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Encyclopedia > President of France
President of
the French Republic

National Emblem of the French Republic
Incumbent:
Nicolas Sarkozy
Inaugural Charles Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte
Formation December 20, 1848
Website www.elysee.fr
France

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
France
Image File history File links Armoiries_république_française. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2136 × 3216 pixels, file size: 580 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... Inauguration Day is the day on which the President of the United States is sworn in and takes office. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Logo_de_la_République_française. ... This article is about political groups and tendencies in France. ...



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The President of the French Republic (French: Président de la République française) colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France's elected Head of State. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... In France, the country is often called the patrie des droits de lHomme (human rights homeland), mostly ironically by persons who complain about a perceived violation of theses rights. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... // Jacques Charles Dupont de lEure (24 February 1848 - 9 May 1848) Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez (9 May 1848 - 10 May 1848) Dominique François Jean Arago (11 May 1848 - 24 June 1848) Antonie Marie Jules Sénard (24 June 1848 - 28 June 1848) Louis Eugène Cavaignac (28 June... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... // Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu 1624-1642 Jules Cardinal Mazarin 1642-1661 Louis XIV ruled without a chief minister after Mazarins death. ... A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Senate (in French : le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... The French Congress (French: ) is the name given to the body created when both houses of the present-day French Parliament – the French National Assembly and the French Senate – reunite at the Château of Versailles to vote on revisions to the French constitution. ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ... The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ... Political parties in France lists political parties in France. ... Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (French: Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... The Left in France at the beginning of the 20th century was represented by two main political parties, the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the SFIO (French Section of the Workers International), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist parties. ... France is a representative democracy. ... The French presidential of 1958, the first of the French Fifth Republic, took place on December 21, 1958. ... The 1965 French presidential election was the first presidential election by direct universal suffrage of the French Fifth Republic. ... Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: | | ... French legislative election took place on March 4 and 11, 1973 to elect the 5th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: | | ... French legislative election took place on March 12 and 19, 1978 to elect the 6th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... French legislative election took place on June 14 and 21, 1981 to elect the 7th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... The French legislative election took place on March 16, 1986 to elect the 8th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in France | 1988 elections ... French legislative election took place on June 5 and 12, 1988 to elect the 9th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... French legislative election took place on March 21 and 28, 1993 to elect the 10th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... Second Round First Round See also: President of France, France, Politics of France Categories: Elections in France | 1995 elections ... French legislative election took place in May 25 and June 1, 1997 to elect the 11th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... The 2002 French presidential election consisted of a first round election on 21 April 2002, and a runoff election between the top two candidates (Jacques Chirac and Jean-Marie Le Pen) on 5 May 2002. ... These are the results of the French legislative election of 2002 Category: ... The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France for a five-year term. ... The French legislative elections took place on 10 June and 17 June 2007 to elect the 13th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, a few weeks after the French presidential election run-off on 6 May. ... // Metropolitan France As of January 1, 2004, metropolitan France is divided into: 22 régions (although strictly speaking Corsica is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common speech) the régions are divided into 96 départements the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... A charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. ... The honour entrance to the Ministry building on the Quai dOrsay The Minister of Foreign Affairs, in the Government of France, is the cabinet member responsible for the Republics network of relationships with foreign nations. ... This is a list of major political scandals in France: 1816 shipwreck of and search for French frigate Medusa off the west coast of Africa Dreyfus Affair, 1894 treason conviction of Alfred Dreyfus - exposed by writer Emile Zola on January 13, 1898 The Ben Barka affair, 1965 disappearance of the... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... This article is about political groups and tendencies in France. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


Four of France's five republics have had presidents as their heads of state, making the French presidency the oldest presidency in Europe still to exist in some form. In each of the republics' constitutions, the president's powers, functions and duties, and their relation with French governments differed.


For details about the French system of government see Government of France. This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ...


The president of France is also the ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra, Grand Master of the Légion d'honneur and the Ordre national du Mérite and honorary canon of the St. John Lateran Basilica. This is a list of Co-Princes of Andorra. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... The Ordre National du Mérite (in English: The National Order of Merit) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ...


The current President of the Republic is Nicolas Sarkozy, from 16 May 2007. Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

See also: List of Presidents of the French Republic

Contents

// Jacques Charles Dupont de lEure (24 February 1848 - 9 May 1848) Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez (9 May 1848 - 10 May 1848) Dominique François Jean Arago (11 May 1848 - 24 June 1848) Antonie Marie Jules Sénard (24 June 1848 - 28 June 1848) Louis Eugène Cavaignac (28 June...

Current presidential powers

The French Fifth Republic is a semi-presidential system. Unlike many other European presidents, the office of the French President is quite powerful. Although it is the Prime Minister of France and parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual lawmaking, the French President wields significant influence. The president holds the nation's most senior office, and outranks all other politicians. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ...


Summary

The president's greatest power is his or her ability to choose the Prime Minister. However, since only the French National Assembly has the power to dismiss the Prime Minister's government, the president is forced to name a prime minister that commands the support of the majority of this assembly. The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ...

  • When the majority of the Assembly has opposite political views to that of the president, this leads to political cohabitation. In that case, the president's power is diminished, since much of the de facto power relies on a supportive prime minister and National Assembly, and is not directly attributed to the post of president.
  • When the majority of the Assembly sides with him, the President can take a more active role and may, in effect, direct government policy. The prime minister is then often a mere "fuse" — an easily replaced figurehead that can be removed if the administration becomes unpopular.

Since 2002, the mandate of the president and the Assembly are both 5 years and the two elections are close to each other. Therefore, the likelihood of a "cohabitation" is lower. Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up fuse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Among the powers of the president:

  • The president promulgates laws.
    • The president has a very limited form of suspensive veto: when presented with a law, he or she can request another reading of it by Parliament, but only once per law.
    • The president may also refer the law for review to the Constitutional Council prior to promulgation.
  • The president may dissolve the French National Assembly
  • The president may refer treaties or certain types of laws to popular referendum, within certain conditions, among them the agreement of the Prime minister or the parliament.
  • The president is the Commander-in-Chief (CINC) of the armies.
  • The president may order the use of nuclear weapons.
  • The president names the Prime minister but he cannot dismiss him. He names and dismisses the other ministers, with the agreement of the Prime minister.
  • The president names most officials (with the assent of the cabinet).
  • The president names certain members of the Constitutional Council.
  • The president receives foreign ambassadors.
  • The president may grant a pardon (but not an amnesty) to convicted criminals; the president can also lessen or suppress criminal sentences. This was of crucial importance when France still operated the death penalty: criminals sentenced to death would generally request that the president commute their sentence to life imprisonment.

All decisions of the president must be countersigned by the Prime minister, except dissolving the French National Assembly. Promulgation is the act of formally proclaiming new legislation to the public. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Life imprisonment or life incarceration is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, often for most or even all of the criminals remaining life, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 7 to 50 years... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ...


Detailed constitutional powers

The constitutional attributions of the president are defined in Title II of the Constitution of France. For the entry on the naval ship U.S.S. Constitution, see: USS Constitution. ... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ...


Article 5 The President of the Republic shall see that the Constitution is observed. He shall ensure, by his arbitration, the proper functioning of the public authorities and the continuity of the State. He shall be the guarantor of national independence, territorial integrity and observance of treaties.


Article 8 The President of the Republic shall appoint the Prime Minister. He shall terminate the appointment of the Prime Minister when the latter tenders the resignation of the Government. On the proposal of the Prime Minister, he shall appoint the other members of the Government and terminate their appointments.


Article 9 The President of the Republic shall preside over the Council of Ministers.


Article 10 The President of the Republic shall promulgate Acts of Parliament within fifteen days following the final adoption of an Act and its transmission to the Government. He may, before the expiry of this time limit, ask Parliament to reconsider the Act or sections of the Act. Reconsideration shall not be refused.


While the president has to sign all acts adopted by parliament into law, he cannot refuse to do so and exercise a kind of right of veto; his only power in that matter is to ask for a single reconsideration of the law by parliament and this power is subject to countersigning by the Prime minister. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Article 11 [the president may submit laws to the citizens in a referendum]


Article 12 The President of the Republic may, after consulting the Prime Minister and the Presidents of the assemblies, declare the National Assembly dissolved. A general election shall take place not less than twenty days and not more than forty days after the dissolution. The National Assembly shall convene as of right on the second Thursday following its election. Should it so convene outside the period prescribed for the ordinary session, a session shall be called by right for a fifteen-day period. No further dissolution shall take place within a year following this election. The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ...


Article 13 The President of the Republic shall sign the ordinances and decrees deliberated upon in the Council of Ministers. He shall make appointments to the civil and military posts of the State. [...] Decree is an order that has the force of law. ...


Article 14 The President of the Republic shall accredit ambassadors and envoys extraordinary to foreign powers ; foreign ambassadors and envoys extraordinary shall be accredited to him. For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ...


Article 15 The President of the Republic shall be commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He shall preside over the higher national defence councils and committees. The Military of France has a very long history, greatly influential in World history, of serving its country. ...


Article 16 Where the institutions of the Republic, the independence of the Nation, the integrity of its territory or the fulfilment of its international commitments are under serious and immediate threat, and where the proper functioning of the constitutional public authorities is interrupted, the President of the Republic shall take the measures required by these circumstances, after formally consulting the Prime Minister, the Presidents of the assemblies and the Constitutional Council. He shall inform the Nation of these measures in a message. The measures must stem from the desire to provide the constitutional public authorities, in the shortest possible time, with the means to carry out their duties. The Constitutional Council shall be consulted with regard to such measures. Parliament shall convene as of right. The National Assembly shall not be dissolved during the exercise of the emergency powers. A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ...


Article 16, allowing the president a limited form of rule by decree for a limited period of time in exceptional circumstance, has been used only once, by Charles de Gaulle during the Algerian War, from April 23 to September 29, 1961. Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators and absolute monarchs. ... This article is about the person. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Paul Cherrière (1954-55) Henri Lorillot (1955-56... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Article 17 The President of the Republic has the right to grant pardon. For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ...


Article 18 The President of the Republic shall communicate with the two assemblies of Parliament by means of messages, which he shall cause to be read and which shall not be the occasion for any debate. Outside sessions, Parliament shall be convened especially for this purpose.


Since 1875, the President is prohibited from entering the houses of Parliament.


Article 19 Acts of the President of the Republic, other than those provided for under articles 8 (first paragraph), 11, 12, 16, 18, 54, 56 and 61, shall be countersigned by the Prime Minister and, where required, by the appropriate ministers. The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ...


Presidential amnesties

There is a tradition of so-called "presidential amnesties", which are something of a misnomer: after the election of a president, and of a National Assembly of the same party, parliament traditionally votes a law granting amnesty for some petty crimes. This practice has been increasingly criticized, particularly because it is believed to incite people to commit traffic offences in the months preceding the election. Such an amnesty law may also authorize the president to designate individuals who have committed certain categories of crimes to be offered amnesty, if certain conditions are met. Such individual measures have been criticized for the political patronage that they allow. Still, it is argued that such amnesty laws help reduce prison overpopulation. An amnesty law was passed in 2002; none have yet been passed as of January 2008. Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... ...


The difference between an amnesty and a presidential pardon is that the former clears all subsequent effects of the sentencing, as though the crime had not been committed, while pardon simply relieves the sentenced individual from part or all of the remaining of the sentence.


Election

Further information: Elections in France

Since a 2000 referendum, the President of France has been directly elected to a five-year term by universal suffrage. (Prior to 2000, presidential terms lasted seven years, and the first election to a shorter term was held in 2002.) President Chirac was first elected in 1995 and again in 2002. There is no term limit, so Chirac could have run again, but chose not to. He was succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy on 2007 May 16. A term limit is due to be introduced by a constitutional reform planned to be passed on 7 July 2008, which would limit politicians to at most two presidential terms.[1] France is a representative democracy. ... On 24 September 2000, a referendum on the reduction of the mandate of the President of the French Republic was held to detemine whether the mandate of the President should be reduced from seven years to five years in line with terms in office in other European countries. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


François Mitterrand and Jacques Chirac are the only Presidents to date who have served a full two terms (14 years for the former, 12 years for the latter).   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... “Chirac” redirects here. ...


In order to be admitted as an official candidate, potential candidates must receive signed presentations (informally known as parrainages, for "godfathering") from more than 500 elected officials, mostly mayors. These officials must be from at least 30 départements or overseas collectivities, and no more than 10% of them should be from the same département or collectivity.[2] Furthermore, one official may only present no more than one candidate.[3] The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ...


There are approximately 45 000 elected officials that are on the list of such officials, including around 36 000 mayors.


Spending and financing of campaigns and political parties are highly regulated. There is a cap on spending, at approximately 20 million euros, and government public financing of 50% of spending if the candidate scores more than 5%. If the candidate receives less than 5% of the vote, the government funds €800,000 to the party (€150,000 paid in advance) [4]Advertising on TV is forbidden but official time is given to candidates on public TV. An independent agency regulates election and party financing. For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


French presidential elections are conducted via run-off voting which ensures that the elected President always obtains a majority: if no candidate receives a majority of votes in the first round of voting, the two highest-scoring candidates arrive at a run-off. After the president is elected, he goes through a solemn investiture ceremony called a "passation des pouvoirs" ("handing over of powers") [1]. An example of runoff voting. ... Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, dress from vestis robe) is a rather general term for the formal installation of an incumbent (heir, elect of nominee) in public office, especially by taking possession of its insignia. ...


Succession

Part of a series on:
Orders of Succession
Presidencies

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United States An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death, resignation, or removal of its current occupant. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... The Constitution of the Republic of China gives a short list of persons who will succeed to the presidency if the office of the President of the Republic of China were to become vacant. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ...

see also:
Monarchies
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Upon the death or resignation of the President, the President of the Senate acts as interim president. Alain Poher is the only person to have served this temporary position. The first time was in 1969 after Charles de Gaulle's resignation and a second time in 1974 after Georges Pompidou's death. It is important to note that, in this situation, the President of the Senate became an Interim President of the Republic; they do not become the new President of the Republic and therefore do not have to resign from their position as President of the Senate. In spite of his title as Interim President of the Republic, Poher is regarded in France as a former President and is listed in the presidents' gallery on elysee.fr (the President's official site). This is in contrast to acting presidents from the Third Republic. The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... Alain Poher (17 April 1909 - 9 December 1996) was a French politician. ... This article is about the person. ... Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. ...


The first round of a new presidential election must be organized no sooner than twenty days and no later than thirty-five days following the vacancy of the presidency. Because fifteen days can separate the first and second rounds of a presidential election, this means that the President of the Senate can only act as President of the Republic for a maximum period of fifty days. During this period of Interim president is not allowed to dismiss the national assembly nor are they allowed to call for a referendum or initiate any constitutional changes.


If there is no acting president of the senate, the powers of the president of the republic are exercised by the "Gouvernement", meaning the Cabinet. This has been interpreted by some constitutional academics as meaning first the Prime Minister and, if he is himself not able to act, the members of the cabinet in the order of the list of the decree that nominated them. This is in fact unlikely to happen, because if the president of the Senate is not able to act, the Senate will normally name a new president of the Senate, that will act as President of the Republic.


Official residences

The official residence and office of the president is the Élysée Palace in Paris. Other presidential residences include: The entrance to the Élysée Palace. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

  • the Fort de Bregançon, in southeastern France, is the current official presidential vacationing residence;
  • the Hôtel de Marigny; standing next to the Élysée Palace, it houses foreign official guests;
  • the Château de Rambouillet is normally open to visitors when not used for (rare) official meetings;
  • the Domaine National de Marly is normally open to visitors when not used for (rare) official meetings;
  • the Domaine de Souzy-la-Briche, not a historical monument, is a private residence.
  • His salary is € 19 331 by month.

The Hôtel de Marigny is a town house on the Avenue Marigny, not far from the Elysée Palace, and is used as a residence for State visitors to France. ... The Château de Rambouillet, which is the summer residence of the Presidents of France, is located in the town of Rambouillet, Yvelines département, France, 50 km (30 miles) southwest of Paris. ... Marly is the name or part of the name of several communes in Europe: France Marly, in the Moselle département Marly, in the Nord département Marly-Gomont, in the Aisne département Marly-la-Ville, in the Val-dOise département Marly-le-Roi, in the Yvelines département Marly-sous-Issy...

Latest election

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 22 April and 6 May 2007 French presidential election results
Candidates – Parties 1st round 2nd round
Votes % Votes %
Nicolas Sarkozy Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire) 11,448,663 31.18% 18,983,138 53.06%
Ségolène Royal Socialist Party (Parti socialiste) 9,500,112 25.87% 16,790,440 46.94%
François Bayrou Union for French Democracy (Union pour la démocratie française) 6,820,119 18.57%  
Jean-Marie Le Pen National Front (Front national) 3,834,530 10.44%
Olivier Besancenot Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) 1,498,581 4.08%
Philippe de Villiers Movement for France (Mouvement pour la France) 818,407 2.23%
Marie-George Buffet French Communist Party (Parti communiste français) 707,268 1.93%
Dominique Voynet The Greens (Les Verts) 576,666 1.57%
Arlette Laguiller Workers' Struggle (Lutte ouvrière) 487,857 1.33%
José Bové Alter-globalization activist 483,008 1.32%
Frédéric Nihous Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Tradition (Chasse, pêche, nature, traditions) 420,645 1.15%
Gérard Schivardi Workers' Party (Parti des travailleurs) 123,540 0.34%
Total 36,719,396 100% 35,773,578 100%
 
Votes cast 36,719,396 98.56% 35,773,578 95.80%
Spoilt and null votes 534,846 1.44% 1,568,426 4.20%
Voters 37,254,242 83.77% 37,342,004 83.97%
Abstentions 7,218,592 16.23% 7,130,729 16.03%
Registered voters 44,472,834 44,472,733
Table of results - ordered by number of votes received in first round, official results by Constitutional Council. List of candidates source: Decision of March 19, 2007 by the Constitutional Council.

First round results source: Official first round results announced on April 25, 2007.
Second round results source: Official second round results announced on May 10, 2007. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... Marie-Ségolène Royal (born 22 September 1953 in Dakar, Senegal, then a French colony), known as  , (IPA: ) is a French politician. ... The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste, PS) is the largest left-wing political party in France. ... François Bayrou François Bayrou (IPA: ) is a leading candidate for the French Presidental election of 2007. ... The Union for French Democracy, also known by its French acronym UDF (Union pour la Démocratie Française), is a French centrist political party. ... Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer, France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party. ... The National Front (FN, French: ) is a French Far right, nationalist [1] political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... Olivier Besancenot Olivier Besancenot (born April 18, 1974) is a French left-wing political figure. ... The Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) (LCR) is a French democratic revolutionary socialist political party. ... Philippe de Villiers in Toulouse in April 2007 Philippe de Villiers (born Viscount Philippe Le Jolis de Villiers de Saintignon on March 25, 1949) was the Mouvement pour la France nominee for the French presidential election of 2007. ... The Movement for France (French: Mouvement pour la France), or MPF, is a French conservative, traditionalist and nationalist party, founded on November 20, 1994, with a marked regional implementation in Vendée. ... Marie-George Buffet. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Dominique Voynet Dominique Voynet (born 4 November 1958 in Montbéliard, Doubs département, France) is a French senator for the département of Seine-Saint-Denis, and a member of the The Greens. ... Les Verts (or The Greens) are an ecologist political party to the left of the political spectrum in France. ... Arlette Laguiller (born March 18, 1940) is the spokeswoman and by far the best known leader of the Lutte Ouvrière French Trotskyist political party. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anti-globalization. ... Frédéric Nihous during the 2007 presidential campaign Frédéric Nihous (born August 15, 1967) is a French politician from the Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Traditions party. ... CPNT symbol Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Tradition (French: Chasse, Pêche, Nature, Traditions) is a French political party of the right, which aims to defend the traditional values of rural France. ... Gérard Schivardi Gérard Schivardi (born April 17, 1950) is a French politician. ... The Party of the Workers (Parti des Travailleurs or PT), is a French Trotskyist party. ...

Former Presidents

As of 2008 there were two living former Presidents:

According to French law, Former Presidents have guaranteed lifetime pension, security detail[citation needed] and, according to the French Constitution (Article 56), membership on the Constitutional Council. Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French centre-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ...


First Ladies

Carla Bruni Tedeschi (born Turin, Italy, 23 December 1967), is an Italian supermodel, songwriter and singer. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... Bernadette Chirac, born Bernadette Chodron de Courcel (born May 18, 1933) is the wife of President Jacques Chirac of France. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... Danielle Mitterrand (born Danielle Emilienne Isabelle Gouze 29 October 1924 in Verdun) is the widow of François Mitterrand and president of the foundation France Libertés Fondation Danielle Mitterrand. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Anne-Aymone Marie Josèphe Christiane Sauvage de Brantès (b. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French centre-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... Claude Pompidou (13 November 1912 – 3 July 2007) was the wife of President of France Georges Pompidou, a philanthropist and as a patron of modern art especially through the Centre Georges Pompidou. ... Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. ... Yvonne de Gaulle was the wife of Charles De Gaulle. ... This article is about the person. ... French statesman René Coty René-Jules-Gustave Coty (March 20, 1882 - November 22, 1962) was President of France from 1954 to 1959. ... Jules-Vincent Auriol (August 27, 1884 – January 1, 1966) was a French politician who served as the first President of the Fourth Republic from 1947 to 1954. ... Paul Eugène Louis Deschanel (February 13, 1855 - April 28, 1922) was a French statesman. ... Painting of French statesman Émile Loubet by Fernand-Anne Piestre Émile François Loubet (December 30, 1838 - December 20, 1929) was a French politician, 7th president of the French republic. ... Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Perier (8 November 1847 - 11 March 1907) was a French politician, fifth president of the French Third Republic. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ...

Age upon entering office

  1. Vincent Auriol, 63
  2. Rene Coty, 71
  3. Charles de Gaulle, 68
  4. Georges Pompidou, 57
  5. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, 48
  6. François Mitterrand, 64
  7. Jacques Chirac, 62
  8. Nicolas Sarkozy, 52

Jules-Vincent Auriol (August 27, 1884 – January 1, 1966) was a French politician who served as the first President of the Fourth Republic from 1947 to 1954. ... Categories: Stub | 1882 births | 1962 deaths | Presidents of France ... This article is about the person. ... Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French centre-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ...

Presidents time in office

Longest served (twice elected)

  1. François Mitterrand: 14 years (two full seven-year terms, longest serving President in history)
  2. Jacques Chirac: 12 years (two full terms, but second five-years, not seven as first)
  3. Charles de Gaulle: 10 years (resigned in middle of second term)
  4. Jules Grévy: 8 years (elected twice, but resigned early during second)
  5. Albert Lebrun: 8 years (elected twice, but deposed in early second term by new Vichy Regime)

  IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... This article is about the person. ... François Paul Jules Grévy (August 15, 1813 - September 9, 1891) was a President of the French Third Republic. ... Albert Lebrun (August 29, 1871 - March 6, 1950) was a French politician, President of France from 1932 to 1940, and as such was the last president of the Third Republic. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ...

Served one full term (seven years)

  1. Emile Loubet
  2. Armand Fallières
  3. Raymond Poincaré
  4. Gaston Doumergue
  5. Vincent Auriol
  6. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing

Painting of French statesman Émile Loubet by Fernand-Anne Piestre Émile François Loubet (December 30, 1838 - December 20, 1929) was a French politician, 7th president of the French republic. ... Clément Armand Fallières (November 6, 1841 – June 22, 1931) was a French politician, president of the French republic from 1906 to 1913. ... Raymond Poincaré (August 20, 1860 – October 15, 1934) was a French conservative statesman who served as Prime Minister of France on five separate occasions and as President of France from 1913 to 1920. ... Pierre-Paul-Henri-Gaston Doumergue (Aigues-Vives, Gard, August 1, 1863 – June 18, 1937 in Aigues-Vives) was a French politician of the Third Republic. ... Jules-Vincent Auriol (August 27, 1884 – January 1, 1966) was a French politician who served as the first President of the Fourth Republic from 1947 to 1954. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French centre-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ...

Served less than one full term

  1. Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (became an Emperor 1852)
  2. Adolphe Thiers (resigned 1873)
  3. Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta (resigned 1879)
  4. Sadi Carnot (assassinated by Italian anarchist named Sante Jeronimo Caserio 1894)
  5. Jean Casimir-Perier (resigned 1895)
  6. Félix Faure (died in office 1899)
  7. Paul Deschanel (resigned 1920)
  8. Alexandre Millerand (resigned 1924)
  9. Paul Doumer (assassinated by Russian immigrant 1932)
  10. René Coty (term shortened because of constitution change and call for new election)
  11. Georges Pompidou (died in office 1974)

Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta, Marshal of France (13 July 1808 - 16 October 1893) was a Frenchman of Irish descent. ... For the French physicist and uncle of Marie François, see Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot. ... Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Perier (8 November 1847 - 11 March 1907) was a French politician, fifth president of the French Third Republic. ... Félix Faure (30 January 1841–16 February 1899) was President of France from 1895 until his death. ... Paul Eugène Louis Deschanel (February 13, 1855 - April 28, 1922) was a French statesman. ... Alexandre Millerand (February 10, 1859 - April 7, 1943) was a French socialist politician. ... French statesman Paul Doumer Paul Doumer (March 22, 1857 – May 7, 1932) was the President of France from June 13, 1931 to his death. ... French statesman René Coty René-Jules-Gustave Coty (March 20, 1882 - November 22, 1962) was President of France from 1954 to 1959. ... Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. ...

Interim President

  1. Alain Poher (served nearly two months in 1969 and about one month in 1974)

Alain Poher (17 April 1909 - 9 December 1996) was a French politician. ...

Non-Presidential Heads of State

  1. Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure, Chairman of the Provisional Government and de facto head of state in 1848 : served less than three months
  2. Executive Commission : joint head of state with five co-presidents in 1848 : served less than two months. François Arago was its most prominent member.
  3. Louis-Eugène Cavaignac, head of government and de facto head of state in 1848 : served about six months
  4. Louis Jules Trochu, President of the Government of National Defense and de facto head of state (served 4 months, September 1870 to January 1871)
  5. Philippe Pétain, Chief of State of Vichy France: served four years
  6. Charles de Gaulle, President of the Provisional Government: served over one and a half years
  7. Félix Gouin, President of the Provisional Government: served five months
  8. Georges Bidault, President of the Provisional Government: served five months
  9. Vincent Auriol, President of the Provisional Government: served less than a month
  10. Léon Blum, President of the Provisional Government: served one month

Jacques-Charles Dupont de lEure, French statesman Jacques-Charles Dupont de lEure (February 27, 1767 - 1855) was a French lawyer and statesman. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Executive Commission of the French Republic was a short-lived body and jointly head of state of France during the Second Republic. ... François Jean Dominique Arago (Catalan: Francesc Joan Dominic Aragó; February 26, 1786 – October 2, 1853) was a French mathematician, physicist, astronomer and politician. ... French general and statesman Louis Eugène Cavaignac Louis Eugène Cavaignac (October 15, 1802 - October 28, 1857), French general, second son of Jean Baptiste Cavaignac and brother of Eleonore Louis Godefroi Cavaignac, was born at Paris. ... French general Jules Trochu Louis Jules Trochu (March 12, 1815 - October 7, 1896) was a French military leader. ... La Gouvernement de la Défense Nationale, or The Government of National Defence, was the official Government of the Third Republic of France from September 4th 1870 to February 13th 1871. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... This article is about the person. ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... Félix Gouin (October 4, 1884 - October 25, 1977) was a French Socialist politician. ... Georges Bidault, French statesman Georges-Augustin Bidault (October 5, 1899 – January 27, 1983) was a French politician and active in the French Resistance and Organisation de lArmée Secrète (OAS). ... Jules-Vincent Auriol (August 27, 1884 – January 1, 1966) was a French politician who served as the first President of the Fourth Republic from 1947 to 1954. ... Léon Blum Léon Blum (9 April 1872 - 30 March 1950), was the Prime Minister of France three times: from 1936 to 1937, for one month in 1938, and from December 1946 to January 1947. ...

History

Under the Third and Fourth Republic, which were parliamentary systems, the office of President of the Republic was a largely ceremonial and powerless one. Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...


The constitution of the Fifth Republic greatly increased the President's powers. A 1962 referendum changed the constitution, so that the President would be directly elected by universal suffrage and not by the parliament. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


In 2000, a referendum shortened the presidential term from seven years to five years. Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


See also

// Jacques Charles Dupont de lEure (24 February 1848 - 9 May 1848) Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez (9 May 1848 - 10 May 1848) Dominique François Jean Arago (11 May 1848 - 24 June 1848) Antonie Marie Jules Sénard (24 June 1848 - 28 June 1848) Louis Eugène Cavaignac (28 June... French Presidential elections under the Third Republic involved the election of the President of France by the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/04/23/europe/23constitution.php
  2. ^ Law 62-1292 of November 6, 1962, article 4
  3. ^ Decree 2001-213 of November 8, 2001, article 6
  4. ^ Dépenses de campagne: énorme ardoise pour LO, la LCR s'en tire sans déficit, Metro France, 24 April 2007 (French)

External links

  • Web page of the President
  • birthplaces of French Presidents
Metro International is a Swedish media company based in Luxembourg that publishes the Metro newspapers. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into European Union. ... Heinz Fischer (born 9 October 1938) is the federal president of Austria. ... The Leopoldine Wing of Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna: home to the offices of the Federal President. ... Albert II, King of the Belgians (Albert Félix Humbert Théodore Chrétien Eugène Marie), (born June 6, 1934), is the current King of the Belgians and a constitutional monarch. ... Successive Belgian kings are Regents 1830-1831: Erasme Louis Surlet de Chokier 1944-1950: Charles, Count of Flanders None of these were King of Belgium: their title is King of the Belgians. ... Georgi Sedefchov Parvanov (Bulgarian: ) (born 28 June 1957) has been president of Bulgaria since 22 January 2002. ... This page will list the various republican heads of state of Bulgaria, as well as leaders of Bulgarias communist party during the time when it played the leading role in the Bulgarian state. ... Dimitris Christofias (Greek: Δημήτρης Χριστόφιας) is a chubby Cypriot politician who is the General Secretary of AKEL and the President of the House of Representatives (Cypriot Parliament). ... The President of Cyprus is the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Cyprus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of presidents of the Czech Republic. ... 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László Sólyom, President of Hungary László Sólyom (pronounced ) born on January 3, 1942 is the President of Hungary, having overcome the Hungarian Socialist Party nominee Katalin Szili in the election on June 7, 2005. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current President of Ireland. ... The President of Ireland (Irish: ) is the head of state of Ireland. ... Giorgio Napolitano (born June 29, 1925), is an Italian politician and former lifetime senator, the eleventh and current President of the Italian Republic. ... The President of the Italian Republic is the head of State of Italy, and represents national unity. ... Valdis Zatlers (born March 22, 1955) is president-elect of Latvia. ... President Valdas Adamkus Valdas Adamkus (born Valdemaras Adamkevičius on November 3, 1926) is the current President of the Republic of Lithuania. ... Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (given names: Henri Albert Gabriel Félix Marie Guillaume; born at Betzdorf Castle in Luxembourg, 16 April 1955) is the head of state of Luxembourg. ... Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy whose Head of State is the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (or Grand Duchess of Luxembourg in the exceptional but twice occurred event of the sovereign being female). ... Edward Fenech Adami (Dwardu Fenech Adami, born February 7, 1934, Birkirkara) was the Prime Minister of Malta from 1987 until 1996 and from 1998 until 2004. ... The office of the President of Malta (Maltese: ), came into being on 13 December 1974, when Malta became a Commonwealth republic. ... Beatrix (born January 31, 1938 as Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, Princess of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld) has been the Queen regnant of the Kingdom of the Netherlands since April 30, 1980. ... The Netherlands has been an independent monarchy since 16 March 1815, and has been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since. ...  , IPA: [] (born June 18, 1949) is the President of the Republic of Poland and a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS.) KaczyÅ„ski served as President of Warsaw from 2002 until December 22, 2005, the day before his presidential inauguration. ... Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is directly elected by the people to serve a term of five years. ... Aníbal António Cavaco Silva (pron. ... Categories: Lists of office-holders | Portugal | Presidents of Portugal ... Traian Băsescu (born November 4, 1951) is a Romanian politician and former Merchant Navy officer. ... The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania. ... 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For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... List of Presidents of Albania Ahmet Zogu (1925-1928) Ramiz Alia (1991-1992) Sali Berisha (1992-1997) Rexhep Meidani (1997-2002) Alfred Moisiu (2002-Present) See also Albania Kings of Albania Prime Ministers of Albania Princes of Albania External links Presidency of Albania (official site) Categories: Lists of office-holders... Flag of the President of the Czech Republic This is a list of presidents of the Czech Republic. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... List of Presidents of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev (1990 - present) See also Politics of Kazakhstan Categories: Stub | Kazakhstan ... The President of the Republic of Kosovo (Albanian: or Serbian: ) is Head of State of the Republic of Kosovo. ... See also: Lists of office-holders Categories: Lists of office-holders | Latvia | Presidents of Latvia ... Early Lithuania The Grand Duchy of Lithuania Title: Kunigaikštis or Didysis Kunigaikštis (The Great Duke in Lithuanian) Mindaugas, 1238-1263 also crowned as a King Treniota, 1263-1264 Vaišvilkas (Vaišelga, Vaishyalga, Vaišalgas), 1264-1267 Švarnas (Svarnas, Shvarno), 1267-1269 Traidenis, 1269-1281 Daumantas, 1281-1285 Butigeidis, 1285-1291 Butvydas, 1291... The President of Montenegro is the head of state of the Republic of Montenegro. ... The Netherlands have been an independent monarchy since March 16, 1815, and have been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... Presidential Standard of Serbia The President of Serbia is the head of state of the Republic of Serbia. ... This is a list of the Presidents of Slovakia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Janez JanÅ¡a (born September 17, 1958 as Ivan JanÅ¡a) in Ljubljana is a Slovenian politician and head of the Slovenian Democratic Party since 1995. ... There have been five prime ministers of Slovenia since that country gained its independence in the breakup of Yugoslavia. ... Alfred Gusenbauer (born February 8, 1960) has been the leader of the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) since 2000. ... The Chancellor of Austria (in German: Bundeskanzler) is the head of government in Austria. ... Yves Camille Désiré Leterme (born October 6, 1960 in Wervik, Belgium) is a Belgian Senator, a former Minister-President of Flanders and Flemish Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Belgium, known regionally as: Premier Ministre in French, Eerste Minister in Dutch, and Premierminister in German. ... Sergey Dmitrievich Stanishev (Bulgarian: Сергей Станишев) (born May 5, 1966), Bulgarian politician, is Chairman of the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP). ... Chairmen of the Council of Ministers, 1879-1991 Prime Ministers, 1991-present See also History of Bulgaria Politics of Bulgaria List of Bulgarian monarchs List of Presidents of Bulgaria Categories: Lists of office-holders | Prime Ministers of Bulgaria ... Mirek Topolánek (pronounced ) (born May 15, 1956 in Vsetín, Czechoslovakia, now Czech Republic) is the current prime minister of Czech Republic, from Civic Democratic Party. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic, including the period when the republics territory was part of federative Czechoslovakia. ... Dimitris Christofias (Greek: Δημήτρης Χριστόφιας) is a chubby Cypriot politician who is the General Secretary of AKEL and the President of the House of Representatives (Cypriot Parliament). ... The President of Cyprus is the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Cyprus. ...   (IPA: ) (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Anders Fogh Rasmussen , also: (born January 26, 1953) is the current Prime Minister of Denmark (in Danish Statsminister, meaning Minister of State). ... This is a list over the heads of government in Denmark, from the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in 1849 until present. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi Peaminister) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia. ... Matti Taneli Vanhanen ( ) (born November 4, 1955, in Jyväskylä) is the current Prime Minister of Finland, as well as Chairman of the Centre Party. ... The Prime Minister (Finnish Pääministeri, Swedish: Statsminister) is the head of government in Finland. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... This article is about the Greek Prime Minister whose term began in 2004. ... Note on Greek names: There is no firm convention for the rendering of Greek personal names into English. ...   (pronounced []; born in Pápa, June 4, 1961) is the Prime Minister of Hungary. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Hungary: Prime Ministers of Hungary, 1848-1849 Count Lajos Batthyány: 17 March - 2 October 1848 Baron Ádám Récsey: 3 October - 26 November 1848 Lajos Kossuth: 26 November 1848 - 11 August 1849 Bertalan Szemere: 11 August - 13 August 1849 Prime Ministers of Hungary... Brian Cowen (Irish: Brian Ó Comhain, born 10 January 1960) is the 11th Taoiseach of Ireland. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ...   (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, media proprietor, and Prime Minister of Italy (President of the Council of Ministers of Italy), a position he has held three times; 1994-1995, 2001-2006 and since 2008. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government. ... Ivars Godmanis (born November 27, 1951) is a Latvian economist and politician, best known as the first prime minister of Latvia after the country restored its independence from the Soviet Union. ... The Prime Minister of Latvia is the most powerful member of the Latvian government, and presides over the Latvian cabinet. ... Gediminas Kirkilas ( (help· info), b. ... Jean-Claude Juncker Jean-Claude Juncker (born December 9, 1954) is the Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Luxembourg, and until July 1, 2005, was president of the European Council, a position he also previously held in 1997. ... The head of government in Luxembourg is known as the President of the Government. ... Lawrence Gonzi (born July 1, 1953) is the Prime Minister and finance minister of Malta. ... The Prime Minister of Malta is the most powerful figure within the government of Malta, although the President of Malta has a higher rank. ... Jan Peter Balkenende (pronounced IPA:  ) (born May 7, 1956) has been the Prime Minister of the Netherlands since July 22, 2002. ... The prime minister of the Netherlands is the head of the cabinet, and, as such, coordinates the policy of the government. ... Donald Franciszek Tusk (IPA: [], born 22 April 1957, GdaÅ„sk) is a liberal Polish politician, co-founder and chairman of the Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska), and the Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland. ... The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service... José Sócrates de Carvalho Pinto de Sousa, GCIH (pron. ... José Sócrates, the current Prime Minister of Portugal. ... Călin-Constantin-Anton Popescu-Tăriceanu () (born January 14, 1952) is a Romanian politician who has been the Prime Minister of Romania since December 28, 2004. ... Categories: Lists of office-holders | Romanian history | Romanian Prime Ministers ... Robert Fico (15 September 1964 in Topoľčany) is the current Prime Minister of Slovakia (since July 4, 2006). ... // Vavro Å robár (4 November 1918 – 14 November 1918) – ceased with the adoption of the Czechoslovak constitution Antonín JanouÅ¡ek (20 June 1919 – 7 July 1919) Ján Drobný (1 July 1928 - 1929) Jozef Országh (1929 - 1938) Julián Å imko (1938 - 1939) Jozef Tiso (7 October 1938 – 9...   (IPA: ) (born 4 August 1960), better known under his second surname Zapatero, is the Prime Minister of Spain. ... The President of the Government of Spain (realy in Spanish: Presidente del Gobierno), sometimes known in English as the Prime Minister of Spain, is the Spanish head of government. ... John Fredrik Reinfeldt (IPA: ) (born 4 August 1965, in Österhaninge) is the current Prime Minister of Sweden and leader of the liberal conservative Moderate Party (Swedish: ). A native of Stockholm County, Reinfeldt joined the Moderate Youth League in 1983, and by 1992 had risen to the rank of chairman, a... The Prime Minister (Swedish: , literally Minister of State) is the head of government in Sweden. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced  ) (born in Porto, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese person to hold the post. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ...

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France participates actively in the Proliferation Security Initiative, and is engaged with the U.S., both bilaterally and at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), to curb nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) proliferation from the D.P.R.K., Iran, Libya, and elsewhere.
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