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Encyclopedia > President of Dáil Éireann

The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. Known variously as the Príomh Aire (literally "prime minister") and President of Dáil Éireann. The latter version was preferred by the second holder, Eamon de Valera during his visit to the United States (1920-21). The office was not explicitly one of head of state, merely head of government, but was de facto the highest office in the Republic.1 Only in August 1921 did a constitutional amendment passed by Dáil Éireann introduce the title President of the Republic. The Constitution of Dáil Éireann ( Irish: Bunreacht Dála Éireann), more commonly known as the Dáil Constitution, was a short, provisional constitution adopted by the First Dáil in January 1919. ... The First Dáil (Irish: An Chéad Dáil) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921. ... The Irish Republic (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann), also known as the Republic of Ireland, was a revolutionary state established by Irish nationalists seeking secession from the United Kingdom (UK) in the 1910s, with the aim of supplanting the UK government. ... Eamon de Valera1 (born Edward George de Valera, Irish name Éamonn de Bhailéara) (October 14, 1882 - August 29, 1975), was a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from Britain in the early 20th Century, and of the Republican opposition in the ensuing Irish Civil War, and was subsequently... Dáil Éireann is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland1. ... This article is about the president of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic Republic of Ireland see: President of Ireland. ...


The constitutional structures of the Irish Republic continued in existence, answerable to Dáil Éireann following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, alongside a Provisional Government selected by the House of Commons of Southern Ireland (elected in 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920) and appointed by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. In reality, the House of Commons of Southern Ireland had an identical membership to the Second Dáil (except for four Unionist members who refused to attend the Dáil) and the memberships of both governments were made up of largely the same personnel, with the Republic's Minister for Finance, Michael Collins, serving as head of the Provisional Government. Both the Republican and Provisional Governments merged into one under the leadership of W.T. Cosgrave in August 1921, as did both their parliaments, following a new general election which produced a body variously described as the 'Third Dáil', the 'Constituent Assembly' and the 'Provisional Parliament'. All previous administrations and regimes disappeared in law with the appearance of the Irish Free State and its new parliament, the Oireachtas, made up of the King, Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann. Dáil Éireann is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland1. ... Signature page of the Anglo_Irish Treaty The Anglo_Irish Treaty was a treaty between the British government and the Irish Republic which brought the Anglo-Irish War to an end and established the Irish Free State. ... This article is about the pre-Free State Provisional Government. ... House of Commons of Southern Ireland was the lower house of the Irish parliament created by the Government of Ireland Act, passed in 1920, during the Irish War of Independence. ... Southern Ireland was the twenty-six county Irish state created in the Government of Ireland Act 1920. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (also known as the Viceroy or in the Middle Ages as the Lord Deputy) was the head of Englands (pre-1707) or Britains (post 1707) administration in Ireland. ... Michael Collins (October 16, 1890 – August 22, 1922), an Irish revolutionary leader, served as Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, as a member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, as Chairman of the Provisional Government and as Commander-in-Chief of the National Army. ... William Thomas Cosgrave, (June 6, 1880 - November 16, 1965) served as the first President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1932. ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and Irish... This article is about the historical Seanad Éireann of the Irish Free State. ...


The Office Holders were:

Table of contents

Príomh Aire/President of Dáil Éireann (1919-1921)

Charles William St John Burgess (Cathal Brugha) (18 July 1874-7 July 1922) was an Irish revolutionary, born in Dublin, who was active in the Easter Rising and the Irish Civil War. ... Eamon de Valera1 (born Edward George de Valera, Irish name Éamonn de Bhailéara) (October 14, 1882 - August 29, 1975), was a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from Britain in the early 20th Century, and of the Republican opposition in the ensuing Irish Civil War, and was subsequently...

President of the Republic (1921-1922)

Eamon de Valera1 (born Edward George de Valera, Irish name Éamonn de Bhailéara) (October 14, 1882 - August 29, 1975), was a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from Britain in the early 20th Century, and of the Republican opposition in the ensuing Irish Civil War, and was subsequently...

Príomh Aire/President of Dáil Éireann (1922)

Arthur Griffith (Árt Ó Gríobhtha in Irish) (31 March 1871 - 12 August 1922) was the founder and first leader of Sinn Féin. ... William Thomas Cosgrave, (June 6, 1880 - November 16, 1965) served as the first President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1932. ...

Footnotes

1 Sinn Féin was badly divided between old pre-1917 Sinn Féin members under former leader Arthur Griffith, who were dual monarchists, and new post-1917 Sinn Féin members under new leader Eamon de Valera, who were republicans. A compromise at the 1917 Árd Fheis allowed the creation of a temporary republic, pending a decision by the nation as to whether it wanted a longterm republic or a monarchy. Created a presidency of the Republic in 1919 risked re-opening the divisions, so a premiership was created without any headship of state. By August 1921, support for a monarchy had declined and the creation of a headship of state was backed, enthusiastically by some, with resignation by others, largely because it was demanded by de Valera as part of his pre-Treaty negotiation, to create the impression that the negotiation was between two sovereign states with delegates accredited by their respective heads of state, the British king and the Irish president.


2Following de Valera's resignation as President of the Republic in January 1922, Arthur Griffith was elected to replace him. Griffith chose to call himself 'President of Dáil Éireann' but never changed the title in the constitution.


3Following the deaths in rapid succession of President Griffith and the head of the Provisional Government, Michael Collins, W.T. Cosgrave assumed both titles, making him for a few months simultaneously a Crown-appointed prime minister & a president of the Republic. Michael Collins (October 16, 1890 – August 22, 1922), an Irish revolutionary leader, served as Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, as a member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, as Chairman of the Provisional Government and as Commander-in-Chief of the National Army. ... William Thomas Cosgrave, (June 6, 1880 - November 16, 1965) served as the first President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1932. ...


See also

Preceded by:
No equivalent office The Ceann Comhairle is the chairperson or speaker of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the parliament (Oireachtas) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Dáil Éireann is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland1. ...

Irish Prime Ministerial Offices

Succeeded by:
President of the Republic This article is about the president of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic Republic of Ireland see: President of Ireland. ...

Preceded by:
President of the Republic

Irish Prime Ministerial Offices This article is about the president of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic Republic of Ireland see: President of Ireland. ...

Succeeded by:
President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the title of the prime minister in the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922-37. ...


 
 

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