataka making it the latest state where the emergency has been imposed.


National Emergency comes under Article 352 of the India Constitution. State Emergency comes under Article 356 of the Indian Constitution.


Financial emergency

If the President is satisfied that there is an economic situation in which the financial stability or credit of India is threatened, he/she can proclaim financial emergency as per the Constitutional Article 360. Such an emergency must be approved by the Parliament within two months. It has never been declared. On a previous occasion, the financial stability or credit of India has indeed been threatened, but a financial emergency was avoided through the selling off of India's gold reserves.


A state of financial emergency remains in force indefinitely until revoked by the President.


In case of a financial emergency, the President can reduce the salaries of all government officials, including judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts. All money bills passed by the State legislatures are submitted to the President for his approval. They can direct the state to observe certain principles (economy measures) relating to financial matters. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Important presidential interventions

The President's role as defender of the Constitution, and their powers as Head of State, especially in relation to those exercised by the Prime Minister as leader of the government, have changed over time. In particular, Presidents have made a number of interventions into government and lawmaking, which have established and challenged some conventions concerning Presidential intervention. Some of the more noteworthy are documented here.


In 1979, the then Prime Minister, Charan Singh, did not enjoy a Parliamentary majority. He responded to this by simply not advising the President to summon Parliament. Since then, Presidents have been more diligent in directing incoming Prime Ministers to convene Parliament and prove their majority within reasonable deadlines (2-3 weeks). In the interim period, the Prime Ministers are generally restrained from making policy decisions. Charan Singh could mean Choudhary Charan Singh, the former prime minister of India or Charan Singh (guru), the late Charan Singh of Radhasoami Satsang Beas. ...


The constitution gives the President the power to return a bill unsigned but it circumscribes the power to send it back only once for reconsideration. If the Parliament sends back the bill with or without changes, the President is duty bound to sign it. However, deliberately or inadvertently, the constitution does not set a time-limit in which the President is obliged to approve the bill, so they may withhold assent indefinitely. This has come to be known in legal and constitutional circles as the "Pocket Veto", and has been used on a number of occasions against controversial Bills. A pocket veto is a legislative maneuver in American federal lawmaking. ...

  • In the mid-1980s, President Zail Singh withheld assent to a Bill passed by Parliament that gave sweeping powers to the State to intercept mail. This was considered by the President to be an encroachment on citizens' freedom of speech and liberty as guaranteed by the Constitution.
  • In early 1990, President Venkataraman withheld assent to a Bill passed by the outgoing Parliament that gave pension benefits to themselves. This was interpreted by the President to be self-aggrandisement.

Since the nineties, Parliamentary elections have generally not resulted in a single party or group of parties having a distinct majority. In such cases, Presidents have used their discretion and directed Prime Ministerial aspirants to establish their credentials before being invited to form the government. Typically, the aspirants have been asked to produce letters from various party leaders, with the signatures of all the MPs who are pledging support to their candidature. This is in addition to the requirement that a Prime Minister prove he has the support of the Lok Sabha (by a vote on the floor of the House) within weeks of being sworn in to office. Giani Zail Singh (Punjabi: , May 5, 1916 - December 25, 1994) was the President of India (1982-1987), and the first Sikh to hold Indias highest public office and honour. ... Ramaswamy Venkataraman (born 4 December 1910) was the President of India between 1987 and 1992. ...


In the late nineties, President Narayanan introduced the important practice of explaining to the nation (by means of Rashtrapati Bhavan communiqués) the thinking that led to the various decisions he took while exercising his discretionary powers; this has led to openness and transparency in the functioning of the President. Kocheril Raman Narayanan (Malayalam: കോച്ചേരില്‍ രാമന്‍ നാരായണന്‍; 4 February 1921 — 9 November 2005), also known as K. R. Narayanan, was the tenth President of the Republic of India. ...


In mid-2006, President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam sent back a controversial bill regarding enlarging the scope of the offices of profit, which disqualify a person from being a member of parliament. The opposition combine, the NDA, hailed the move. The UPA chose to send the bill back to the president without any changes, and after 30 days A. P. J. Abdul Kalam gave the assent. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (Tamil: ) born October 15, 1931, Tamil Nadu, India, usually and mistakenly referred to as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam^ , despite not having a PhD,) was the eleventh President of India, serving from 2002 to 2007. ... NDA is an abbreviation. ... Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (Tamil: ) born October 15, 1931, Tamil Nadu, India, usually and mistakenly referred to as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam^ , despite not having a PhD,) was the eleventh President of India, serving from 2002 to 2007. ...


Removal of the President

The President may be removed before the expiry of his term through impeachment. A President can be removed for violation of the Constitution Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ...


The process may start in either of the two houses of the Parliament. The house initiates the process by levelling the charges against the President. The charges are contained in a notice which has to be signed by at least one quarter of the total members of that house. The notice is sent up to the President and 14 days later, it is taken up for consideration. Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ...


A resolution to impeach the President has to be passed by a two-third majority of the total members of the originating house. It is then sent to the other house. The other house investigates the charges that have been made. During this process, the President has the right to defend himself through an authorised counsel. If the second house also approves the charges made by two-third majority again, the President stands impeached and is deemed to have vacated his office from the date when such a resolution stands passed. Other than impeachment, no other penalty can be given to the President for the violation of the Constitution. Look up counsel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


No President has faced impeachment proceedings. Hence, the above provisions have never been tested.


Succession

In the event of a vacancy created for the President's post due to death, resignation, removal, etc., Article 65 of the Indian Constitution says that the Vice President will have to discharge his duties. The Vice President reverts to his office when a new President is elected and enters upon his office. When the President is unable to act owing to his absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice President discharges the President's functions for a temporary period until the President resumes his duties. The Constitution of India, the worlds lengthiest written constitution (with 395 articles and 8 schedules) was passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. ... The Vice-President of India is second behind the President in the Executive branch of the Government of India. ...


When the Vice President acts as, or discharges the functions of the President, he has all the powers and immunities of the President and is entitled to the same emoluments as the President.


Parliament has by an enactment made provision for the discharge of the functions of the President when vacancies occur in the offices of the President and of the Vice President simultaneously, owing to removal, death, resignation of the incumbent or otherwise. In such an eventuality, the Chief Justice, or in his absence, the senior most Judge of the Supreme Court of India available discharges the functions of the President until a newly elected President enters upon his office or a newly elected Vice President begins to act as President under Article 65 of the Constitution, whichever is the earlier. The Parliament of India is bicameral. ... The Chief Justice of India is the highest position obtainable by a judge in India. ... The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ...


Rasthrapati Bhavan

The Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official residence of the President of India.
Main article: Rashtrapati Bhavan

The Presidential House or Rashtrapati Bhavan, is located on Prakash Vir Shastri Avenue, where its main entrance, Gate 35, is located. The home is in the urban district of New Delhi and was recently renamed from North Avenue in honor of the Member of Parliament who was killed during his tenure here as a representative of the state of Uttar Pradesh. [1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1561 KB) Description: The Rashtrapati Bhavan Source: photo taken by User:Deepak Date: 26th December 2005 Permission: User:Deepak released it on 27th December 2005 under CC-BY-SA-2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1561 KB) Description: The Rashtrapati Bhavan Source: photo taken by User:Deepak Date: 26th December 2005 Permission: User:Deepak released it on 27th December 2005 under CC-BY-SA-2. ... Immediately in front of Rashtrapati Bhavan is the Jaipur Column, topped by a star. ... Immediately in front of Rashtrapati Bhavan is the Jaipur Column, topped by a star. ... Immediately in front of Rashtrapati Bhavan is the Jaipur Column, topped by a star. ... Prakash Vir Shastri Avenue is an urban street road in New Delhi, known for spanning the majority of the city and classically housing the city Members of Parliament for the state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...


Election in 2007

The 13th Indian Presidential Election was held on 19 July 2007. Pratibha Patil, former governor of state of Rajasthan, a nominee of the ruling United Progressive Alliance, won the elections with a huge majority. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat, current Vice-President of India, also filed his nomination as an independent candidate. Shekhawat has received backing by National Democratic Alliance, a major opposition front. The outgoing president Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam initially said that he would contest for the top post only if his win was certain, but later opted out of the race. Pratibha Patil became the first female President of India when she took the oath of office on July 25, 2007. The Election Commission of India held indirect 13th presidential elections of India on 19 July 2007[1]. Pratibha Patil with 638,116 votes won over her nearest rival Bhairon Singh Shekhawat who got 331,306 votes. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Pratibha Patil (Marathi: प्रतिभा पाटील) (born December 19, 1934) is the 12th and current President of India. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is the present ruling coalition of political parties in India. ... Bhairon Singh Shekhawat (born October 23, 1923) is a former Vice-President of India. ... The Vice-President of India is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Government of India after the President. ... The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a coalition in India. ... Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (born October 15, 1931, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India), usually referred to as Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, is the President of India. ... Pratibha Patil (Marathi: प्रतिभा पाटील) (born December 19, 1934) is the 12th and current President of India. ...


See also

Pratibha Patil, a former governor of Rajasthan, was the UPA's candidate for the Presidential elections. She won beating the NDA backed candidate, Bhairon Singh Shekawat, the former Vice-President of India, by a large margin. She took the oath of office on 25 July 2007 to become India's first female President. The current Vice-President is Mohammad Hamid Ansari. The complete list of Presidents of India includes the persons sworn into the office as President of India following the adoption of the Indian constitution in 1950. ... Rashtrapati Awards are given by the President of India. ... Pratibha Patil (Marathi: प्रतिभा पाटील) (born December 19, 1934) is the 12th and current President of India. ... The Vice-President of India is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Government of India after the President. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Mohammad Hamid Ansari (born April 1, 1937) is the current Vice President of India. ...


References

  1. ^ President's Secretariat (Feb 19, 2003). PIB Press Release.

February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • The President of India (Official site)
  • Stamps on Presidents of India
  • Former Presidents of India (Official site)
  • Presidents of India
  • Indian Presidents
  • Who after APJ Kalam?

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Vice President of India (868 words)
The Vice-President of India is second behind the President in the Executive branch of the Government of India.
The President of India is elected whenever the office becomes vacant by an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both houses of the Parliament and the elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies (Vidhan Sabha) by a method of proportional representation by means of the Single Transferable Vote system by secret ballot.
The President of India's main function is the formal summoning and swearing-in of the Prime Minister.
President of India : Rashtrapati Bhavan : President's Bodyguards (715 words)
The President's Bodyguard, as it is known today, was raised in 1773 at Benares, by the then Governor-General, Warren Hastings, with a strength of 50 picked troopers and horses.
In 1947, it was formally redesignated with its old title, the Governor General's Bodyguard and on 26th January 1950, with India's declaration as a Republic, it became -the President's Bodyguard.
As befitting its status, the motto of the PBG is "Bharat Mata Ki Jai" or, "Victory to Mother India".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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