The President of Croatia is the head of state. Croatia is a parliamentary democracy where the President's main role is leading the armed forces and diplomacy together with the Government, in addition to a number of procedural duties of this eminent public office.
Authority and jurisdiction
The President of the Republic of Croatia:
- represents and stands for the Republic of Croatia at home and abroad
- takes care of regular and harmonised functioning and stability of the state government
- is responsible for the defence of independence and territorial integrity of the Republic of Croatia
- takes a solemn oath before the President of the Constitutional Court swearing loyalty to the Constitution
- calls elections for the Croatian Parliament and convenes their first session
- calls referenda, in conformity with the Constitution
- confides the mandate to form the Government to the person who, upon the distribution of the seats in the Croatian Parliament and consultations held, enjoys confidence of the majority of its members
- grants pardons
- confers decorations and other awards specified by law
- cooperates with the Government in formulation and execution of the foreign policy
- decides on the establishment of diplomatic missions and consular offices of the Republic of Croatia abroad, at the Government's proposal and with the counter-signature of the Prime Minister
- appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of the Republic of Croatia, with the prior counter-signature of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Croatia, at the proposal the Government and upon the opinion of the authorised committee of the Croatian Parliament
- receives letters of credence and the letters of recall from foreign diplomatic representatives
- appoints and relieves of duty military commanders
- may declare war and conclude peace, on the basis of the decision of the Croatian Parliament
- may with the counter signature of the Prime Minister, order the employment of the armed forces even if the state of war has not been declared, in case of an immediate threat to the independence, unity and existence of the State
- may issue decrees with the force of law on the grounds and within the authority obtained from the Croatian Parliament. If the Croatian Parliament is not in session, the President of the Republic is authorized to regulate all the issues required by the state of war by decrees with the force of law
- issues decrees with the force of law, at the proposal of the Prime Minister and with his counter-signature, in case of an immediate threat to the independence, unity and existence of the State, or if the governmental bodies are prevented from performing their constitutional duties regularly
- may call a session of the Government and preside over such a session, during the state of war or in case of an immediate threat to the independence, unity and existence of the State
- may propose to the Government to hold a session and consider certain issues
- may be present at the meeting of the Government and take part in deliberations
- cooperates in directing the operations of the security services with the Government
- dissolves the Croatian Parliament if the Parliament has passed a vote of no confidence to the Government, or if it has failed to approve the state budget within 120 days from the date when it was proposed, at the proposal of the Government and with the counter-signature of the Prime Minister, after consultations with the representatives of the clubs of parliamentary parties
- may restrict individual freedoms and rights guaranteed by the Constitution during a state of war or an immediate threat to the independence and unity of the State or in the event of severe natural disasters, if the Croatian Parliament is unable to meet, at the proposal of the Government and upon the counter-signature of the Prime Minister
- convenes emergency sessions of the Croatian Parliament
- may call a referendum on a proposal for the amendment of the Constitution or any other issue which he considers to be important for the independence, unity and existence of the Republic of Croatia, at the proposal of the Government and with the counter-signature of the Prime Minister
- promulgates laws within 8 days from the date when they were passed in the Croatian Parliament.
- may initiate proceedings to review the constitutionality of the law before the Constitutional Court, if he considers the promulgated law is not in accordance with the Constitution
List of Presidents
The office of President of the Republic was declared after ammending the Constitution of Socialist Republic of Croatia (then member of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) in summer 1990. That happened immediately after the first democratic multi-party elections, transforming the Presidency of SR Croatia. President of the Presidency of SR Croatia Franjo Tuđman was declared President of the Republic of Croatia, according to the Ammendments.
New Constitution of Croatia was passed on December 22, 1990.
1992 Presidential elections won by Tuđman.
1997 Presidential elections won by Tuđman.
President Tuđman dies at the end of 1999. According to the Constitution, President of the Parliament Vlatko Pavletić was acting president. After parliamentary elections in January 2000 new acting president was newly elected president of the Parliament Zlatko Tomčić.
2000 Presidential elections won by Mesić.
Current President of the Republic of Croatia is Stjepan Mesić. He is serving his 5-year mandate until February 2005.
2005 Presidential elections won by Mesić.