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Encyclopedia > President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt

26th President of the United States
In office
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
Vice President(s)   None (1901–1905)
Charles Warren Fairbanks (1905–1909)
Preceded by William McKinley
Succeeded by William Howard Taft
25th Vice President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1901 – September 14, 1901
President William McKinley
Preceded by Garret Hobart
Succeeded by Charles W. Fairbanks
Born October 27, 1858
New York City, New York, in Gramercy, Manhattan
Died January 6, 1919
Oyster Bay, New York
Political party

Republican Party; Bull Moose Party(Progressive Party) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1320, 129 KB) Photograph of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852–June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty_sixth Vice President of the United States. ... William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th President of the United States. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, the 10th Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early twentieth century, a chaired professor at Yale Law... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th President of the United States. ... Garret Augustus Hobart (June 3, 1844–November 21, 1899) was the twenty-fourth Vice President of the United States. ... Charles W. Fairbanks Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York redirects here. ... Gramercy, also called Gramercy Park, is a neighborhood in Manhattan, New York City, focused around Gramercy Park, a private park between East 20th and 21st Streets. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Oyster Bay is the name of a hamlet on the North Shore of Long Island in Nassau County in the state of New York, USA. The hamlet is also the site of a station on the Long Island Rail Road and the eastern termination point of that branch of the... The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ...

Spouse 1st:Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt;
2nd:Edith Carow Roosevelt
Religion Dutch Reformed
Signature

Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. (October 27, 1858January 6, 1919), also known as T.R. and to the public as Teddy, was the 26th President of the United States. Roosevelt, pronounced ROSE-eh-velt, is most famous for his personality — he dominated a generation by his energy, his vast range of interests and achievements, and his model of masculinity — the famous “cowboy” persona. At age 42, he became President after the assassination of President William McKinley. Roosevelt was a Progressive reformer who sought to move the Republican Party into the Progressive camp. He distrusted wealthy businessmen and as a "trust buster" broke up numerous large corporations. His "Square Deal" promised a fair shake for the average citizen, including regulation of railroad rates and pure foods and drugs. As an outdoorsman he promoted the conservation movement, emphasizing efficient use of natural resources. After he started attacking the courts as biased against labor unions, he broke with his friend and anointed successor William Howard Taft and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party candidate in 1912 on the Bull Moose ticket. Alice Hathaway Lee was only seventeen when she first met Theodore Roosevelt on Oct 18, 1878 Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt (July 29, 1861 in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts – February 14, 1884 in Manhattan, New York) was the first wife of Theodore Roosevelt and the mother of their only child together, Alice... White House portrait Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt (August 6, 1861 – September 30, 1948), second wife of Theodore Roosevelt, was First Lady of the United States from 1901 to 1909. ... The Dutch Reformed Church or Netherlands Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk (NHK)) is a denomination of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin. ... Image File history File links Theodore_Roosevelt_signature. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th President of the United States. ... The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... The Square Deal was the term used by President Theodore Roosevelt and his associates for the policies of his administration, particularly with regard to how economic policies, such as antitrust enforcement. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, the 10th Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early twentieth century, a chaired professor at Yale Law... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the 1912 election. ...


As Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Navy he prepared for and advocated war with Spain in 1898. He organized and helped command the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, the "Rough Riders", during the Spanish-American War. Returning to New York as a war hero he was elected Republican governor in 1898. He was a professional historian, naturalist and explorer of the Amazon Basin; his 35 books, listed online [1], include works on outdoor life, natural history, U.S. Western and political history, Naval Battles of the War of 1812 , and his autobiography. USN redirects here. ... Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 The Rough Riders was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba First Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 379 U.S. dead; considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War took place... Amazonian redirects here, for other uses see Amazonian (disambiguation) The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ...


Roosevelt understood the strategic significance of the Panama Canal, and negotiated for the U.S. to take control of its construction in 1904. It was completed in 1914, after he left office. He felt that the Canal's completion was his most important and historically significant international achievement. He was the first American to be awarded the Nobel Prize, winning its Peace Prize in 1906, for negotiating peace between Russia and Japan. A canal tug, making its way down to the Caribbean end of the canal, waits to be joined by a ship in the uppermost chamber of the Gatun Locks. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


The dominant personality of the era, he helped redefine masculinity. He preached and lived the "strenuous life," ridiculing the sedentary life of luxury and attempting the most strenuous and dangerous feats--which finally cost his life. Historian Thomas Bailey, who disagreed with Roosevelt's policies, nevertheless concluded, "Roosevelt was a great personality, a great activist, a great preacher of the moralities, a great controversialist, a great showman. He dominated his era as he dominated conversations....the masses loved him; he proved to be a great popular idol and a great vote getter."[1] His image stands alongside Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln on the Mount Rushmore monument. Surveys of scholars have consistently ranked him from #3 to #7 on the list of greatest American presidents. On June 26, 2006, Roosevelt, once again, made the cover of Time Magazine with the lead story, "The Making of Modern America - The 20th Century Express": "At home and abroad, Theodore Roosevelt was the locomotive President, the man who drew his flourishing nation into the future."[2] Mount Rushmore National Memorial, near Keystone, South Dakota, is a United States Presidential Memorial that represents the first 150 years of the history of the United States of America with the 60-foot (18 m) sculptures of former U.S. Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln. ... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and President Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore Many surveys have been conducted in order to construct rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States. ...

Contents

Childhood and education

Theodore Roosevelt in Paris in 1870, age 11 where he suffered a severe attack of asthma, Despite this life-long affliction, Roosevelt became known for leading what he called the "strenuous life."
Theodore Roosevelt in Paris in 1870, age 11 where he suffered a severe attack of asthma, Despite this life-long affliction, Roosevelt became known for leading what he called the "strenuous life."

Roosevelt was born at 28 East 20th Street in the modern-day Gramercy section of New York City on October 27, 1858, the second of four children of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. (1831–1878) and Martha Bulloch (1834–1884). He had an elder sister Anna, nicknamed "Bamie" as a child and "Bye," as an adult for being always on the go; and two younger siblings—his brother Elliott (the father of Eleanor Roosevelt), and his sister Corinne. The Roosevelts had been in New York since the mid 17th century and had grown with the emerging New York commerce class after the American Revolution. Until the birth of the Republican Party, just before the Civil War, the family was strongly Democratic in its political outlook. By the 18th Century, the family had grown in wealth, power and influence from the profits of several businesses including hardware and plate-glass importing. Theodore's father, known in the family as "Thee," was a New York City philanthropist, merchant, and partner in the family glass-importing firm Roosevelt and Son. Martha Bulloch was a Southern belle from a slave-owning family in Savannah, Georgia and had Confederate sympathies. On his mother's side, Theodore's uncle, James Dunwoody Bulloch, "Uncle Jimmy," was a 14 year U.S. Navy officer turned secret Confederate naval procurement agent in England. James' brother Irvine Bulloch was the youngest officer on the Confederate raider, CSS Alabama and both had been exiled to Liverpool, England after the war. During the Civil War, Martha supported her southern relatives' struggles and quietly mailed packages south. Image File history File links TR_Age_11_Paris. ... Image File history File links TR_Age_11_Paris. ... Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site is a unit of the National Park Service at 28 E. 20th Street in New York, New York. ... Gramercy, also called Gramercy Park, is a neighborhood in Manhattan, New York City, focused around Gramercy Park, a private park between East 20th and 21st Streets. ... Nickname: Big Apple Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. ... Martha Bulloch age 22 - Was She the inspiration for the Scarlett OHara character? Martha Bulloch Roosevelt (July 8, 1835 – February 14, 1884) was the mother of US President Theodore Roosevelt and the paternal grandmother of Eleanor Roosevelt. ... Anna Bamie Roosevelt Cowles in 1882 Anna Bamie Roosevelt Cowles (January 18, 1855 – August 25, 1931) was the older sister of United States President Theodore Roosevelt. ... Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (February 28, 1860- August 14, 1894) was the brother of US President Theodore Roosevelt and the father of Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, who would marry her Hyde Park Roosevelt cousin and future US President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her stature as First Lady of the United States, 1933-1945 to promote her husbands (Franklin D. Roosevelts) New Deal, as well as Civil Rights. ... Corinne Roosevelt Robinson (September 27, 1861- February 17, 1933) was the younger sister of former President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt and an aunt of former First Lady of the United States, Eleanor Roosevelt. ... The American Revolution was a political movement that ended British control of the south-eastern coastal area of North America, resulting in the formation of the United States of America in 1776 and sparking the American Revolutionary War. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (April 3–April 10, 1865) Largest city New Orleans... James Bulloch was a Confederate Naval Officer and Agent in England, while his brother Irvine Bulloch was the youngest officer on the CSS Alabama during the American Civil War. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq... Irvine Bulloch served on the CSS Alabama during the American Civil War and was the uncle of Theodore Roosevelt Irvine Stephens Bulloch (25 June 1842 — 7 January 1898) was born in Savannah, Georgia. ... CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead in 1862 by John Laird Sons and Company of Liverpool. ... This article is about the city in England. ...


Sickly and asthmatic as a youngster, Roosevelt had to sleep propped up in bed or slouching in a chair during much of his early childhood, and had frequent ailments. Despite his illnesses, he was a hyperactive and often mischievous young man. His lifelong interest in zoology was formed at age seven upon seeing a dead seal at a local market. After obtaining the seal's head, the young Roosevelt and two of his cousins formed what they called the "Roosevelt Museum of Natural History". Learning the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with many animals that he caught, studied, and prepared for display. At age nine, he codified his observation of insects with a paper titled "The Natural History of Insects."[3] Asthma is a disease of the respiratory system in which the airways constrict, become inflamed, and are lined with excessive amounts of mucus and semen, often in response to one or more triggers, such as exposure to an environmental stimulant (or allergen), cold air, exercise, or emotional stress. ... Zoology is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae A Pacific walrus A leopard seal on Kerguelen Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... A taxidermied bandicoot Taxidermic bird (detail) at the Lightner Museum. ...


To combat his poor physical condition, his father compelled the young Roosevelt to take up exercise. To deal with bullies, Roosevelt started boxing lessons.[4] Two trips abroad had a permanent impact: family tours of Europe in 1869 and 1870, and of the Middle East 1872 to 1873. Professional boxing bout featuring Ricardo Domínguez (left) versus Rafael Ortíz Boxing, also called Western Boxing, prizefighting (when referring to professional boxing) or the sweet science (a common nickname among fans), is a sport and martial art in which two participants of similar weight fight each other with their...


Theodore Sr. had a tremendous influence on young Theodore and was a life-long source of inspiration. Of him Roosevelt wrote, "My father, Theodore Roosevelt, was the best man I ever knew. He combined strength and courage with gentleness, tenderness, and great unselfishness. He would not tolerate in us children selfishness or cruelty, idleness, cowardice, or untruthfulness."[5] Roosevelt's sister later wrote, "He told me frequently that he never took any serious step or made any vital decision for his country without thinking first what position his father would have taken."[6] Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. ...


Young "Teedie," as he was nicknamed as a child was mostly home schooled by tutors and his parents, which was a common practice at the time. A leading biographer says: "The most obvious drawback to the home schooling Roosevelt received was uneven coverage of the various areas of human knowledge." He was solid in geography (thanks to his careful observations on all his travels) and very well read in history, strong in biology, French and German, but deficient in mathematics, Latin and Greek.[7] He matriculated at Harvard College in 1876, graduating magna cum laude. His father's death in 1878 was a tremendous blow, but Roosevelt redoubled his activities. He did well in science, philosophy and rhetoric courses but faired poorly in Latin and Greek. He studied biology with great interest and indeed was already an accomplished naturalist and published ornithologist. He had a photographic memory and developed a life-long habit of devouring books, memorizing every detail.[8] He was an unusually eloquent conversationalist who, throughout his life, sought out the company of the smartest men and women. He could multitask in extraordinary fashion, dictating letters to one secretary and memoranda to another, while browsing through a new book. As an adult, a visitor would get a not so subtle hint that Roosevelt was losing interest in the conversation when he would pick up a book and begin looking at it now and then as the conversation continued. Homeschooling (also called home education) is the education of children at home and in the community, in contrast to education in an institution such as a public or parochial school. ... Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, having been founded in 1636. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


While at Harvard, Roosevelt was active in numerous clubs, including Delta Kappa Epsilon and Alpha Delta Phi fraternities. He also edited a student magazine. He was runner-up in the Harvard boxing championship, losing to C.S. Hanks. The sportsmanship Roosevelt showed in that fight was long remembered. Upon graduating from Harvard, Roosevelt underwent a physical examination and his doctor advised him that due to serious heart problems, he should find a desk job and avoid strenuous activity. Roosevelt disregarded the advice and chose to embrace the strenuous life instead.[9] Delta Kappa Epsilon (ΔΚΕ; also pronounced D K E or Deke) is the oldest secret college mens fraternity of New England origin. ... Alpha Delta Phi (ΑΔΦ) is a Greek-letter fraternity in the United States and Canada. ...


He graduated Phi Beta Kappa and magna cum laude (22nd of 177) from Harvard in 1880 , and entered Columbia Law School. At Columbia, Roosevelt researched and wrote his first major book, "The Naval War of 1812", in 1882, which still is considered the only comprehensive history on the subject.[10] When offered a chance to run for New York Assemblyman in 1881, he dropped out of law school to pursue his new goal of entering public life.[11] The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an honor society which considers its mission to be fostering and recognizing excellence in undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ... Columbia Law School, located in New York City, is one of the professional schools of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League, and one of the leading law schools in the United States. ... The New York Legislature is the legislative branch of the U.S. state of New York, seated at the states capital, Albany. ...


Early life

Early public life

Roosevelt as NY State Assemblyman 1883, photo
Roosevelt as NY State Assemblyman 1883, photo

Roosevelt was a Republican activist during his years in the Assembly, writing more bills than any other New York state legislator. Already a major player in state politics, he attended the Republican National Convention in 1884 and fought alongside the Mugwump reformers; they lost to the Stalwart faction that nominated James G. Blaine. Refusing to join other Mugwumps in supporting Democrat Grover Cleveland, the Democratic nominee, he stayed loyal to the party and supported Blaine.[12] Image File history File links TR_NY_State_Assemblyman_1883. ... Image File history File links TR_NY_State_Assemblyman_1883. ... The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... Mugwumps were Republicans who supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the 1884 United States presidential election. ... James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd (1885–1889) and 24th (1893–1897) President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ...


First marriage

At the age of 22, Roosevelt married his first wife, 19-year-old Alice Hathaway Lee, on October 27, 1880, at the Unitarian Church in Brookline, Massachusetts. Alice was the daughter of the prominent banker George Cabot Lee and Caroline Haskell Lee. The couple first met in 1878. He proposed in June 1879. However, Alice waited another six months before accepting the proposal. They announced their engagement on Valentine's Day 1880. Alice Roosevelt died exactly four years later, only two days after the birth of their first child, also named Alice. In a tragic coincidence, Roosevelt's mother died of typhoid fever on the same day at the Roosevelt family home in Manhattan. Alice Hathaway Lee was only seventeen when she first met Theodore Roosevelt on Oct 18, 1878 Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt (July 29, 1861 in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts – February 14, 1884 in Manhattan, New York) was the first wife of Theodore Roosevelt and the mother of their only child together, Alice... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...   Settled: 1638 â€“ Incorporated: 1705 Zip Code(s): 02445 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... Valentines Day postcard, c. ... Alice Roosevelt, taken about 1900. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Diary Entry Feb 14, 1884
Diary Entry Feb 14, 1884

Although he noted her loss in his diary and made several references to her in the subsequent months, from the next year on Roosevelt refused to speak his first wife's name again (even omitting her name from his autobiography) and did not allow others to speak of her in his presence. He came to despise his popular nickname "Teddy", both because he thought it undignified and because it was the lover's name used by his first wife. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (424x640, 41 KB)Theodore Roosevelt diary entry Feb 14, 1884 tues on the death of his wife Martha Bulloch Roosevelt and his first wife Alice Roosevelt. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (424x640, 41 KB)Theodore Roosevelt diary entry Feb 14, 1884 tues on the death of his wife Martha Bulloch Roosevelt and his first wife Alice Roosevelt. ...


Later that year, Roosevelt left the General Assembly and his infant daughter Alice, whom he had left in the long-term care of his older sister, Bamie. He moved to his Maltese Cross ranch seven miles from Medora in the Badlands of the Dakota Territory to live a more simple life as a rancher and lawman. Anna Bamie Roosevelt Cowles in 1882 Anna Bamie Roosevelt Cowles (January 18, 1855 – August 25, 1931) was the older sister of United States President Theodore Roosevelt. ... Maltese Cross The Maltese cross is identified as the symbol of the Christian warrior. ... Medora may refer to: Medora, North Dakota Medora, Illinois Medora, Indiana This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Chinle Badlands at Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. ... Dakota Territory was the name of the northernmost part of the Louisiana Purchase of the United States. ...


This practice put an early strain on his relationship with his daughter who was given his late wife's name. However, as she grew into adulthood and better understood her father's deep moral convictions, the bond between them became strong. Alice continued to support her father's ideas after his death in 1919.


Life in Badlands and second marriage

Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo. Note the engraved knife and rifle courtesy of Tiffany and Co.
Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo. Note the engraved knife and rifle courtesy of Tiffany and Co.

Roosevelt built a second ranch he named Elk Horn thirty five miles north of the boomtown, Medora, North Dakota. On the banks of the "Little Missouri," Roosevelt learned to ride and rope, hunted as far north as "Coeur d'Alene," Idaho, and even got involved in saloon fight with a drunken cowboy who was shooting up the place and demanded that "Four Eyes," as he called Roosevelt, buy everyone a round of drinks. There, in the waning days of the American Old West, he rebuilt his life and began writing about frontier life for Eastern magazines. As a deputy sheriff, Roosevelt hunted down three outlaws who stole his boat and were escaping north with it up the Little Missouri River. Capturing them, he decided against hanging them and sending his foreman back by boat, he took the thieves back overland for trial in Dickinson, guarding them forty hours without sleep and reading Tolstoy to keep himself awake. When he ran out of his own books he read a dime store western that one of the thieves was carrying. Image File history File links TR_Buckskin_Tiffany_Knife. ... Image File history File links TR_Buckskin_Tiffany_Knife. ... The Chinle Badlands at Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. ... The outside of a Tiffany & Co. ... Medora is a city located in Billings County, North Dakota. ... Coeur dAlene may refer to Lake Coeur dAlene The Coeur dAlene, a Native American tribe. ... Official language(s) None Capital Boise Largest city Boise Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq. ... A typical archetype, the cowboy, in the Wild West. ... The Little Missouri River The Little Missouri River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 560 mi (901 km) long, in the northern Great Plains of the United States. ... Dickinson refers to: Persons named Dickinson Last name Dickinson Angie Dickinson (1931–), American television and film actress Brian Dickinson (1961–), Canadian pianist Bruce Dickinson (1958–), English heavy metal musician Daniel S. Dickinson (1800–1866), American politician, senator from New York (1844–1851) David Dickinson (1941–), British antiques expert and game...


While working on a tough project aimed at hunting down a group of relentless horse thieves, Roosevelt came across the famous Deadwood Sheriff Seth Bullock. The two would remain friends for life. (Morris, Rise of, 241-245, 247-250) Deadwood is a weekly HBO television drama that premiered in March 2004. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Seth Bullock (born Amherstburg, Ontario, Canada, July 23, 1847 - died September, 1919 Deadwood, South Dakota) was an early resident of Deadwood, South Dakota, (on whom the character of the same name in the HBO television series Deadwood is based). ...


After the 1886-1887 winter wiped out his herd of cattle and his $60,000 investment (together with those of his competitors), he returned to the East, where in 1885, he had purchased Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay, New York. It would be his home and estate until his death. Roosevelt ran as the Republican candidate for mayor of New York City in 1886, coming in a distant third. Sagamore Hill was the home of President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt. ... Oyster Bay is the name of a hamlet on the North Shore of Long Island in Nassau County in the state of New York, USA. The hamlet is also the site of a station on the Long Island Rail Road and the eastern termination point of that branch of the...


Following the election, he went to London in 1886 and married his childhood sweetheart, Edith Kermit Carow.[13] They honeymooned in Europe, and Roosevelt climbed Mont Blanc, leading only the third expedition of record to reach the summit, a feat which resulted in his induction into the British Royal Society. <Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910 Edition, Topic: Theodore Roosevelt> They had five children: Theodore Jr., Kermit, Ethel Carow, Archibald Bulloch "Archie", and Quentin. Although Roosevelt's father was also named Theodore Roosevelt, he died while the future president was still childless and unmarried, so the future President Roosevelt took the suffix of Sr. and subsequently named his son Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. Because Roosevelt was still alive when his grandson and namesake was born, his grandson was named Theodore Roosevelt III, and the president's son retained the Jr. after his father's death. "Uncle Ted" was the godfather and favorite uncle of Eleanor Roosevelt, whom he gave away in marriage to their cousin Franklin D. Roosevelt on St. Patrick's Day (March 17) 1905. White House portrait Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt (August 6, 1861 – September 30, 1948), second wife of Theodore Roosevelt, was First Lady of the United States from 1901 to 1909. ... This article is about the Alpine mountain. ... The Royal Society of London is claimed to be the oldest learned society still in existence and was founded in 1660. ... Theodore Roosevelt. ... Kermit Roosevelt, explorer, author and soldier, accompanied his father on expeditions to Africa and the Amazon Kermit Roosevelt I (October 10, 1889–June 4, 1943) was a son of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. ... Ethel Carow Roosevelt Derby (August 13, 1891-December 10, 1977) was the second daughter and fourth child of the President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt. ... Archibald Roosevelt was the fourth child of president Theodore Roosevelts marriage to his second wife Edith Carow. ... Lt. ... Theodore Teddy Roosevelt III (14 June 1914, in New York – 2 May 2001) is the grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt and the son of politician and World War II military leader Brig. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her stature as First Lady of the United States, 1933-1945 to promote her husbands (Franklin D. Roosevelts) New Deal, as well as Civil Rights. ... FDR redirects here. ... St. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Roosevelt is the only President to have become a widower and remarry before becoming President.


In the 1880s, he gained recognition as a serious historian. His The Naval War of 1812 (1882) was the standard history for two generations, but his hasty biographies of Thomas Hart Benton (1887) and Gouverneur Morris (1888) were potboilers. His major achievement was a four-volume history of the frontier, The Winning of the West (1889-1896), which had a notable impact on historiography as it presented a highly original version of the frontier thesis elaborated upon in 1893 by his friend Frederick Jackson Turner. His many articles in upscale magazines provided a much-needed income, as well as cementing a reputation as a major national intellectual. He was later chosen president of the American Historical Association. Thomas Hart Benton (March 14, 1782–April 10, 1858), nicknamed Old Bullion, was an American Senator from Missouri and a staunch advocate of westward expansion of the United States. ... Gouverneur Morris Gouverneur Morris (January 31, 1752 – November 8, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and was author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States. ... A potboiler is an artistic work (usually written) created for the sole purpose of making money quickly or to maintain a steady income for the artist, thus implying that artistic values were subordinate to saleability. ... Historiography is the study of the way history is and has been written. ... Frederick Jackson Turner, author of the Frontier Thesis The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis is the conclusion of Frederick Jackson Turner that the wellsprings of American exceptionalism and vitality have always been the American frontier, the region between urbanized, civilized society and the untamed wilderness. ... Frederick Jackson Turner Frederick Jackson Turner (November 14, 1861–1932) was, with Charles A. Beard, the most influential American historian of the early 20th century. ... The American Historical Association (AHA) is a society of historians and teachers of history founded in 1884 and incorporated by the United States Congress in 1889. ...


Return to public life

New York City Police Commissioner 1896
New York City Police Commissioner 1896

In the 1888 presidential election, Roosevelt campaigned for Benjamin Harrison in the Midwest. President Harrison appointed Roosevelt to the United States Civil Service Commission, where he served until 1895.[14] In his term, he vigorously fought the spoilsmen and demanded the enforcement of civil service laws. In spite of Roosevelt's support for Harrison's reelection bid in the presidential election of 1892, the eventual winner, Grover Cleveland (a Bourbon Democrat), reappointed him to the same post. Image File history File links TR_NYC_Police_Commissioner. ... Image File history File links TR_NYC_Police_Commissioner. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Benjamin Harrison VI (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was the 23rd President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. ... The Office of Personnel Management or OPM is the United States government agency which serves to manage the civil service of the United States by the recruitment of qualified personnel into and the administration of their careers as part of the United States Civil Service. ... In United States politics, a spoils system refers to an informal practice by which a party after winning an election gives government jobs to its supporters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd (1885–1889) and 24th (1893–1897) President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. ... Bourbon Democrat was a term used in the United States from 1876 to 1904 to refer to a conservative or reactionary member of the Democratic Party, especially one who supported President Grover Cleveland in 1884–1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904. ...


In 1895, he became president of the New York City Board of Police Commissioners. During the two years that he held this post, Roosevelt radically changed the way a police department was run. The police force was reputed as one of the most corrupt forces in America. NYPD's history division records that Roosevelt was, "an iron-willed leader of unimpeachable honesty, (who) brought a reforming zeal to the New York City Police Commission in 1895."[15] Roosevelt and his fellow commissioners established new disciplinary rules, created a bicycle squad to police New York's traffic problems and implemented standardized 32 calibre pistol practice.[16] Roosevelt implemented regular inspections of firearms, annual physical exams, appointed 1,600 new recruits appointed not on the basis of political affiliation but solely for their physical and mental qualifications, opened admission to the department to ethnic minorities and women, established the first police meritorious service medals, shut down the corrupt police hostelries, and a Municipal Lodging House was established by the Board of Charities." Roosevelt required his officers to be registered with the Board. He also had telephones installed in station houses. Always an energetic man, he made a habit of walking officers' beats late at night and early in the morning to make sure that they were on duty.[17] Police Commissioner (or Commissioner of Police) is the title of the chief officer of many law enforcement agencies. ... An old rotary telephone This article is about telephone technology. ...


Assistant Secretary of the Navy

Assistant Secretary of the Navy Roosevelt (front center) at the Naval War College, c. 1897
Assistant Secretary of the Navy Roosevelt (front center) at the Naval War College, c. 1897

Roosevelt had always been fascinated by navies and their history. Urged by Roosevelt's close friend, Congressman Henry Cabot Lodge, President William McKinley appointed a delighted Roosevelt to the post of Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1897. (Because of the poor health and inactivity of Secretary of the Navy John D. Long at the time, this basically gave Roosevelt reign over the department.) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x610, 108 KB)Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt with faculty and class members at the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, circa 1897. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x610, 108 KB)Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt with faculty and class members at the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, circa 1897. ... Henry Cabot Lodge Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924), was an American statesman and Republican politician, and noted historian. ... William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th President of the United States. ... Assistant Secretary of the Navy (abbrev. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... John Davis Long (1838&#8211;1915) was a U.S. political figure. ...


Roosevelt had grown up fascinated with stories of naval battles. His uncle James Dunwoody Bulloch, a Confederate admiral who lived in England helped him develop his ideas in his naval history of the War of 1812. Roosevelt denounced the near criminal neglect of naval issues by the Jeffersonians. He praised the skills of the commanders for saving. The overwhelming seapower of Britain had shaped every aspect of the war and made the events on land, to Roosevelt, seem almost secondary until the Battle of New Orleans. Combatants United States Native Americans United Kingdom Canadian colonial forces Native Americans Native Canadians Commanders James Madison Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson Isaac Brock George Prevost Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:3 •Other... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Edward Pakenham † John Lambert Andrew Jackson Strength 11,000–14,500 4,000–6,000 Casualties 2,700 71 {{{notes}}} The Battle of New Orleans, also known as the Battle of Chalmette Plantation, took place on January 8, 1815, during the War of 1812...


Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan's powerful book on The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 (1890) convinced opinion leaders, worldwide, of the necessity of having the stronger fleet in wartime. It strengthened Roosevelt's argument that a dramatic expansion of the Navy was needed to put the United States abreast of European powers. Upon becoming assistant secretary, Roosevelt was pushing for the modernization of the Navy and the reorganization of both the Department and its officer corps. He also fought for an increase in ship-building capability, warning that building modern steel ships would take years. Roosevelt was instrumental in preparing the Navy for the Spanish-American War. Alfred Thayer Mahan Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (September 27, 1840 - December 1, 1914) was a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba First Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 379 U.S. dead; considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War took place...


War in Cuba

Roosevelt left his civilian Navy post to form the famous "Rough Riders" Regiment
Roosevelt left his civilian Navy post to form the famous "Rough Riders" Regiment
Colonel Roosevelt and his "Rough Riders" after capturing San Juan Hill during the Spanish-American War
Colonel Roosevelt and his "Rough Riders" after capturing San Juan Hill during the Spanish-American War

Upon the declaration of war in 1898 that would be known as the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt resigned from the Navy Department and, with the aid of U.S. Army Colonel Leonard Wood, organized the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment out of a diverse crew that ranged from cowboys from the Western territories to Ivy League friends from New York. The newspapers called them the "Rough Riders." Originally Roosevelt held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and served under Colonel Wood, but after Wood was promoted to Brigadier General of Volunteer Forces, Roosevelt was promoted to Colonel and given command of the Regiment. Under his leadership, the Rough Riders became famous for their dual charges up Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill in July 1898 (the battle was named after the latter hill). Though out of the Rough Riders, Roosevelt was the only one who had a horse, and was forced to dismount and walk up Kettle Hill on foot after his horse, Little Texas, became tired.[18] Roosevelt was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor in 2001 for his actions. Image File history File links TR_LtCol_1898. ... Image File history File links TR_LtCol_1898. ... Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 The Rough Riders was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War. ... Image File history File links TR_San_Juan_Hill_1898. ... Image File history File links TR_San_Juan_Hill_1898. ... Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 The Rough Riders was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... Leonard Wood (October 9, 1860 – August 7, 1927) was a physician who served as the US Army Chief of Staff and Governor General of the Philippines. ... Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 The Rough Riders was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War. ... The classic vision of the American cowboy, as portrayed by Frederic Remington A cowboy (Spanish vaquero) tends cattle and horses on cattle ranches in North and South America. ... The Ivy League is an athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education located in the Northeastern United States. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898 The Rough Riders was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Spain Commanders William Rufus Shafter Joseph Wheeler Arsenio Linares Strength 15,000 regulars 4,000 guerrilleros 12 field guns 4 Gatling guns 800 regulars 5 field guns Casualties 124 dead 817 wounded 58 dead 170 wounded 39 captured The Battle of San Juan Hill... This article is about the U.S. military award. ...


Upon his return from Cuba, Roosevelt re-entered New York state politics and was elected governor of New York in 1898.[19] He made such a concerted effort to root out corruption and "machine politics" that Republican boss Thomas Collier Platt forced him on McKinley as a running mate in the 1900 election to simplify their control of the state.[20] A governor is a governing official, usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the Head of state; furthermore the title applies to officials with a similar mandate as representatives of a chartered company which has... This article is about the system of organization called a political machine. ... Thomas C. Platt Thomas C. Platt was a three term U.S. Senator from New York in the years 1881 and 1897-1909. ...

Chicago newspaper sees cowboy-TR campaigning for governor
Enlarge
Chicago newspaper sees cowboy-TR campaigning for governor

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (579x804, 78 KB) Summary US editorial cartoon 1898 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (579x804, 78 KB) Summary US editorial cartoon 1898 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ...

Vice presidency

Order: 25th Vice President
Term of Office: March 4, 1901September 14, 1901
Preceded by: Garret Hobart
Succeeded by: Charles Fairbanks
President: William McKinley
Political party: Republican

McKinley and Roosevelt won the presidential election of 1900, defeating William Jennings Bryan and Adlai E. Stevenson I. Roosevelt found his six months in the vice-presidency unfulfilling. One story that sums up his feelings on the Vice-Presidency was that as President, Roosevelt ordered a noisy chandelier removed from the White House, suggesting that it be put in the Vice President's office, as he had nothing to do and the chandelier would keep him awake. March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Garret Augustus Hobart (June 3, 1844&#8211;November 21, 1899) was the twenty-fourth Vice President of the United States. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852&#8211;June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty_sixth Vice President of the United States. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th President of the United States. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... Summary The election was held on November 6, 1900. ... William Jennings Bryan, 1907 William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. ... Adlai Ewing Stevenson I (October 23, 1835 – June 14, 1914) was a Congressman from Illinois and the twenty-third Vice President of the United States. ...


Thinking that he had little future in politics, he considered returning to law school after leaving office.[21] On September 2, 1901, Roosevelt first uttered a sentence that would become strongly associated with his presidency, urging Americans to "speak softly and carry a big stick" during a speech at the Minnesota State Fair. It has been claimed that the famous phrase was actually inspired by a discussion Roosevelt had with French diplomat Comte Édouard Sébastien de Malo when the latter visited the US in 1900. As France was just coming out of the traumatic Dreyfus affair, Roosevelt asked Comte de Malo what lesson could be learned from the episode. De Malo replied: "France may have been humbled by this event, but we still stand strong and proud. Although we speak softly, we are still carrying a big stick." September 2 is the 245th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (246th in leap years). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Big stick diplomacy was the catch-phrase for describing U.S. President Theodore Roosevelts corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States should assume international police power in the Western Hemisphere. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ...


Presidency 1901-1909

John Singer Sargent, Theodore Roosevelt, 1903, oil on canvas, 58½ × 40½ in., Washington, DC: White House. Click on photo for background story.
John Singer Sargent, Theodore Roosevelt, 1903, oil on canvas, 58½ × 40½ in., Washington, DC: White House. Click on photo for background story.

President McKinley was shot by an anarchist on September 6, 1901. McKinley died on September 14, vaulting Roosevelt into the presidency. He took the oath of office in the Ansley Wilcox House at Buffalo, New York. He was the youngest person to assume the presidency, and he promised to continue McKinley's cabinet and his basic policies. Roosevelt did so, but after reelection in 1904, he moved to the political left, stretching his ties to the Republican Party's conservative leaders. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (520x800, 127 KB) Summary John Singer Sargents portrait of Theodore Roosevelt (1903) - Oil on Canvas - Hangs in the White House Background on the Painting Sargents painting would be the official portrait of the President Theodore Roosevelt, but it wasn... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (520x800, 127 KB) Summary John Singer Sargents portrait of Theodore Roosevelt (1903) - Oil on Canvas - Hangs in the White House Background on the Painting Sargents painting would be the official portrait of the President Theodore Roosevelt, but it wasn... Self Portrait, oil painting, 1907 John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was the most successful portrait painter of his era, as well as a gifted landscape painter and watercolorist. ... Mona Lisa, Oil on wood panel painting by Leonardo da Vinci La Donna Velata, painted in 1516, Oil on wood panel painting by Raphael Oil painting is done on surfaces with pigments that are ground and mixed into a medium of oil — especially in early modern Europe, linseed oil. ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ... Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th (1901–1909) President of the United States. ... The name Mckinley redirects here. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site is a unit of the National Park Service at 641 Delaware Avenue in Buffalo, New York. ... Nickname: City of Good Neighbors Location of Buffalo in New York State County Erie County Mayor Byron Brown Area    - City 136. ...


Anthracite coal strike of 1902

Main article: Coal Strike of 1902

A national emergency was averted in 1902 when Roosevelt found a compromise to the anthracite coal strike by the United Mine Workers of America that threatened the heating supplies of most urban homes. Roosevelt called the mine owners and the labor leaders to the White House and negotiated a compromise. Miners were on strike for 163 days before it ended; they were granted a 10% pay increase and a 9-hour day (from the previous 10 hours), but the union was not officially recognized and the price of coal went up. Political cartoon from the Cleveland Dealer The Coal Strike of 1902 was a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania that marked a change in the role of the United States government, which had historically sided with management, to functioning more as... United Mine Workers of America seal The United Mine Workers (UMW or UMWA) is a United States labor union that represents workers in mining. ...


Square Deal

Roosevelt promised to continue McKinley's program, and at first he worked closely with McKinley's men. His 20,000-word address to the Congress in December 1901, asked Congress to curb the power of trusts "within reasonable limits." They did not act but Roosevelt did, issuing 44 lawsuits against major corporations; he was called the "trust-buster." A trust or business trust was a form of business entity used in the late 19th century with intent to create a monopoly. ... Trust Buster was the name given to President Theodore Roosevelt. ...


Mark Hanna was the rival power in the Republican party. Hanna died, and Roosevelt had an easy renomination and reelection in 1904. He won 336 of 476 electoral votes, and 56.4% of the total popular vote. He therefore became the first President who came into office due to the death of his predecessor to be elected in his own right. Mark Hanna Mark A. Hanna (September 24, 1837–February 15, 1904), born Marcus Alonzo Hanna, was an industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. ... Summary The election was held on November 8, 1904. ... An electoral college is a set of electors who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect someone to a particular office. ...

Democrats attack Roosevelt as militarist and ineffective in this 1904 election cartoon
Democrats attack Roosevelt as militarist and ineffective in this 1904 election cartoon

Building on McKinley's effective use of the press, Roosevelt made the White House the center of news every day, providing interviews and photo opportunities. His children were almost as popular as he was, and their pranks in the White House made headlines. His daughter, Alice Lee Roosevelt, became quite popular in Washington. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (623x698, 89 KB) Summary 1904 editorial cartoon New York World Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (623x698, 89 KB) Summary 1904 editorial cartoon New York World Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Alice Roosevelt, taken about 1900. ...


Regulation of industry

Roosevelt firmly believed, "The Government must in increasing degree supervise and regulate the workings of the railways engaged in interstate commerce." Inaction was a danger, he argued, "Such increased supervision is the only alternative to an increase of the present evils on the one hand or a still more radical policy on the other." (Annual Message Dec 1904) His biggest success was passage of the Hepburn Act of 1906, giving the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates; it also stopped free passes given to friends of the railroad. Everyone at the time assumed railroads would always be a vast and powerful force; no one dreamed they would be challenged by trucks and automobiles and struggle to survive under the provisions of the Hepburn Act designed to help merchants and consumers. The Hepburn Act of 1906 gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power set maximum railroad rates, and led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers. ... The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC; 1887 - 1995) was a regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. ...


In response to public clamor, Roosevelt pushed Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, as well as the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. These laws provided for labeling of foods and drugs, inspection of livestock and mandated sanitary conditions at meatpacking plants. Congress replaced Roosevelt's proposals with a version supported by the major meatpackers who worried about the overseas markets, and did not want small unsanitary plants undercutting their domestic market.[22] The Pure Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906 is a United States federal law that provided for federal inspection of meat products, and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transport of adulterated food products or poisonous patent medicines. ... The United States Meat Inspection Act of 1906 authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption. ...


Conservationist

Roosevelt worked closely with early conservationists such as Gifford Pinchot, pictured above, with whom he organized the first National Governors Conservation Conference at the White House in 1908

Roosevelt was the first American president to consider the long-term needs for efficience conservation of national resources, winning the support of fellow hunters and fishermen to bolster his political base. Roosevelt was the last trained observer to ever see a passenger pigeon. Assuming the conservationist role was a natural step for him, and he decided that it was overdue to put the issue high on the national agenda. He worked with all the major figures of the movement, especially his chief advisor on the matter Gifford Pinchot. Roosevelt urged congress to establish the United States Forest Service (1905), to manage government forest lands, and he appointed Gifford Pinchot to head the service. Roosevelt set aside more land for national parks and nature preserves than all of his predecessors combined, 194 million acres. The Theodore Roosevelt National Park in the Badlands commemorates his conservationist philosophy. In 1903, Roosevelt toured the Yosemite Valley with John Muir, founder of the Sierra Club, but he rejected Muir's philosophy that privileged nature, and emphasized instead the more efficient use of nature. In 1907, with Congress about to block him, Roosevelt hurried to designate 16 million acres (65,000 km²) of new national forests. In May 1908, he sponsored the Conference of Governors held in the White House, with a focus on the most efficient planning, analysis and use of water, forests and other natural resources. Roosevelt explained, "There is an intimate relation between our streams and the development and conservation of all the other great permanent sources of wealth." During his presidency, Roosevelt promoted the nascent conservation movement in essays for Outdoor Life magazine. Roosevelt, like Pinchot (but unlike Muir), believed in the more efficient use of natural resources by corporations like lumber companies. To Roosevelt, conservation meant more and better usage and less waste, and a long-term perspective. In 2006, a group of American high school students developed a 10 minute video on Roosevelt's conservation legacy with the help of Roosevelt scholar, Ed Renehan and Roosevelt descendant, Tweed Roosevelt. See[23] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (769x1024, 108 KB) Summary Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot standing on deck of steamer Mississippi, 1907 while attending the Inland Waterways Commission Public Domain Source US Library of Congress URL http://lcweb4. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (769x1024, 108 KB) Summary Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot standing on deck of steamer Mississippi, 1907 while attending the Inland Waterways Commission Public Domain Source US Library of Congress URL http://lcweb4. ... Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905-1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923-1927, 1931-1935). ... Binomial name Ectopistes migratorius (Linnaeus, 1766) The Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) was once probably the most common bird in the world. ... Conservationists are those people who tend to more highly rank the wise use of the Earths resources and ecosystems. ... Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905-1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923-1927, 1931-1935). ... The USDA Forest Service, a United States government agency within the United States Department of Agriculture, is under the leadership of the United States Secretary of Agriculture. ... Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905-1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923-1927, 1931-1935). ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales, UK A national park is a reserve of land, usually declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... A nature reserve is an area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. ... Established in 1978, Theodore Roosevelt National Park is a United States National Park comprising three geographically separated areas of badlands in western North Dakota. ... The Chinle Badlands at Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. ... John Muir (1838-1914) John Muir appears on the California quarter John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) was one of the earliest modern preservationists. ... The Conference of Governors held in the White House May 13-15, 1908 under the sponsorship of President Theodore Roosevelt. ... Outdoor Life is an outdoors magazine featuring hunting, fishing, survival and camping skills. ... Tweed Roosevelt, a popular lecturer and writer is the great grandson of Theodore Roosevelt Tweed Roosevelt (born 1942) is the great-grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt. ...


Foreign policy

Roosevelt's administration was marked by an active approach to foreign policy. Roosevelt saw it as the duty of more developed ("civilized") nations to help the underdeveloped ("uncivilized") world move forward. In Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Panama Canal Zone, he used the Army's medical service, under Walter Reed and William C. Gorgas, to eliminate the yellow fever menace and install a new regime of public health. He used the army to build up the infrastructure of the new possessions, building railways, telegraph and telephone lines, and upgrading roads and port facilities. The Panama Canal Zone (Spanish: ), was a 553 square mile (1,432 km²) territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 miles (8. ... This article is about the U.S. army surgeon. ... Dr. William Crawford Gorgas, M.D. (born October 3, 1854, in Mobile, Alabama; died July 3, 1920, in London) is best known for his work in stopping the spread of yellow fever and malaria, by stopping the mosquitos that spread it. ...

Roosevelt builds the canal—and shovels dirt on Colombia
Roosevelt builds the canal—and shovels dirt on Colombia

Roosevelt dramatically increased the size of the navy, forming the Great White Fleet, which toured the world in 1907. Roosevelt also added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States could intervene in Latin American affairs when corruption of governments made it necessary. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1304x1035, 232 KB) Summary 1903 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1304x1035, 232 KB) Summary 1903 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... The Great White Fleet steaming in column; the USS Kansas at left. ... The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was a substantial alteration (called an amendment) of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. ... U.S. President James Monroe. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Roosevelt gained international praise for helping negotiate the end of the Russo-Japanese War, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Roosevelt later arbitrated a dispute between France and Germany over the division of Morocco. Some historians have argued these latter two actions helped in a small way to avert a world war.[24] Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Commanders N/A N/A Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 134,817+ KIA/POW, 170,000 MIA etc. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... A world war is a military conflict affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ...


Panama Canal

Roosevelt's most famous foreign policy initiative, following the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, was the construction of the Panama Canal, which upon its completion shortened the route of freighters between San Francisco, California and New York City by 8,000 miles (13,000 km). In 1901 the United States and Britain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty. ... A canal tug, making its way down to the Caribbean end of the canal, waits to be joined by a ship in the uppermost chamber of the Gatun Locks. ... Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: City-County San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City 600. ...


Colombia first proposed the canal in their country as opposed to rival Nicaragua, and Colombia signed a treaty for an agreed-upon sum. At that time, Panama was a province of Colombia. According to the treaty, in 1902, the U.S. was to buy out the equipment and excavations from France, which had been attempting to build a canal since 1881. While the Colombian negotiating team had signed the treaty, ratification by the Colombian Senate became problematic.


The Colombian Senate balked at the price and asked for 10 million dollars over the original agreed upon price. When the U.S. refused to re-negotiate the price, the Colombian politicians proposed cutting the original French company that started the project out of the deal and giving that difference to Colombia. The original deal stipulated that the French company was to be reasonably compensated. Realizing that the Colombian Senate was no longer bargaining in good faith, Roosevelt tired of these last-minute attempts by the Colombians to cheat the French out of their entire investment.


Roosevelt ultimately decided, with the encouragement of Panamanian business interests, to help Panama declare independence from Colombia in 1903. A brief revolution, of only a few hours, followed the declaration, and Colombian soldiers were bribed $50 each to lay down their arms. On November 3, 1903, the Republic of Panama was created, with its constitution written in advance by the United States. Shortly thereafter, a treaty was signed with Panama. The U.S. paid $10 million to secure rights to build on and control the Canal Zone. Construction began in 1904 and was completed in 1914. November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


The Great White Fleet

 "The Great White Fleet Sails" by special permission of artist Mort Kunstler
"The Great White Fleet Sails" by special permission of artist Mort Kunstler
Main article: Great White Fleet
 Roosevelt, (on the 12" gun turret at right), addresses the crew of USS Connecticut (BB18), in Hampton Roads, Virginia, upon her return from the Fleet's cruise
Roosevelt, (on the 12" gun turret at right), addresses the crew of USS Connecticut (BB18), in Hampton Roads, Virginia, upon her return from the Fleet's cruise

As Roosevelt's administration drew to a close, the president dispatched a fleet consisting of four US Navy battleship squadrons and their escorts, on a world-wide voyage of circumnavigation from December 16, 1907, to February 22, 1909. With their hulls painted white except for the beautiful gilded scrollwork with a red, white, and blue banner on their bows, these ships would come to be known as The Great White Fleet. Roosevelt wanted to demonstrate to his country and the world that the US Navy was capable of operating in a global theater, particularly in the Pacific. This was extraordinarily important at a time when tensions were slowly growing between the United States and Japan. The latter had recently shown its navy's competence in defeating the Russians in the Russo-Japanese War and the US Navy fleet to the west was relatively small. The Atlantic Fleet battleships only later came to be known as the "Great White Fleet." When the fleet sailed into Yokahama, Japan, the Japanese went to extraordinary lengths to show that their country desired peace with the US. Thousands of Japanese school children waving American flags greeted the Navy brass as they came ashore. In February 1909, Roosevelt was in Hampton Roads, Virginia to witness the triumphant return of the fleet and indicating that he saw the fleet's long voyage as a fitting finish for his administration. To the officers and men of the Fleet Roosevelt said, "Other nations may do what you have done, but they'll have to follow you." This parting act of grand strategy by Roosevelt greatly expanded the respect for as well as the role of the United States in the international arena. Image File history File links TR_Great_White_Fleet_Sales_Kunstler. ... Image File history File links TR_Great_White_Fleet_Sales_Kunstler. ... The Great White Fleet steaming in column; the USS Kansas at left. ... Image File history File links Tr_great_white_fleet_tr_addresses_us_conneticut_feb_1909. ... Image File history File links Tr_great_white_fleet_tr_addresses_us_conneticut_feb_1909. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... HMS Victory in 1884 Battleship was the name given to the most powerfully gun-armed and most heavily armored classes of warships built between the 15th and 20th centuries. ... To circumnavigate a place, such as an island, a continent, or the Earth, is to travel all the way around it by boat or ship. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Great White Fleet steaming in column; the USS Kansas at left. ... Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Commanders N/A N/A Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 134,817+ KIA/POW, 170,000 MIA etc. ... The Atlantic Fleet (USLANTFLT) of the United States Navy is the part of the Navy responsible for operations in around the Atlantic Ocean. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ...


Life in White House

Roosevelt relished the presidency and seemed to be everywhere at once. He took Cabinet members and friends on long, fast-paced hikes, boxed in the state rooms of the White House, romped with his children, and read voraciously.[25] In 1908, he was permanently blinded in his left eye during one of his boxing bouts, but this injury was kept from the public at the time.[26] His many enthusiastic interests and limitless energy led one ambassador to wryly explain, "You must always remember that the President is about six."[27]

Roosevelt shoots holes in the dictionary as the ghosts of Chaucer, Shakespeare and Dr Johnson moan
Roosevelt shoots holes in the dictionary as the ghosts of Chaucer, Shakespeare and Dr Johnson moan

During his presidency, Roosevelt tried but failed to advance the cause of simplified spelling. He tried to force government to adopt the system, sending an order to the Public Printer to use the system in all public documents. The order was obeyed, and among the documents thus printed was the President's special message regarding the Panama Canal. The New York World translated the Thanksgiving Day proclamation: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (707x757, 125 KB) Summary US cartoon 1906 about Roosevelts simplified spelling Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (707x757, 125 KB) Summary US cartoon 1906 about Roosevelts simplified spelling Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Natural languages often develop cumbersome manners of spelling words. ...

When nerly three centuries ago, the first settlers kam to the kuntry which has bekom this great republik, tha confronted not only hardship and privashun, but terible risk of thar lives. . . . The kustum has now bekum nashnul and hallowed by immemorial usaj.

The reform annoyed the public, forcing him to rescind the order. Roosevelt's friend, literary critic Brander Matthews, one of the chief advocates of the reform, remonstrated with him for abandoning the effort. Roosevelt replied on December 16: "I could not by fighting have kept the new spelling in, and it was evidently worse than useless to go into an undignified contest when I was beaten. Do you know that the one word as to which I thought the new spelling was wrong — thru — was more responsible than anything else for our discomfiture?" Next summer Roosevelt was watching a naval review when a launch marked "Pres Bot" chugged ostentatiously by. The President waved and laughed with delight.[28] James Brander Matthews (born February 21, 1852 in New Orleans; died March 31, 1929 in New York City), was a U.S. writer and educator. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Roosevelt's daughter, Alice, was a controversial character during Roosevelt's stay in the White House. When friends asked if he could rein in his elder daughter, Roosevelt said, "I can be President of the United States, or I can control Alice. I cannot possibly do both."[25] In turn, Alice said of him that he always wanted to be "the bride at every wedding and the corpse at every funeral."[29]


Roosevelt's contribution to the White House was the construction of the original West Wing, which he had built to free up the second floor rooms in the residence that formerly housed the president's staff. He and Edith also had the entire house renovated and restored to the federal style, tearing out the Victorian furnishings and details (including Tiffany windows) that had been installed over the previous three decades. The West Wing may refer to several topics: The location of the U.S. Presidents office and offices of his political staff. ... Federal style can refer to: Federal style architecture Federal style furnishings See also: Georgian architecture, Adam style This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) circa 1908 Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 - January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who is best known for his work in stained glass and is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau movement. ...


Presidential firsts

Roosevelt's presidency saw a number of firsts. In the sphere of race relations, Booker T. Washington became the first black man to dine at the White House in 1901. Oscar S. Straus became the first Jew appointed as a Cabinet Secretary, under Roosevelt. In 1902, in response to the assassination of President William McKinley on September 6, 1901, Theodore Roosevelt became the first president to be under constant Secret Service protection. Roosevelt was the first President to wear a necktie for his official portrait, a tradition which all of his successors followed. Although four Vice Presidents before Roosevelt had succeeded to the presidency upon the death of their predecessor, Roosevelt, in 1904, became the first to be elected in his own right or even win his party’s nomination for reelection. After Roosevelt, three more Vice Presidents who succeeded to the Presidency would be elected to full terms (Calvin Coolidge, Harry Truman, and Lyndon Johnson). Race relations are relations between races, sometimes involving racism. ... Booker T. Washington Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American political leader, educator and author. ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ... William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th President of the United States. ... Because of both the secrecy of secret services and the controversial nature of the issues involved, there is some difficulty in separating the definitions of secret service, secret police, intelligence agency etc. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... For the victim of Mt. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908&#8211;January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ...


In 1906, Roosevelt became the first American to be awarded a Nobel Prize, when he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work towards ending the Russo-Japanese War. That same year, he made the first official trip by a President outside the United States, visiting Panama to inspect the construction progress of the Panama Canal on November 9. Nobel Prize medal. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Commanders N/A N/A Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 134,817+ KIA/POW, 170,000 MIA etc. ... A canal tug, making its way down to the Caribbean end of the canal, waits to be joined by a ship in the uppermost chamber of the Gatun Locks. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ...


Roosevelt was also the first president to appreciate the power and influence of the press and formally invited the press into the White House on a permanent basis. He was also first to be submerged in a submarine, to own a car, and to have a telephone in his home.


Administration and Cabinet

Theodore Roosevelt's presidential cabinet.
Theodore Roosevelt's presidential cabinet.
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Theodore Roosevelt 1901–1909
Vice President Charles Fairbanks 1905–1909
Secretary of State John Hay 1901–1905
  Elihu Root 1905–1909
  Robert Bacon 1909
Secretary of the Treasury Lyman J. Gage 1901–1902
  Leslie M. Shaw 1902–1907
  George B. Cortelyou 1907–1909
Secretary of War Elihu Root 1901–1904
  William Howard Taft 1904–1908
  Luke E. Wright 1908–1909
Attorney General Philander C. Knox 1901–1904
  William H. Moody 1904–1906
  Charles J. Bonaparte 1906–1909
Postmaster General Charles E. Smith 1901–1902
  Henry C. Payne 1902–1904
  Robert J. Wynne 1904–1905
  George B. Cortelyou 1905–1907
  George von L. Meyer 1907–1909
Secretary of the Navy John D. Long 1901–1902
  William H. Moody 1902–1904
  Paul Morton 1902–1906
  Charles J. Bonaparte 1905–1906
  Victor H. Metcalf 1906–1908
  Truman H. Newberry 1908–1909
Secretary of the Interior Ethan A. Hitchcock 1901–1907
  James Rudolph Garfield 1907–1909
Secretary of Agriculture James Wilson 1901–1909
Secretary of Commerce and Labor George B. Cortelyou 1903–1904
  Victor H. Metcalf 1904–1906
  Oscar S. Straus 1906–1909


Image File history File links TheodoreRooseveltCabinet. ... Image File history File links TheodoreRooseveltCabinet. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852&#8211;June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty_sixth Vice President of the United States. ... Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. ... For other people named John Hay, see John Hay (disambiguation). ... Elihu Root Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman, the son of Oren Root and Nancy Whitney Buttrick. ... Categories: Stub | 1860 births | 1919 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of State ... John W. Snow, the current Secretary of the Treasury. ... Lyman Judson Gage (June 28, 1836&#8211;January 26, 1927) was an American financier and Presidential Cabinet officer. ... Leslie Mortimer Shaw (November 2, 1848&#8211;March 28, 1932) was an American businessman, lawyer and politician. ... G.B. Cortelyou Brian William Cortelyou (July 26, 1862–October 23, 1940) was an American Presidential Cabinet secretary of the early 20th century. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Elihu Root Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman, the son of Oren Root and Nancy Whitney Buttrick. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, the 10th Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early twentieth century, a chaired professor at Yale Law... Luke Edward Wright (1846 - 1922) was a U.S. political figure. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Philander C. Knox Philander Chase Knox (May 6, 1853–October 12, 1921) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Attorney General and U.S. Senator and was Secretary of State from 1909-1913. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Supreme Court justices | U.S. Attorneys General | U.S. Secretaries of the Navy | Members of the U.S. House of Representatives | American lawyers | 1853 births | 1917 deaths ... Charles Joseph Bonaparte (June 9, 1851 - June 28, 1921) was a grandson of Jerome Bonaparte (the youngest brother of the French emperor Napoleon I), and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Charles Emory Smith (February 18, 1842 _ January 19, 1908), American journalist and political leader, was born in Mansfield, Connecticut. ... Henry Clay Payne (October 15, 1867&#8211;October 4, 1904) was U.S. Postmaster General from 1902 to 1904 under Pres. ... Robert Wynne (1851 - 1922) was a U.S. administrator. ... G.B. Cortelyou Brian William Cortelyou (July 26, 1862–October 23, 1940) was an American Presidential Cabinet secretary of the early 20th century. ... George von Lengerke Meyer (June 24, 1858-March 9, 1918) was a Massachusetts businessman and politician who served as United States Secretary of the Navy from 1909-1913, during the administration of President William Howard Taft. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... John Davis Long (1838&#8211;1915) was a U.S. political figure. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Supreme Court justices | U.S. Attorneys General | U.S. Secretaries of the Navy | Members of the U.S. House of Representatives | American lawyers | 1853 births | 1917 deaths ... Paul Morton (1857 - 1911) was a U.S. businessman. ... Charles Joseph Bonaparte (June 9, 1851 - June 28, 1921) was a grandson of Jerome Bonaparte (the youngest brother of the French emperor Napoleon I), and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... Victor Howard Metcalf (October 10, 1853&#8211;February 20, 1936) was an American politician. ... Truman Handy Newberry (November 5, 1864&#8211;October 3, 1945) was a U.S. businessman and political figure. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Ethan Allen Hitchcock (1835-1909) served under Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt as U.S. Secretary of the Interior. ... James Rudolph Garfield (October 17, 1865-March 24, 1950) U.S. politician, born in Hiram, Ohio, He was the second of five children born to President James A. Garfield and First Lady Lucretia Garfield. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... James Wilson (August 16, 1835 - August 26, 1920) was a Scots born United States politician, serving as United States Secretary of Agriculture from 1897-1913. ... The United States Secretary of Commerce and Labor was the head of the short-lived United States Department of Commerce and Labor, which was concerned with business, industry, and labor. ... G.B. Cortelyou Brian William Cortelyou (July 26, 1862–October 23, 1940) was an American Presidential Cabinet secretary of the early 20th century. ... Victor Howard Metcalf (October 10, 1853&#8211;February 20, 1936) was an American politician. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Roosevelt appointed three Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the judicial branch of the United States federal government. ...

Although Moody was a close associate of Roosevelt, Holmes, who would serve on the Supreme Court until 1932, gained his appointment by virtue of sharing a mutual acquaintance with Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge. Moody was forced to resign due to ill health four years after his appointment, and after retiring, Roosevelt would clash with both Holmes and Day for not supporting reforms he backed. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Supreme Court justices | Judges of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit | U.S. Secretaries of State | Spanish-American War people | American lawyers | 1849 births | 1923 deaths ... William Henry Moody (23 December 1853–1917) was an American politician and jurist, who held positions in all three branches of the Government of the United States. ... Henry Cabot Lodge Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924), was an American statesman and Republican politician, and noted historian. ...


States admitted to the Union

During Roosevelt's Presidency, one state, Oklahoma, was admitted to the Union. This new state included the former Indian Territory, which had attempted to gain admission on its own into the Union as the State of Sequoyah. (Formerly, the state of Oklahoma had been divided into the Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory.) In 1906, a bill was introduced in Congress providing for the admission of the Oklahoma and Indian Territories as one state, and Arizona and New Mexico as another state. Although the bill passed on June 14 and was signed into law by Roosevelt, the people of Arizona and New Mexico rejected the offer of statehood. Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Territory in 1891 Indian Country redirects here. ... The State of Sequoyah was the proposed name for what proved to be an abortive attempt by Native Americans in the early years of the 20th century to establish a U.S. state in the eastern part of what is now Oklahoma. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... New Mexico was the 41st satate to be admitted to the us. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ...


Post-presidency

African safari

Roosevelt standing next to a dead elephant during a safari
Roosevelt standing next to a dead elephant during a safari

In March 1909, shortly after the end of his second term, Roosevelt left New York for a safari in Africa. The trip was sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and the National Geographic Society and received worldwide media attention. His party, which included scientists from the Smithsonian, killed or trapped over 11,397 animals, from insects and moles to hippopotamuses and elephants. 512 of the animals were big game animals, of which 262 were consumed by the expedition. This included six white rhinos. Tons of salted animals and their skins were shipped to Washington; the number of animals was so large, it took years to mount them. The Smithsonian was able to share many duplicate animals with other museums. Of the large number of animals taken, Roosevelt said, "I can be condemned only if the existence of the National Museum, the American Museum of Natural History, and all similar zoological institutions are to be condemned."[30] Although based in the name of science, there was a large social element to the safari. Interactment with many native peoples, local leaders, renowned professional hunters, and land owning families made the safari much more than a hunting excursion. Roosevelt wrote a detailed account of this adventure; "African Game Trails" describes the excitement of the chase, the people he met, and flora and fauna he collected in the name of science. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x819, 212 KB) Summary Image source: http://memory. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x819, 212 KB) Summary Image source: http://memory. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Flag of the National Geographic Society The National Geographic Society, is a not-for-profit scientific organization based in the United States. ... Binomial name Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 The Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ‘ιπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), is a large, plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant, and three or four recently extinct, species in the family Hippopotamidae. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Binomial name Ceratotherium simum Burchell, 1817 The White Rhinoceros or Square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is one of the five species of rhinoceros that still exists and is one of the few megafauna species left. ... A taxidermied bandicoot Taxidermic bird (detail) at the Lightner Museum. ...


Republican Party rift

Roosevelt certified William Howard Taft to be a genuine "progressive" in 1908, when Roosevelt pushed through the nomination of his Secretary of War for the Presidency. Taft easily defeated three-time candidate William Jennings Bryan. Taft had a different progressivism, one that stressed the rule of law and preferred that judges rather than administrators or politicians make the basic decisions about fairness. Taft usually proved a less adroit politician than Roosevelt and lacked the energy and personal magnetism, not to mention the publicity devices, the dedicated supporters, and the broad base of public support that made Roosevelt so formidable. When Roosevelt realized that lowering the tariff would risk severe tensions inside the Republican Party—pitting producers (manufacturers and farmers) against merchants and consumers—he stopped talking about the issue. Taft ignored the risks and tackled the tariff boldly, on the one hand encouraging reformers to fight for lower rates, and then cutting deals with conservative leaders that kept overall rates high. The resulting Payne-Aldrich tariff of 1909 was too high for most reformers, but instead of blaming this on Senator Nelson Aldrich and big business, Taft took credit, calling it the best tariff ever. Again he had managed to alienate all sides. While the crisis was building inside the Party, Roosevelt was touring Africa and Europe, so as to allow Taft to be his own man.[31] William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, the 10th Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early twentieth century, a chaired professor at Yale Law... Major party conventions The 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago from 16 June to 19 June. ... William Jennings Bryan, 1907 William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. ... The Payne-Aldrich tariff of 1909 reduced the United States tariff rate to 37%. It was very effective. ... Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich (November 6, 1841 - April 16, 1915) was an American politician. ...

Handing off responsibility to Taft in 1909
Handing off responsibility to Taft in 1909

Unlike Roosevelt, Taft never attacked business or businessmen in his rhetoric. However, he was attentive to the law, so he launched 90 antitrust suits, including one against the largest corporation, U.S. Steel, for an acquisition that Roosevelt had personally approved. The upshot was that Taft lost the support of antitrust reformers (who disliked his conservative rhetoric), of big business (which disliked his actions), and of Roosevelt, who felt humiliated by his protégé. The left wing of the Republican Party began agitating against Taft. Senator Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin created the National Progressive Republican League to defeat the power of political bossism at the state level and to replace Taft at the national level. More trouble came when Taft fired Gifford Pinchot, a leading conservationist and close ally of Roosevelt. Pinchot alleged that Taft's Secretary of Interior Richard Ballinger was in league with big timber interests. Conservationists sided with Pinchot, and Taft alienated yet another vocal constituency. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (693x917, 160 KB) Summary 1909 cartoon from Puck magazine, TR gives responsibility to Taft Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (693x917, 160 KB) Summary 1909 cartoon from Puck magazine, TR gives responsibility to Taft Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905-1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923-1927, 1931-1935). ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Roosevelt, back from Europe, unexpectedly launched an attack on the federal courts, which deeply upset Taft. Not only had Roosevelt alienated big business, he was also attacking both the judiciary and the deep faith Republicans had in their judges (most of whom had been appointed by McKinley, Roosevelt or Taft.) In the 1910 Congressional elections, Democrats swept to power, and Taft's reelection in 1912 was increasingly in doubt. In 1911, Taft responded with a vigorous stumping tour that allowed him to sign up most of the party leaders long before Roosevelt announced.


Election of 1912

The battle between Taft and Roosevelt bitterly split the Republican Party; Taft's people dominated the party until 1936.
Enlarge
The battle between Taft and Roosevelt bitterly split the Republican Party; Taft's people dominated the party until 1936.

Late in 1911, Roosevelt finally broke with Taft and LaFollette and announced himself as a candidate for the Republican nomination. But Roosevelt had delayed too long, and Taft had already won the support of most party leaders in the country. Most of LaFollette's supporters went over to Roosevelt, leaving the Wisconsin Senator embittered. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Progressive Party 1912 (United States) was a political party created by a split in the Republicans Party in the 1912 election. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1219x1497, 386 KB) Summary Taft fights TR 1912, scanned editorial cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1219x1497, 386 KB) Summary Taft fights TR 1912, scanned editorial cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ...


Roosevelt, stepping up his attack on judges, carried 9 of the states with preferential primaries, LaFollette took two, and Taft only one. However, these primary elections, while demonstrating Roosevelt's popularity with the electorate, were in no ways as important as primaries are today. First of all, there were fewer states where the common voter was given a forum to express himself, such as a primary. Many more states selected convention delegates either at party conventions, or in caucuses, which were not as open as today's caucuses. So while the man in the street still adored Roosevelt, most professional Republican politicians were supporting Taft, and they proved difficult to upset in non-primary states.


At the Republican Convention in Chicago, despite the many advantages of incumbancy, Taft's victory was not immediately assured. But after two weeks, Roosevelt, realizing that he would not be able to win the nomination outright, asked his followers to leave the convention hall. They moved to the Auditorium Theatre, and then Roosevelt, along with key allies such as Pinchot and Albert Beveridge created the Progressive Party, structuring it as a permanent organization that would field complete tickets at the presidential and state level. It was popularly known as the "Bull Moose Party," which got its name after Roosevelt told reporters, "I'm as tough as a bull moose." At the convention Roosevelt cried out, "We stand at Armageddon and we battle for the Lord." The crusading rhetoric resonated well with the delegates, many of them long-time reformers, crusaders, activists and opponents of politics as usual. Included in the ranks were Jane Addams and many other feminists and peace activists. The platform echoed Roosevelt's 1907-08 proposals, calling for vigorous government intervention to protect the people from the selfish interests.[32] The Auditorium Building in Chicago The Auditorium Building in Chicago, Illinois is one of the best-known designs of Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan. ... Albert Jeremiah Beveridge ( October 6, 1862 &#8211; April 27, 1927 ) was an historian and United States Senator from Indiana. ... Progressive Party 1912 (United States) was a political party created by a split in the Republicans Party in the 1912 election. ... ... Armageddon refers generally to end times or giant, apocalyptic catastrophes in various religions and cultures. ... Jane Addams Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 – May 21, 1935) was an American social worker, sociologist, philosopher and reformer. ...


While campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on October 14, 1912, a saloonkeeper named John Schrank failed in an assassination attempt on Roosevelt. Schrank did shoot the former President, but the bullet lodged in Roosevelt's chest only after hitting both his steel eyeglass case and a copy of his speech he was carrying in his jacket. Roosevelt declined suggestions that he go to the hospital, and delivered his scheduled speech. He spoke vigorously for ninety minutes. His opening comments to the gathered crowd were, "I don't know whether you fully understand that I have just been shot; but it takes more than that to kill a Bull Moose." Afterwards, doctors determined that he was not seriously wounded and that it would be more dangerous to attempt to remove the bullet than to leave it in his chest. Roosevelt carried it with him until he died.[2] Nickname: Cream City, Mil Town, Brew City, The City of Festivals Location of Milwaukee in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin Coordinates: County Milwaukee Mayor Tom Barrett Area    - City 251. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... John F. Schrank was a saloonkeeper from New York, best known for his attempt to assassinate Theodore Roosevelt in 1912. ...


Roosevelt failed to move the political system in his direction. He did win 4.1 million votes (27%), compared to Taft's 3.5 million (23%). However, Wilson's 6.3 million votes (42%) were enough to garner 435 electoral votes. Roosevelt had 88 electoral votes to Taft's 8 electoral votes. (This meant that Taft became the only incumbent President in history to actually come in third place in an attempt to be re-elected.) But Pennsylvania was Roosevelt's only Eastern state; in the Midwest he carried Michigan, Minnesota and South Dakota; in the West, California and Washington; he did not win any Southern states. Although he lost, he won more votes than former presidents Martin Van Buren and Millard Fillmore who also ran again and also lost. More important, he pulled so many progressives out of the Republican party that it took on a much more conservative cast for the next generation. Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ... Red shows states east of the Mississippi River, pink shows states not fully eastern or western The U.S. Eastern states are the states east of the Mississippi River. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,163 sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... If you have been redirected here after viewing any statistical information, note that as defined by the Census Bureau, the western United States includes 13 states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. ... It has been suggested that Califas be merged into this article or section. ... Official language(s) None Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,824 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ...


1913-1914 South American Expedition

The initial party. From left to right (seated): Father Zahm, Rondon, Kermit, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon and the Brazilians traveled up the River of Doubt.
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The initial party. From left to right (seated): Father Zahm, Rondon, Kermit, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon and the Brazilians traveled up the River of Doubt.

His popular book Through the Brazilian Wilderness describes his expedition into the Brazilian jungle in 1913 as a member of the Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition co-named after its leader, Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon. The book describes all of the scientific discovery, scenic tropical vistas and exotic flora, fauna and wild life experienced on the expedition. A friend, Father John Augustine Zahm, had searched for new adventures and found them in the forests of South America. After a briefing of several of his own expeditions, he convinced Roosevelt to commit to such an expedition in 1912. To finance the expedition, Roosevelt received support from the American Museum of Natural History, promising to bring back many new animal specimens. Once in South America, a new far more ambitious goal was added: to find the headwaters of the Rio da Duvida, the River of Doubt, and trace it north to the Madiera and thence to the Amazon River. It was later renamed Rio Roosevelt in honor of the former President. Roosevelt's crew consisted of his 24-year-old son Kermit, Colonel Cândido Rondon, a naturalist sent by the American Museum of Natural History named George K. Cherrie, Brazilian Lieutenant Joao Lyra, team physician Dr. José Antonio Cajazeira, and sixteen highly skilled paddlers (called camaradas in Portuguese). The initial expedition started, probably unwisely, on December 9, 1913, at the height of the rainy season. The trip up the River of Doubt started on the February 27, 1914. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1039x694, 325 KB) Summary Source: scanned from The River of Doubt by Candice Millard 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1039x694, 325 KB) Summary Source: scanned from The River of Doubt by Candice Millard 2005. ... The initial party. ... Cândido Mariano de Silva Rondon (1865-1956) was a Brazilian explorer who is most famous for exploring with Teddy Roosevelt during Roosevelts exploration of the Rio Roosevelt in the Mato Grosso state in Brazil. ... Father Zahm, CSC, 3rd from left, Theodore Roosevelt and his son Kermit, and surviving members of the 1913 expedition up the River of Doubt in the Amazon Rainforest Father John Augustine Zahm, CSC (June 11, 1851 – November 10, 1921) was a Holy Cross priest, author, scientist, and South American explorer. ... The American Museum of Natural History is a landmark of Manhattans Upper West Side in New York, USA, at 79th Street and Central Park West. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Roosevelt River (Rio Roosevelt, sometimes Rio Teodoro) is a Brazilian river. ... A satellite image of the mouth of the Amazon River, looking south The Amazon River or River Amazon; Spanish: Río Amazonas, Portuguese: Rio Amazonas) of South America is the second largest, most voluminous river on earth, having a greater total flow than the next six largest rivers combined. ... The Roosevelt River (Rio Roosevelt, sometimes Rio Teodoro) is a Brazilian river. ... Cândido Mariano de Silva Rondon (1865-1956) was a Brazilian explorer who is most famous for exploring with Teddy Roosevelt during Roosevelts exploration of the Rio Roosevelt in the Mato Grosso state in Brazil. ... The American Museum of Natural History is a landmark of Manhattans Upper West Side in New York, USA, at 79th Street and Central Park West. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...

Roosevelt, wearing sun helmet, barely survived an expedition in 1913 into the Amazonian rain forest to trace the River of Doubt later named the Rio Roosevelt.

During the trip up the river, Roosevelt contracted malaria and a serious infection resulting from a minor leg wound. These illnesses so weakened Roosevelt that, by six weeks into the expedition, he had to be attended day and night by the expedition's physician, Dr. Cajazeira and his son, Kermit. By this time, Roosevelt considered his own condition a threat to the survival of the others. At one point, Kermit had to talk him out of his wish to be left behind so as not to slow down the expedition, now with only a few weeks rations left. Roosevelt was having chest pains when he tried to walk, his temperature soared to 103°F (39°C), and at times he was delirious. He had lost over fifty pounds (20 kg). Without the constant support of Dr. Cajazeira, and Rondon's leadership, Roosevelt would likely have perished. Image File history File links TR_&_Rondon_River_of_Doubt_in_Canoe_1913. ... Image File history File links TR_&_Rondon_River_of_Doubt_in_Canoe_1913. ... Malaria (from Medieval Italian: mala aria — bad air; formerly called ague or marsh fever) is an infectious disease that is widespread in many tropical and subtropical regions. ...


Upon his return to New York, friends and family were startled by Roosevelt's physical appearance and fatigue. Roosevelt wrote to a friend that the trip had cut his life short by ten years. He might not have really known just how accurate that analysis would prove to be, because the effects of the South America expedition had so greatly weakened him that they significantly contributed to his declining health. For the rest of his life, he would be plagued by flareups of malaria and leg inflammations so severe that they would require hospitalization.[25][33]


When Roosevelt had recovered enough of his strength, he found that he had a new battle on his hands. In professional circles, there was doubt about his claims of having discovered and navigated a completely uncharted river over 625 miles (1,000 km) long. Roosevelt would have to defend himself and win international recognition of the expedition's newly-named Rio Roosevelt. Toward this end, Roosevelt went to Washington, D.C., and spoke at a standing-room-only convention to defend his claims. His official report and its defense silenced the critics, and he was able to triumphantly return to his home in Oyster Bay. The Roosevelt River (Rio Roosevelt, sometimes Rio Teodoro) is a Brazilian river. ... Oyster Bay is the name of several places: Oyster Bay, New York, a hamlet in the town of Oyster Bay (town), New York, on Long Island, New York, United States of America Oyster Bay, Florida, a bay in Lee County, Florida, United States of America Oyster Bay, New South Wales...


Writer

Despite his weakened condition and slow recovery from his South America expedition, Roosevelt continued to write with passion on subjects ranging from foreign policy to the importance of the national park system. As an editor of Outlook magazine, he had weekly access to a large, educated national audience. In all, Roosevelt wrote about 18 books (each in several editions), including his Autobiography, Rough Riders and History of the Naval War of 1812, ranching, explorations, and wildlife. His most important book was the 4 volume narrative The Winning of the West, which traced the origin of a new "race" of Americans to frontier conditions in the 18th century.


World War I

Roosevelt angrily complained about the foreign policy of President Wilson, calling it "weak". When World War I began in 1914, Roosevelt strongly supported Britain, France and the Allies of World War I because he admired their fight for civilization; he demanded a harsher policy against Germany, especially regarding submarine warfare. In 1916, he campaigned energetically for Charles Evans Hughes and repeatedly denounced those Irish-Americans and German-Americans whose pleas for neutrality Roosevelt said were unpatriotic because they put the interest of Ireland and Germany ahead of America's. He insisted that one had to be 100% American, not a "hyphenated-American" who juggled multiple loyalties. When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, Roosevelt sought to raise a volunteer infantry division, but Wilson refused[34] Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Conrad von... European military alliances in 1915. ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the United States. ...


Roosevelt's attacks on Wilson helped the Republicans win control of Congress in the off-year elections of 1918. Roosevelt was popular enough to seriously contest the 1920 Republican nomination, but his health was broken by 1918 because of the lingering malaria. His son Quentin, a daring pilot with the American forces in France, was shot down behind German lines in 1918. Quentin was his youngest son and probably the most like him. It is said that the death of his son distressed him so much that Roosevelt never recovered from his loss.[35] Lt. ...


Last years

Theodore Roosevelt in 1918
Theodore Roosevelt in 1918

Despite his debilitating diseases Roosevelt remained upbeat to the end of his life. He was an enthusiastic proponent of the Scouting movement. The Boy Scouts of America gave him the title of Chief Scout Citizen, the only person to hold such title. One early Scout leader said, "The two things that gave Scouting great impetus and made it very popular were the uniform and Teddy Roosevelt's jingoism."[36] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (468x675, 34 KB) Summary I obtained this image from here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (468x675, 34 KB) Summary I obtained this image from here. ... Scouts and Guides from different countries on World Scout Moot 1996 Scouting is a worldwide youth organization. ... The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) is an American Scouting organization, with some presence in other countries. ...


On January 6, 1919, at the age of 60, Roosevelt died in his sleep of a coronary embolism at Oyster Bay, and was buried in nearby Young's Memorial Cemetery. Upon receiving word of his death, his son, Archie, telegraphed his siblings simply, "The old lion is dead."[37] Woodrow Wilson's vice president at the time Thomas R. Marshall said of his death "Death had to take Roosevelt sleeping, for if he had been awake, there would have been a fight."[38] January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... In medicine, an embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ... Archibald Roosevelt was the fourth child of president Theodore Roosevelts marriage to his second wife Edith Carow. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ...


Personal life

Roosevelt Family in 1903 with Quentin on the left, TR, Ted, Jr., "Archie", Alice, Kermit, Edith, and Ethel

Roosevelt was baptized in the family's church, part of the Reformed Church in America; he attended the Madison Square Presbyterian Church until the age of 16. Later in life, when Roosevelt lived at Oyster Bay he attended an Episcopal church with his wife. While in Washington he attended services at Grace Reformed Church.[39] As President he firmly believed in the separation of church and state and thought it unwise to have In God We Trust on currency, because he thought it sacrilegious to put the name of the Deity on something so common as money.[40] He was also a Freemason, and regularly attended the Matinecock Lodge's meetings. He once said that "One of the things that so greatly attracted me to Masonry that I hailed the chance of becoming a Mason was that it really did act up to what we, as a government, are pledged to — namely to treat each man on his merit as a man."[41] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (747x722, 116 KB) Pres. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (747x722, 116 KB) Pres. ... Lt. ... Theodore Roosevelt. ... Archibald Roosevelt was the fourth child of president Theodore Roosevelts marriage to his second wife Edith Carow. ... Alice Roosevelt, taken about 1900. ... Kermit Roosevelt, explorer, author and soldier, accompanied his father on expeditions to Africa and the Amazon Kermit Roosevelt I (October 10, 1889–June 4, 1943) was a son of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. ... White House portrait Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt (August 6, 1861 - September 30, 1948), second wife of Theodore Roosevelt, was First Lady of the United States from 1901 to 1909. ... Ethel Carow Roosevelt Derby (August 13, 1891-December 10, 1977) was the second daughter and fourth child of the President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt. ... Logo of the RCA The Reformed Church in America (RCA) is a Calvinist Reformed Protestant denomination that was formerly known as the Dutch Reformed Church. ... The word episcopal is derived from the Greek επίσκοπος, transliterated epískopos, which literally means overseer; the word, however, is used in religious contexts to refer to a bishop. ... The separation of church and state is a political doctrine which states that the institutions of the state or national government should be kept separate from those of religious institutions. ... In God We Trust on the twenty dollar bill In God We Trust is the national motto of the United States of America. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...


Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in pursuing what he called "the strenuous life." To this end, he exercised regularly and took up boxing, tennis, hiking, rowing, polo, and horseback riding. As governor of New York, he boxed with sparring partners several times a week, a practice he regularly continued as President until one blow detached his left retina, leaving him blind in that eye. Thereafter, he practiced jujutsu and continued his habit of skinny-dipping in the Potomac River during winter.[42][43] Jūjutsu training at an agricultural school in Japan around 1920 Jujutsu (Japanese: 柔術, jūjutsu; also jujitsu, ju jutsu, ju jitsu, or jiu jitsu) is a Japanese martial art that utilizes a large variety of techniques in defense against an opponent. ... Skinny dipping, also spelled skinny-dipping, is swimming naked, i. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ...

Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's estate
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's estate

He was an enthusiastic singlestick player and, according to Harper's Weekly, in 1905 showed up at a White House reception with his arm bandaged after a bout with General Leonard Wood.[44] Roosevelt was also an avid reader, reading tens of thousands of books, at a rate of several a day in multiple languages. Along with Thomas Jefferson Roosevelt is often considered the most well read of any American politician.[45] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 364 KB) Summary The House of Theodore Roosevelt called Sagamore Hill, in Oyster Bay, NY. This is now a National Historic Site. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 364 KB) Summary The House of Theodore Roosevelt called Sagamore Hill, in Oyster Bay, NY. This is now a National Historic Site. ... Sagamore Hill was the home of President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt. ... Singlestick is a martial art related to fencing, and a weapon for the art, bearing approximately the same relationship to the broadsword as the foil to the rapier in being a sporting version of the weapon for safe practice. ... Harpers Weekly Inauguration Number 1897 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine published by Harper & Brothers from 1857 until 1916. ... Leonard Wood (October 9, 1860 – August 7, 1927) was a physician who served as the US Army Chief of Staff and Governor General of the Philippines. ... Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 N.S. – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and an influential founder of the United States. ...


Legacy

Roosevelt's face on Mt. Rushmore
Roosevelt's face on Mt. Rushmore

For his gallantry at San Juan Hill, Roosevelt's commanders recommended him for the Medal of Honor, but his subsequent telegrams to the War Department complaining about the delays in returning American troops from Cuba doomed his chances. In the late 1990s, Roosevelt's supporters again took up the flag on his behalf and overcame opposition from elements within the U.S. Army and the National Archives. On January 16, 2001, President Bill Clinton posthumously awarded Theodore Roosevelt the Medal of Honor for his charge up San Juan Hill, Cuba, during the Spanish-American War. Roosevelt's eldest son, Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., received the Medal of Honor for heroism at the Battle of Normandy in 1944. The Roosevelts thus became one of only two father-son pairs to receive this honor. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (707x875, 111 KB) Summary Mt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (707x875, 111 KB) Summary Mt. ... This article is about the U.S. military award. ... The National Archives building in Washington, DC The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Theodore Roosevelt. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (absent) (Heeresgruppe B) Friedrich Dollmann () Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000...


Roosevelt's legacy includes several other important commemorations. Roosevelt was included with George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln at the Mount Rushmore Memorial, designed in 1927. The United States Navy named two ships for Roosevelt: the USS Theodore Roosevelt (SSBN-600), a submarine was in commission from 1961 to 1982; and the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71), an aircraft carrier has been on active duty in the Atlantic Fleet since 1986. George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799) led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was the first President of the United States, from 1789 to 1797. ... Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 N.S. – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and an influential founder of the United States. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Mount Rushmore National Memorial, near Keystone, South Dakota, is a United States Presidential Memorial that represents the first 150 years of the history of the United States of America with the 60-foot (18 m) sculptures of former U.S. Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln. ... USN redirects here. ... USS Theodore Roosevelt (SSBN-600), a George Washington-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for President Theodore Roosevelt. ... USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) is the fourth Nimitz-class supercarrier. ...


The Roosevelt Memorial Association (later the Theodore Roosevelt Association) or "TRA", was founded in 1919 to preserve Roosevelt's legacy. The Association preserved TR's birthplace, "Sagamore Hill," home, papers, and video film. The Theodore Roosevelt Association, (TRA) is an historical and cultural organization based in Oyster Bay, New York, open to the general public. ... The Theodore Roosevelt Association, (TRA) is an historical and cultural organization based in Oyster Bay, New York, open to the general public. ... Sagamore Hill was the home of President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt. ...

1910 cartoon shows Roosevelt's multiple roles to 1898
1910 cartoon shows Roosevelt's multiple roles to 1898
Roosevelt's multiple roles from 1899 to 1910
Roosevelt's multiple roles from 1899 to 1910

Overall, historians credit Roosevelt for changing the nation's political system by permanently placing the presidency at center stage and making character as important as the issues. His notable accomplishments include trust-busting and conservationism. However, he has been criticized for his interventionist and imperialist approach to nations he considered "uncivilized". Even so, history and legend have been kind to him. His friend, historian Henry Adams, proclaimed, "Roosevelt, more than any other living man ....showed the singular primitive quality that belongs to ultimate matter — the quality that mediaeval theology assigned to God — he was pure act." Historians typically rank Roosevelt among the top five presidents.[46][47] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1475x707, 126 KB) Summary 1910 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1475x707, 126 KB) Summary 1910 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1435x718, 127 KB) Summary 1910 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1435x718, 127 KB) Summary 1910 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Henry Adams Henry Brooks Adams (February 16, 1838 – March 27, 1918) was an American historian, journalist and novelist. ...


Popular culture

As a charismatic President often considered larger than life, Roosevelt (or characters using his name loosely based on him) has appeared in numerous fiction books, television shows, films, and other media of popular culture.

Theodore Roosevelt as depicted in the Scrooge McDuck Universe.
Theodore Roosevelt as depicted in the Scrooge McDuck Universe.

In the Scrooge McDuck comics by Keno Don Rosa, Roosevelt appears several times, often as the mentor of an adolescent Scrooge, teaching him the values of self-confidence and self-reliance. Image File history File links TeddyScrooge. ... Image File history File links TeddyScrooge. ... The Scrooge McDuck universe is the fictional world where Scrooge McDuck lives. ... Scrooge McDuck or Uncle Scrooge is a fictional Scottish character who first appeared in Dell Comics Four Color Comics #178 Christmas on Bear Mountain in December 1947. ... Keno Don Hugo Rosa (often just called Don Rosa) is a famous illustrator of Donald Duck and other Disney characters. ... A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ...


Roosevelt was used in an episode of the Disney cartoon version of Tarzan on his African excursion after the Presidency. James H. Pierce and Joan Burroughs Pierce starred in the 1932-34 Tarzan radio series Tarzan, a character created by Edgar Rice Burroughs, first appeared in the 1914 novel Tarzan of the Apes, and then in twenty-three sequels. ...


He is also a major character in Harry Turtledove's fictional Timeline-191 alternate history, along with Caleb Carr's novels The Alienist and The Angel of Darkness, and is the protagonist of Benito Cereno's Tales From the Bully Pulpit comic book. In the comic play and movie Arsenic and Old Lace part of the zany atmosphere is created by a character who holds the delusion that he is Theodore Roosevelt. Harry Turtledove at Worldcon 2005 in Glasgow Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949), is a historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... Timeline-191 is a fan name given to a series of Harry Turtledove alternate history novels. ... Caleb Carr (born August 2, 1955) is an American novelist and noted military historian. ... The Alienist is a novel from 1994 (ISBN 0-553-57299-7), written by Caleb Carr. ... The Angel of Darkness is a novel by Caleb Carr. ... Benito Cereno is a novella or short novel by Herman Melville. ... Tales From The Bully Pulpit is a graphic novel written by Benito Cereno and illustrated by Graeme MacDonald, and distributed by Image Comics. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... Arsenic and Old Lace is a play by Joseph Kesselring, which was made into a film by director Frank Capra. ...


Filmmaker John Milius directed two films in which Roosevelt was a central character: The Wind and the Lion (1975) in which he was played by Brian Keith; and Rough Riders (1997) in which he was played by Tom Berenger. Image:Milius. ... The Wind and the Lion is a 1975 adventure film. ... Brian Keith (November 14, 1921 – June 24, 1997) was an American stage, film and television actor. ... Rough Riders is a 1997 film about Theodore Roosevelt and the regiment (the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry aka the Rough Riders) he help raise to fight in Spanish-American War of 1898. ... Tom Berenger (born May 31, 1949) is an American actor known mainly for his roles in action films. ...


Roosevelt's lasting popular legacy is the stuffed toy bears (teddy bears), named after him following an incident on a hunting trip in 1902. Roosevelt famously refused to kill a captured black bear simply for the sake of making a kill. Bears and later bear cubs became closely associated with Roosevelt in political cartoons thereafter.[48] Teddy bear Barrymans original cartoon A Teddy bear is a stuffed toy bear for children. ... Binomial name Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780 The American black bear (Ursus americanus), also known as the cinnamon bear, is the most common bear species native to North America. ...


Trivia

  • On September 3, 1902 a landau carrying Roosevelt and Secret Service Operative William Craig was struck by a trolley in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Craig was killed and Roosevelt was injured.

A landau (named after the German city) is a coachbuilding term for a specific body style. ... William Craig (1855-1902) was the first Secret Service agent killed in the line of duty. ...

Media

Theodore Roosevelt's voice can be heard in several speeches from the Vincent Voice Library at Michigan State University: http://www.lib.msu.edu/vincent/presidents/index.htm Michigan State University (MSU) is a public university in East Lansing, Michigan. ...

Teddy Roosevelt, San Francisco, 1903. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... OGG can refer to several items: Ogg is a multimedia bitstream container, used for audio and video files, especially Vorbis audio files. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Teddy Roosevelt video montage. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... OGG can refer to several items: Ogg is a multimedia bitstream container, used for audio and video files, especially Vorbis audio files. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

See also

Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. ... Martha Bulloch age 22 - Was She the inspiration for the Scarlett OHara character? Martha Bulloch Roosevelt (July 8, 1835 – February 14, 1884) was the mother of US President Theodore Roosevelt and the paternal grandmother of Eleanor Roosevelt. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her stature as First Lady of the United States, 1933-1945 to promote her husbands (Franklin D. Roosevelts) New Deal, as well as Civil Rights. ... Alice Hathaway Lee was only seventeen when she first met Theodore Roosevelt on Oct 18, 1878 Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt (July 29, 1861 in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts – February 14, 1884 in Manhattan, New York) was the first wife of Theodore Roosevelt and the mother of their only child together, Alice... White House portrait Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt (August 6, 1861 - September 30, 1948), second wife of Theodore Roosevelt, was First Lady of the United States from 1901 to 1909. ... Alice Roosevelt, taken about 1900. ... Theodore Roosevelt. ... Kermit Roosevelt, explorer, author and soldier, accompanied his father on expeditions to Africa and the Amazon Kermit Roosevelt I (October 10, 1889–June 4, 1943) was a son of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. ... Ethel Carow Roosevelt Derby (August 13, 1891-December 10, 1977) was the second daughter and fourth child of the President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt. ... Archibald Roosevelt was the fourth child of president Theodore Roosevelts marriage to his second wife Edith Carow. ... Lt. ... Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (February 28, 1860- August 14, 1894) was the brother of US President Theodore Roosevelt and the father of Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, who would marry her Hyde Park Roosevelt cousin and future US President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ... Anna Bamie Roosevelt Cowles in 1882 Anna Bamie Roosevelt Cowles (January 18, 1855 – August 25, 1931) was the older sister of United States President Theodore Roosevelt. ... Corinne Roosevelt Robinson (September 27, 1861- February 17, 1933) was the younger sister of former President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt and an aunt of former First Lady of the United States, Eleanor Roosevelt. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Theodore Roosevelt Association, (TRA) is an historical and cultural organization based in Oyster Bay, New York, open to the general public. ... A comprehensive project to publish, in one set of collection, the significant saysings, important conversations and writings of 26th US President, Theodore Roosevelt. ... A canal tug, making its way down to the Caribbean end of the canal, waits to be joined by a ship in the uppermost chamber of the Gatun Locks. ... The Great White Fleet steaming in column; the USS Kansas at left. ... Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Commanders N/A N/A Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 134,817+ KIA/POW, 170,000 MIA etc. ... This is an incomplete list of Political appointees in the United States Government whose party was different from that of the President who made the appointment. ...

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ [Thomas A. Bailey, Presidential Greatness (1966) p. 308
  2. ^ Editors (2006). Month=June&Date=26 "Theodore Roosevelt - The 20th Century Express - "At home and abroad, Theodore Roosevelt was the locomotive President, the man who drew his flourishing nation into the future" ". Retrieved March 26, 2006.
  3. ^ "TR's Legacy - The Environment". Retrieved March 6, 2006.
  4. ^ Thayer, William Roscoe (1919). Theodore Roosevelt: An Intimate Biography, Chapter I, p. 20. Bartleby.com.
  5. ^ Roosevelt, Theodore (1913). Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography, Chapter I, p. 13.
  6. ^ "The Film & More: Program Transcript Part One". Retrieved March 9, 2006.
  7. ^ T. R.: The Last Romantic by H. W. Brands P. 49-50
  8. ^ Brands p. 62
  9. ^ The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt by Edmund Morris.
  10. ^ "The Naval War of 1812 by Theodore Roosevelt", via Project Gutenberg.
  11. ^ Brands, pp 123-29
  12. ^ Brands pp 175-79
  13. ^ Thayer, Chapter V, pp. 4, 6.
  14. ^ Thayer, ch. VI, pp. 1–2.
  15. ^ Andrews, William, "The Early Years: The Challenge of Public Order - 1845 to 1870," http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/html/3100/retro.html - New York City Police Department History Site. Retrieved August 28, 2006.
  16. ^ Editors, "Leadership of the City of New York Police Department 1845-1901," http://www.nycpolicemuseum.org/html/tour/leadr1845.htm - The New York City Police Department Museum. Retrieved August 28, 2006.
  17. ^ Thayer, Chapter VI, pp. 18–24.
  18. ^ Thayer, Chapter VII, pp. 20–26.
  19. ^ Thayer, Chapter VIII, p. 7.
  20. ^ Thayer, Chapter VIII, p. 19.
  21. ^ Thayer, Chapter VIII, pp. 27–28.
  22. ^ Blum 1980 pp 43-44
  23. ^ American High School Students, "Theodore Roosevelt: Conserving America's Future YouTUBE Presentation on Theodore Roosevelt and Conservation, YouTube (April 23, 2006) Online Edition. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  24. ^ The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia (2005). "Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)". Retrieved March 6, 2006.
  25. ^ a b c Hanson, David C. (2005). "Theodore Roosevelt: Lion in the White House". Retrieved March 6, 2006.
  26. ^ Smith, Ira R. T.; Morris, Joe Alex (1949). "Dear Mr. President": The Story of Fifty Years in the White House Mail Room, p. 52. Julian Messner.
  27. ^ Kennedy, Robert C. (2005). "'I hear there are some kids in the White House this year'". Retrieved March 6, 2006.
  28. ^ Pringle 465-7
  29. ^ (Some sources attribute this quote to one of Roosevelt's sons instead.) Thayer, Chapter XIII, p. 7.
  30. ^ O'Toole, Patricia (2005) When Trumpets Call, p. 67, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-684-86477-0
  31. ^ Thayer, Chapter XXI, p. 10.
  32. ^ Thayer, Chapter XXII, pp. 25–31.
  33. ^ Thayer, Chapter XXIII, pp. 4–7.
  34. ^ Brands 781-4; Cramer, C.H. Newton D. Baker (1961) 110-113
  35. ^ {{cite book|author=Dalton, Kathleen |title=Theodore Roosevelt - A Strenuous Life|publisher=Vintage Book|year=2002|id=ISBN 0-679-44663-X, 507
  36. ^ Larson, Keith (2006). "Theodore Roosevelt". Retrieved March 6, 2006.
  37. ^ {{cite book|author=Dalton, Kathleen |title=Theodore Roosevelt - A Strenuous Life|publisher=Vintage Book|year=2002|id=ISBN 0-679-44663-X, 507
  38. ^ Manners, William. TR and Will: A Friendship that Split the Republican Party. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1969.
  39. ^ "The Religious Affiliation of Theodore Roosevelt U.S. President". Retrieved March 7, 2006.
  40. ^ Reynolds, Ralph C. (1999). "In God We Trust: All Others Pay Cash". Retrieved March 7, 2006.
  41. ^ Matinecock Masonic Historical Society. "History". Retrieved March 12, 2006.
  42. ^ Thayer, Chapter XVII, pp. 22–24.
  43. ^ Shaw, K.B. & Maiden, David (2006). "Theodore Roosevelt". Retrieved March 7, 2006.
  44. ^ Amberger, J Christoph, Secret History of the Sword Adventures in Ancient Martial Arts 1998, ISBN 1-892515-04-0.
  45. ^ David H. Burton, The Learned Presidency 1988, p 12.
  46. ^ The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia (2005). "Biography: Impact and Legacy". Retrieved March 7, 2006.
  47. ^ "Legacy". Retrieved March 7, 2006.
  48. ^ "History of the Teddy Bear". Retrieved March 7, 2006.

March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... YouTube is a popular free video sharing web site which lets users upload, view, and share video clips. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Primary sources

  • Brands, H.W. ed. The Selected Letters of Theodore Roosevelt. (2001)
  • Harbaugh, William ed. The Writings Of Theodore Roosevelt (1967). A one-volume selection of Roosevelt's speeches and essays.
  • Hart, Albert Bushnell and Herbert Ronald Ferleger, eds. Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia (1941), Roosevelt's opinions on many issues; online version at [3]
  • Morison, Elting E., John Morton Blum, and Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., eds., The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, 8 vols. (1951-1954). Very large, annotated edition of letters from TR.
  • Roosevelt, Theodore (1999). Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography. online at Bartleby.com.
  • Roosevelt, Theodore. The Works of Theodore Roosevelt (National edition, 20 vol. 1926); 18,000 pages containing most of TR's speeches, books and essays, but not his letters; a CD-ROM edition is available; some of TR's books are available online through Project Bartleby
  • Theodore Roosevelt books and speeches on Project Gutenberg

A comprehensive project to publish, in one set of collection, the significant saysings, important conversations and writings of 26th US President, Theodore Roosevelt. ...

Secondary sources

  • Beale Howard K. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power. (1956). standard history of his foreign policy
  • Blum, John Morton The Republican Roosevelt. (1954). Series of essays that examine how TR did politics
  • Blum, John Morton. The Progressive Presidents: Roosevelt, Wilson, Roosevelt, Johnson (1980)
  • Brands, H.W. Theodore Roosevelt (2001), full biography
  • Cooper, John Milton The Warrior and the Priest: Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt. (1983) a dual biography
  • Dalton, Kathleen. Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life. (2002), full biography
  • Gould, Lewis L. The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. (1991), standard history of his domestic and foreign policy as president
  • Harbaugh, William Henry. The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt. (1963), full biography
  • Keller, Morton, ed., Theodore Roosevelt: A Profile (1967) excerpts from TR and from historians.
  • Millard, Candice. River of Doubt: Theodore Roosevelt's Darkest Journey. (2005)
  • McCullough, David. Mornings on Horseback, The Story of an Extraordinary Family. a Vanished Way of Life, and the Unique Child Who Became Theodore Roosevelt. (2001) biography to 1884
  • Morris, Edmund The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt, to 1901 (1979); vol 2: Theodore Rex 1901-1909. (2001); Pulitzer prize for Volume 1
  • Mowry, George. The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America, 1900-1912. (1954) general survey of era
  • Mowry, George E. Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement. (2001) focus on 1912
  • Powell, Jim. Bully Boy: The Truth About Theodore Roosevelt's Legacy (New York: Crown Forum, 2006). Consequences of his policies as seen by a conservative libertarian.
  • Pringle, Henry F. Theodore Roosevelt (1932; 2nd ed. 1956), full biography
  • Putnam, Carleton Theodore Roosevelt: A Biography, Volume I: The Formative Years (1958), only volume published, to age 28.
  • Renehan, Edward J. The Lion's Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and His Family in Peace and War. (1992), examines TR and his family during the World War I period
  • Rhodes, James Ford Rhodes. The McKinley and Roosevelt Administrations, 1897-1909 (1922)
  • Strock, James M. Theodore Roosevelt on Leadership (2001) Study of TR's leadership style.

Edmund Morris is a British biographer, winner of the 1980 Pulitzer Prize. ...

External links

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Frank S. Black
Governor of New York
1899 - 1901
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Benjamin B. Odell, Jr.
Preceded by:
Garret Hobart
Republican Party Vice Presidential Candidate
1900 (won)
Succeeded by:
Charles W. Fairbanks
Preceded by:
Garret Hobart
Vice President of the United States
March 4, 1901 - September 14, 1901
Succeeded by:
Charles W. Fairbanks
Preceded by:
William McKinley
President of the United States
September 14, 1901 - March 4, 1909
Succeeded by:
William Howard Taft
Preceded by:
William McKinley
Republican Party Presidential Candidate
1904 (won)
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Theodore Roosevelt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4231 words)
Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858–January 6, 1919) was the twenty-fifth (1901) Vice President and the twenty-sixth (1901-09) President of the United States, succeeding to the office upon the assassination of William McKinley.
Roosevelt was born at 28 East 20th Street in the modern-day Gramercy section of New York City on October 27, 1858, as the second of four children of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr.
Roosevelt died at Oyster Bay, Nassau County, New York, on January 6, 1919, of a coronary embolism in his sleep at the age of 60, and was buried in Young's Memorial Cemetery.
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