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Encyclopedia > President Richard Nixon
Richard Milhous Nixon
Richard Nixon

In office
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
Vice President(s)   Spiro Agnew (1969-1973)
None (1973)
Gerald R. Ford (1973-1974)
Preceded by Lyndon B. Johnson
Succeeded by Gerald Ford
Preceded by Alben Barkley
Succeeded by Lyndon Johnson

In office
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
President Dwight D. Eisenhower

Born January 9, 1913
Yorba Linda, California
Died April 22, 1994
New York City
Political party Republican
Spouse Thelma Catherine Patricia "Pat" (Ryan) Nixon
Religion Quaker (non-practicing) [2]
Signature

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. He is thus far the only U.S. President to have resigned from office. His resignation came in the face of imminent impeachment related to the Watergate scandal. Nixon's abuse of his office, as well as his broad view of the prerogatives of the president, led many to call his time in the White House the Imperial Presidency. Richard Nixon Uploaded from the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the 39th Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the 55th governor of the state of Maryland. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877–April 30, 1956) was a Representative and a Senator from Kentucky and the thirty_fifth Vice President of the United States. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... This page is about Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Yorba Linda is a city located in Orange County, California, approximately 13 miles northeast of Downtown Santa Ana, and 40 miles southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Nickname: Big Apple, City that never Sleeps, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Manhattan Queens Brooklyn Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... GOP redirects here. ... Patricia Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of Richard Nixon and the First Lady of the United States from 1969 to 1974. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Image File history File links Richard_M._Nixon_signature. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... The term Watergate scandal refers to a series of events, spanning from 1972 to 1974, that gained its name from burglaries of the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C.. Though then-President Richard Nixon had endured two years of mounting political embarrassments... The Imperial Presidency is a term used from the 1960s and made popular by the historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. ...


Nixon is noted for his innovative foreign policy, especially détente with the Soviet Union, his opening of U.S. relations with China, and ending American involvement in the Vietnam War, as well as for his middle-of-the-road domestic policy that combined conservative rhetoric and, in many cases, liberal action, as in his civil rights, environmental, and economic initiatives. Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ...


Nixon was the 36th Vice President (1953–1961), serving under Dwight D. Eisenhower. Nixon is the only American to have been elected twice to both the vice presidency and the presidency. Some give Nixon credit for redefining the role of the vice president. During his time in that office, he was a highly visible spokesman for the Eisenhower administration, particularly on issues affecting the Republican Party and international affairs during the Cold War. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... This page is about Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... GOP redirects here. ... The Cold War was the period of protracted conflict and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the late 1940s until the late 1980s. ...

Contents

Early years

Richard Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California to Francis A. Nixon and Hannah Milhous Nixon. He was raised by his mother as an evangelical Quaker. His upbringing is said to have been marked by conservative evangelical Quaker observances such as refraining from drinking, dancing and swearing. His father (known as Frank) was a former member of the Methodist Protestant Church who had converted to Quakerism. Richard Nixon's great-grandfather George Nixon III had been killed at the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War while serving in the 73rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Yorba Linda is a city located in Orange County, California, approximately 13 miles northeast of Downtown Santa Ana, and 40 miles southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. ... Francis Anthony Frank Nixon (3 December 1878–4 September 1956), father of United States President Richard Nixon, was born in Vinton County, Ohio. ... Hannah Milhous Nixon (7 March 1885–30 September 1967) was mother of President Richard Nixon. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to religious practices and traditions which are found in conservative, almost always Protestant, Christianity. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The Methodist Protestant Church was officially formed in 1828 as a church that was Wesleyan in doctrine, but rejected the episcopacy. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921 71,699 Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing) 22,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing) The Battle of... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Lincoln, President Ulysses S. Grant, General Jefferson Davis, President Robert E. Lee, General Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action...


Nixon's parents had five children:

The young Lt Commander Richard Nixon of the US Navy 1945
The young Lt Commander Richard Nixon of the US Navy 1945

Nixon attended Fullerton High School from 1926-1928 and Whittier High School from 1928-1930. He graduated first in his class, showing a penchant for Shakespeare and Latin. He declined a full-tuition scholarship to Harvard, and attended Whittier College, a local Quaker school, where he co-founded the Orthogonian Society, a fraternity. Nixon was a formidable debater and was elected student body president. A lifelong American football fan, Nixon practiced with the team assiduously, but spent most of his time on the bench. In 1934, he graduated second in his class from Whittier, and went on to Duke University School of Law, where he received a full scholarship and graduated third in his class. Harold Samuel Nixon (1 June 1909–7 March 1933) was a brother of United States President Richard Nixon. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in leap years). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Francis Donald Nixon (23 November 1914 – 27 June 1987) was a brother of United States President Richard Nixon. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arthur Burdg Nixon (May 26, 1918–August 19, 1925) was a brother of President Richard Nixon. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Edward Calvert Nixon (born 3 May 1930) is the youngest brother of President Richard Nixon: Harold Nixon (June 1, 1909 – March 7, 1933) Richard Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) Donald Nixon (November 23, 1914 – June 27, 1987) Arthur Nixon (May 26, 1918 – August 10, 1925) Edward Nixon Nixon... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Public photo of the young LT Commander Richard Nixon of the US Navy 1945 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Public photo of the young LT Commander Richard Nixon of the US Navy 1945 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Fullerton High School is a high school located in Fullerton, California, United States. ... Whittier High School (WHS) is a high school located in Whittier, California, United States and belongs to the Whittier Union High School District. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Tuition means instruction, teaching or a fee charged for educational instruction especially at a formal institution of learning. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Whittier College in 1912 Hoover Hall and Library Whittier College is a private liberal arts college in Whittier, California. ... The Orthogonian Society is a local fraternity at Whittier College, co-founded by Richard Nixon and primarily known for its football team heritage. ... Look up fraternity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. The school, which officially became Duke University in 1924, traces its institutional roots to 1838. ... The School of Law is one of 10 schools and colleges at Duke University. ...


In 1937, Nixon returned to California, was admitted to the bar, and began working in the law office of a family friend in a nearby small-town. The work was mostly routine, and Nixon generally found it to be dull. He later wrote that family law cases caused him particular discomfort, since his reticent Quaker upbringing was severely at odds with the idea of discussing intimate marital details with strangers. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... A bar association is a body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ...


Subsequently, he met Thelma "Pat" Ryan, a high school teacher; they were married on June 21, 1940. They had two daughters: Tricia and Julie. Patricia Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of Richard Nixon and the First Lady of the United States from 1969 to 1974. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Categories: Stub | 1946 births | Children of U.S. Presidents ... Julie Nixon Eisenhower was born July 5, 1948 in Washington, D.C. the second daughter of Richard and Pat Nixon. ...


During World War II, Nixon served as a reserve officer in the Navy. He received his training at Quonset Point, Rhode Island and Ottumwa, Iowa, before serving in the supply corps on several islands in the South Pacific, commanding cargo handling units in the SCAT[1] . There he was known as "Nick" and for his prowess in poker, banking a large sum that helped finance his first campaign for Congress. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... USN redirects here. ... Quonset Point is a small peninsula in Narragansett Bay in the U.S. state of Rhode Island. ... Ottumwa (pronounced Uh-tuhm-wa) is a city in Wapello County, Iowa. ... South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command (SCAT) was a joint command of U.S. military logistics units in World War II. It contributed notably to the success of U.S. forces in the battles for Guadalcanal (1942-1943) and New Georgia (1943). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate Dick Cheney, R, since January 20, 2001 Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert, R, since January 6, 1999 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of January 4, 2005 elections) Democratic Party Republican Party...


House and Senate: 1946-1952

Nixon was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1946, defeating Democratic incumbent Jerry Voorhis for California's 12th congressional district. Nixon's campaign alleged that his opponent's CIO PAC support showed that Voorhis was collaborating with communist-controlled labor unions. Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Jerry Voorhis (April 6, 1901-?) was a democratic politician from California. ... Map Californias 12th congressional district is one of 53 California Congressional Districts. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...


Nixon's first major breakthrough came in his two terms in Congress, where his dogged investigation on the House Un-American Activities Committee broke the impasse of the Alger Hiss spy case in 1948. Nixon believed Whittaker Chambers, who alleged that Hiss, a high State Department official, was a Soviet spy. Nixon discovered that Chambers had saved microfilm reproductions of incriminating documents by hiding the film in a pumpkin (these became known as the "Pumpkin Papers"). These documents were alleged both to be accessible only by Hiss, and to have been typed on Hiss's personal typewriter. The discovery that Hiss, who had been an adviser to FDR, could have been a Soviet spy, thrust Nixon into the public eye and made him the hero to FDR's many enemies. In reality, his support for internationalism put him closer to the center of the Republican party, often closer to liberal Republicans than to conservatives. HUAC hearings House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA) (1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 - November 15, 1996) was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. ... Whittaker Chambers, 1948 Jay Vivian (David Whittaker) Chambers (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961) was an American writer and editor. ...


In 1950, Nixon was elected to the United States Senate over Congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas. Accusing her of Communist or fellow traveler sympathies, Nixon called her "the Pink Lady" and said she was "pink right down to her underwear." Gahagan, meanwhile, gave Nixon one of the most enduring nicknames in politics: "Tricky Dick." Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Helen Gahagan in the 1920s Helen Gahagan (25 November 1900 - 28 June 1980) was a United States actress and (under the name Helen Gahagan Douglas) a politician. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A fellow traveller is a person who sympathizes with the beliefs of a particular organization, but does not belong to that organization. ... A reference to President Richard Nixon, stemming from his alleged involvement in the Watergate scandal in 1973. ...


Vice presidency

Order: 36th Vice President
Term of Office: January 20, 1953January 20, 1961
Preceded by: Alben Barkley
Succeeded by: Lyndon B. Johnson
President: Dwight D. Eisenhower
Political party: Republican

In 1952, he was elected Vice President on Dwight D. Eisenhower's ticket. He was 39 years old. Eisenhower Library File No. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877–April 30, 1956) was a Representative and a Senator from Kentucky and the thirty_fifth Vice President of the United States. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... This page is about Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... GOP redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... This page is about Dwight D. Eisenhower. ...


In September 1952, during the campaign, The New York Post and other publications reported that Nixon had kept a business fund for personal use. Democrats and leading Republicans pressured Eisenhower to remove Nixon from the ticket. Nixon convinced Eisenhower to let him defend himself. Nixon went on TV on September 23 and defended himself in a famous speech. He provided an independent third-party review of the fund's accounting along with a personal summary of his finances, which he cited as exonerating him from wrongdoing, and he charged that the Democratic Presidential candidate, Adlai Stevenson, also had a slush fund. This speech would, however, become better known for its rhetoric, such as when he stated that his wife Pat did not wear mink, but rather "a respectable Republican cloth coat," and that although he had been given a cocker spaniel named "Checkers" in addition to his other campaign contributions, he was not going to give it back because his daughters loved it. As a result, this speech became known as the "Checkers speech." At the end of the broadcast, Nixon intended to appeal to viewers to write to the Republican National Committee to voice their support or opposition. Although the broadcast was cut off before he could make this appeal, his speech resulted in a flood of support, prompting Eisenhower to keep Nixon on the ticket. September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician, noted for intellectual demeanor and advocacy of liberal causes in the Democratic party. ... Slush fund is, colloquially, a term which has come to mean an auxiliary monetary account or a reserve fund. ... Both types of Cocker Spaniel come in a variety of coat colors. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Checkers speech The Checkers speech was given by Richard Nixon on September 23, 1952, when he was the Republican candidate for the Vice Presidency. ...


Nixon greatly expanded the office of Vice President. Although he had little formal power he had the attention of the media and the Republican party. He demonstrated that the office could be a springboard to the White House as it had not been since the 19th century; most Vice Presidents since have followed his lead and sought the presidency. Nixon was the first Vice President to step in to temporarily run the government. He did so three times when Eisenhower was ill: on the occasions of Eisenhower's heart attack on September 24, 1955; his ileitis in June 1956; and his stroke on November 25, 1957. Despite this, Nixon was forced to announce his own inclusion on the 1956 Eisenhower re-election campaign, which highlighted the lack of rapport he and Eisenhower shared. Nixon's quick thinking was on display on July 24, 1959, at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow where he and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had an impromptu "kitchen debate" about the merits of capitalism versus communism. North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Crohns disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the alimentary tract and it can involve any part of it - from the mouth to the anus. ... A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA),[1] is an acute neurologic injury in which the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: ; IPA: ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17, 1894 [O.S. April 5]–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... The Kitchen Debate was an impromptu debate (through interpreters) between Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, on July 24, 1959. ... This box:      Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately or corporately owned and operated for profit, in which investment is determined by private decision, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


1960 election and post-Vice Presidency

In 1960, he ran for President against John F. Kennedy. The race was close all year long.[2] Nixon campaigned on his experience, but Kennedy said it was time for new blood and suggested the Eisenhower-Nixon administration had allowed the Soviet Union to make gains in the arms race. Kennedy also made much of the stagnant American economy of 1960, telling voters it was time to "get the country moving again." It also did not help that when Eisenhower was asked about major policy decisions that Nixon had helped make, the president responded: "Give me a week and I might think of one." In the first of four televised debates, Kennedy not only looked better physically, he also came off as polished, articulate, and mature. The performance dispelled many people's worries that the young senator was too inexperienced to be president. Nixon, for his part, was recovering from an illness and, with the stubble on his face visible, looked unimpressive. (Nixon's performance in the debate was perceived to be mediocre only in the still-young medium of television, though; many people listening on the radio thought Nixon had won.) Nixon lost the 1960 election narrowly. There were charges of vote fraud in Texas and Illinois, and Nixon supporters challenged the results in both states as well as nine others. All of these challenges failed. The Kennedy camp challenged Nixon's victory in Hawaii. That challenge succeeded, and after all the court battles and recounts were done, Kennedy had gained a greater number of electoral votes than he had held after Election Day. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ...


Nixon wrote Six Crises (1962), a book dealing with his political involvement as a congressman, senator and as Vice-President. The book used six different crises Nixon had experienced throughout his political career to illustrate his political memoirs. The book was not supposed to be an academic work on the subject of crises, rather a method of depicting his political biography in a personal manner. The book won praise from many policy experts and critics.


In 1962, Nixon suffered another defeat, this time in a race for Governor of California. Years of campaigning and losing had worn Nixon down. In his concession speech, Nixon blamed the media for favoring his opponent Pat Brown and stated that it was his "last press conference" and that "you won't have Nixon to kick around anymore." This was widely believed to be the end of his career. In just another 12 months though, John Kennedy would be assassinated in Dallas, Texas. The events that define the tumultuous 1960s were beginning, and before the decade closed a "New Nixon," one who was "tanned, rested, and ready," would win the Presidency in another close election. Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority... Edmund Gerald Brown Sr. ... Assassin and Targeted killing redirect here. ...      Nickname: Big D Location in the state of Texas Country United States State Texas Counties Dallas, Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall Mayor Laura Miller Area    - City 997. ...


1968 election

Nixon moved to New York City where he became a senior partner in the leading law firm, Nixon Mudge Rose Guthrie & Alexander. During the 1966 Congressional elections, he stumped the country in support of Republican candidates, rebuilding his base in the party. In the election of 1968, he completed a remarkable political comeback by taking the nomination. Nixon's success in the nomination might be attributed to Robert F. Kennedy's assassination after he won the California primary in June 1968. Nixon appealed to what he called the "silent majority" of socially conservative Americans who disliked the hippie counterculture and anti-war demonstrators. Nixon promised peace with honor, and, though never claiming to be able to win the war, Nixon did say that "new leadership will end the war and win the peace in the Pacific". He did not explain in detail his plans to end the war in Vietnam, causing Democratic nominee Hubert H. Humphrey to allege that he must have had some "secret plan." Nixon didn't invent the phrase, but because he did not disavow the term, it soon became part of the campaign. In his memoirs, Nixon wrote that he actually had no such plan. He eventually defeated Humphrey by less than 1% of the popular vote, along with independent candidate George Wallace to become the 37th President of the United States. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Nickname: Big Apple, City that never Sleeps, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Manhattan Queens Brooklyn Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... The U.S. House election, 1966 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1966 which occurred in the middle of President Lyndon Johnsons second term. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Silent Majority was a Swiss rap and hip hop music group. ... Singer at contemporary Russian Rainbow gathering Hippie, occasionally spelled hippy, refers to a subgroup of the 1960s counterculture that began in the United States, becoming an established social group by 1965 before declining in the 1970s. ... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe a cultural group whose values and norms of behavior run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson. ... An election promise is a promise made to the public by a politician who is trying to win an election. ... Governor George Wallace (in front of door) standing defiantly against desegregation while being confronted by Deputy U.S. Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach at the University of Alabama in 1963. ...


The Nixon Presidency (1969-1974)

Foreign policies

Vietnam War

Main article: Vietnam War
President Nixon greets released POW Lt.Cdr John McCain, future US Senator, upon his return from years in a North Vietnamese prison camp in 1973.
President Nixon greets released POW Lt.Cdr John McCain, future US Senator, upon his return from years in a North Vietnamese prison camp in 1973.

Once in office, he proposed the Nixon Doctrine to establish a strategy of turning over the fighting of the war to the Vietnamese. In July 1969, he visited South Vietnam, and met with President Nguyen Van Thieu and with U.S. military commanders. American involvement in the war declined steadily until all American troops were gone in 1973. After the withdrawal of U.S. troops, fighting was left to the South Vietnamese army. Although the South Vietnamese were well supplied with modern arms, their fighting capability was limited by inadequate funding, low morale, and corruption. The lack of funding was primarily because of large funding cutbacks by the U.S. Congress. Nixon was widely praised in the United States for having delivered 'peace with honor', and ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam. However, a part of his strategy was the resumption of the U.S. bombing of North Vietnam should the DRV violate the Peace agreement, which he was confident they would. Watergate, however, made it impossible to carry this out. Nixon, along with his National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger also sought a 'decent interval' solution to the problem of South Vietnam, so that that country would survive for long enough for him not to be personally blamed for its ultimate collapse. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Public photo of President Richard M. Nixon greeting released US officer and POW and future US Senator John McCain (R-Arizona) after Vietnam war File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Public photo of President Richard M. Nixon greeting released US officer and POW and future US Senator John McCain (R-Arizona) after Vietnam war File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... In the Royal Navy, United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, a lieutenant commander (lieutenant-commander or Lt Cdr in the RN) is a commissioned officer superior to a lieutenant and inferior to a commander. ... John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is the senior U.S. Senator from Arizona, having served since 1987. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809 km² N/A Population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, Nobel laureate and statesman. ...


Nixon ordered secret bombing campaigns in Cambodia in March 1969 (code-named Operation Menu) to destroy what was believed to be the headquarters of the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam, and later escalated the conflict with secretly bombing Laos before Congress cut the funding for the conflict in Vietnam. Operation Menu was the codename for the American bombing of North Vietnamese strongholds and supply lines in Cambodia during the Vietnam War in 1969. ... Viet Cong (NLF) flag The Viet Cong, also known as the National Front for the Liberation of Southern Vietnam (Vietnamese Mặt Trận Dân Tộc Giải Phóng Miền Nam), VC, or the National Liberation Front (NLF), was an insurgent (partisan) organization fighting the Republic...


In ordering the bombings, Nixon realized he would be extending an unpopular war as well as breaching Cambodia's stated neutrality. During deliberations over Nixon's impeachment, his unorthodox use of executive powers in ordering the bombings was considered as an article of impeachment, but the charge was dropped as not a violation of constitutional powers. Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The executive in political science and constitutional law is the branch of the government which is responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ...


President Nixon's "Vietnamization" policy sought to build up South Vietnamese forces to replace American troops. The Pentagon Papers, published in 1971, exposed the deception that had led the United States into the Vietnam War. The Pentagon Papers is the colloquial term for United States-Vietnam Relations, 1945-1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, a 47 volume, 7,000-page, top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945...


China and the Soviet Union

President Nixon greets Communist Party of China Chairman Mao (left) in a visit to China in 1972.
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President Nixon greets Communist Party of China Chairman Mao (left) in a visit to China in 1972.

Relations between the Western and Eastern power blocs changed dramatically in the early 1970s. In 1960, the People's Republic of China ended the alliance with its biggest ally, the Soviet Union, in the Sino-Soviet Split. As tension between the two communist nations reached its peak in 1969 and 1970, Nixon, with significant strategic aid from Henry Kissinger, decided to use their conflict to shift the balance of power towards the West in the Cold War. In what later would be known as the "China Card", the Nixon administration deliberately improved relations with China in order to gain a strategic advantage over the Soviet Union, but also gave Moscow a chance to improve relations so as not to be squeezed by a US-China détente. In 1971, a move was made to improve relations when China invited an American table tennis team to China; hence the term "Ping Pong Diplomacy". Nixon sent Henry Kissinger on a secret mission to China in July 1971, after which a stunned world was told that Nixon intended to visit Communist China in 1972. As a result, many countries that had previously opposed the PRC's entry into the United Nations changed their stance. Despite frantic lobbying by the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, George H. W. Bush, in October 1971 the UN General Assembly voted to give to the PRC the seat that had been held since 1945 by America's ally Taiwan, and expel Taiwan from the UN. In February 1972 Nixon grabbed the world's attention by himself going to China to have direct talks with Mao. During this visit he privately stated that he believed “There is one China, and Taiwan is a part of China.”[3] Fearing the possibility of a Sino-American alliance, the Soviet Union yielded to American pressure for détente. File links The following pages link to this file: Cold War (1962-1991) Sino-Soviet split Categories: U.S. history images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Cold War (1962-1991) Sino-Soviet split Categories: U.S. history images ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name, though almost universally known in English as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys... Mao redirects here. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... Mao redirects here. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ...


Nixon used the improving international environment to address the topic of nuclear peace. The first Strategic Arms Limitation Talks were finally concluded the same year with the SALT I treaty. To win American friendship both China and the Soviet Union cut back on their diplomatic support for North Vietnam and advised Hanoi to come to terms. They did not, however, cut back their military aid to North Vietnam - in fact Chinese military aid to North Vietnam increased during this period.[4] Nixon later explained his strategy: The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ...

I had long believed that an indispensable element of any successful peace initiative in Vietnam was to enlist, if possible, the help of the Soviets and the Chinese. Though rapprochement with China and détente with the Soviet Union were ends in themselves, I also considered them possible means to hasten the end of the war. At worst, Hanoi was bound to feel less confident if Washington was dealing with Moscow and Beijing. At best, if the two major Communist powers decided that they had bigger fish to fry, Hanoi would be pressured into negotiating a settlement we could accept.[5]

Indo-Pakistan War of 1971

The Nixon administration staunchly backed Pakistan President Yahya Khan during the 1971 crisis in East Pakistan.
The Nixon administration staunchly backed Pakistan President Yahya Khan during the 1971 crisis in East Pakistan.

Nixon strongly supported General Yahya Khan of Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 despite widespread human rights violations against the Bengalis, particularly Hindus, by the Pakistan Army. Though Nixon claimed that his objective was to prevent a war, and safeguard Pakistan's interests (including the issue of refugees), in reality the U.S. President was fearful of an Indian invasion of West Pakistan that would lead to Indian domination of the sub-continent and strengthen the position of the Soviet Union, which had recently signed a Treaty of Friendship with India. He also sought to demonstrate his reliability as a partner to the People's Republic of China, with whom he had been negotiating a rapprochement, and where he planned to visit just a few months later. President Nixon and his national security adviser Henry Kissinger downplayed reports of Pakistani genocide in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and risked a confrontation with Moscow to look tough.[6] Many, including Kissinger,[7] have mentioned that the foreign policy "tilt" towards Pakistan had more to do with Nixon's personal like for the dictator and the support to Pakistan was influenced by sentimental considerations and a long standing anti-Indian bias.[8] The Nixon administration was also responsible for illegally providing military supplies to the Pakistani military despite Congressional objections,[9] and against American public opinion which was concerned with the atrocities against East Pakistanis.[10] His decision to help Pakistan in a war at any cost prompted him to send the nuclear-equipped USS Enterprise to the Indian Ocean to try to threaten the Indian military. Though it did little to turn the tide of war, it has been viewed as the trigger for India's subsequent nuclear program.[11] During the crisis Nixon was vocal in abusing the Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi as an "old witch" in private conversations with Henry Kissinger, who is also recorded as making derogatory comments against Indians.[12] Ultimately Nixon's foreign policy initiatives in this matter largely failed as his attempt at a show of strength to impress China was at the cost of dismembering their mutual ally, Pakistan, who felt that once again United States had fallen short as an ally in failing to prevent Bangladeshi independence.[13] Image File history File links Yahya_and_Nixon. ... Image File history File links Yahya_and_Nixon. ... Flag of the President of Pakistan The President of Pakistan (Sadr-e-Mamlikat or صدرِ مملکہ in Urdu) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. ... This is false story,never been established by any scientific survey. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) in Indian subcontinent with a history going back more than two millennia. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Military manpower Military age 16 years of age Availability 39,028,014 (2005) Males ages 16-49 Reaching military age males: 1,969,055 (2005) Active troops 620,000 (Ranked 7th) Military expenditures Dollar figure $3. ... West Pakistan, sometimes refered to as Old Pakistan, was the popular and sometimes official name of the western wing of UP until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh; Pakistan with its current borders was previously refered to as New Pakistan between the period of (1972... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The French for bring together. Used in English to describe the theory (that) says that children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need. See Attachment theory This article is a stub. ... Richard Nixon met with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Military manpower Military age 16 years of age Availability 39,028,014 (2005) Males ages 16-49 Reaching military age males: 1,969,055 (2005) Active troops 620,000 (Ranked 7th) Military expenditures Dollar figure $3. ... Enterprise Logo The USS Enterprise (CVN-65) is the worlds first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the eighth U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name. ... The military of India, officially known as the Indian armed forces, are the primary military organisations responsible for the territorial security and defence of India. ... As early as June 26, 1946, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, soon to be Indias first Prime Minister, announced: // Main article: Operation Smiling Buddha Three decades later in 1974, India, under the leadership of then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi (Nehrus daughter), conducted an underground nuclear test called Operation Smiling Buddha... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the government of India. ... Indira Priyadarśinī Gāndhī (Devanāgarī: इन्दिरा प्रियदर्शिनी गान्धी, IPA: ) (November 19, 1917 – October 31, 1984) was Prime Minister of India from January 19, 1966 to March 24, 1977, and again from January 14, 1980 until her assassination on October 31, 1984. ... This article is part of the Witchcraft series. ...


Other wars and crises

Nixon supported Augusto Pinochet's overthrow of the socialist government of Chile in 1973, but did not instigate the coup. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was a general and President of Chile. ... Salvador Isabelino del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his removal from power and death on September 11, 1973. ...


Israel, a powerful but unofficial American ally in the Middle East was supported by the Nixon administration during the Yom Kippur War. When an Arab coalition led by Egypt and Syria --allies to the Soviets--attacked in October 1973, Israel suffered initial losses. On the brink of defeat, Israel pleaded with European powers for help but was ignored for fear of Arab retaliation. Not so Nixon, who, cutting through inter-departmental squabbles and bureaucracy, initiated an air lift of arms that saved Israel from possible defeat. By the time the U.S. and the Soviet Union negotiated a truce, Israel had penetrated deep into enemy territory. A long term effect was the movement of Egypt away from the Soviets toward the U.S. But the victory for its ally and the support provided to them by the US came at the cost of the 1973 oil crisis. Some historians have argued that throughout the war, Nixon's handling of the 1973 oil crisis demonstrated that neither he nor Kissinger could truly grasp the importance of economic factors.[14] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan David Elazar Ariel Sharon Shmuel Gonen Benjamin Peled Israel Tal Rehavam Zeevi Aharon Yariv Yitzhak Hofi Rafael Eitan Abraham Adan Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly Ahmad Ismail Ali Hosni Mubarak Mohammed Aly Fahmy Anwar Sadat Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy Abdul... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogeneous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... At the height of the crisis in the United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ...


Domestic policies

Although often criticized (or applauded) as a conservative by his contemporaries, Nixon's domestic policies often appear centrist, or even liberal, to latter-day observers. As President, Nixon imposed wage and price controls, indexed Social Security for inflation, and created Supplemental Security Income (SSI). The number of pages added to the Federal Register each year doubled under Nixon. He eradicated the last remnants of the gold standard. Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), promoted the Legacy of parks program and implemented the Philadelphia Plan, the first significant federal affirmative action program, and dramatically improved salaries for U.S. federal employees worldwide. As a party leader, Nixon helped build the Republican Party (GOP), but he ran his 1972 campaign separately from the party, which perhaps helped the GOP escape some of the damage from Watergate. The Nixon White House was the first to organize a daily press event and daily message for the media, a practice that all subsequent staffs have performed. In economics, incomes policies are wage and price controls used to fight inflation. ... Social Security, in the United States, refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... Supplemental Security Income is a monthly stipend provided to some citizens by the United States federal government. ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ... This article is on the monetary principle. ... EPA redirects here. ... josh is wierd! The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Revised Philadelphia Plan is a plan that required government contractors in Philadelphia to hire minority workers. ... Affirmative action (or positive discrimination) is a policy or a program whose stated goal is to redress past or present discrimination through active measures to ensure equal opportunity, for example in education, employment or seats in parliament and/or government. ... The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ...


Nixon is credited with creating the modern day Imperial Presidency, in which the presidency retains a high level of control over government policy and decisions. In the early 1970s, Nixon impounded billions of dollars in federal spending and expanded the power of the Office of Management and Budget. These encroachments on the power of Congress led to the passage of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974. The Imperial Presidency is a term used from the 1960s and made popular by the historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. ... Impoundment is the refusal of Presidents to spend money that has been appropriated by Congress. ... The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ... The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 is a U.S. federal law passed by the United States Congress specifying that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. ...


On January 2, 1974, Nixon signed a bill that lowered the maximum U.S. speed limit to 55 miles per hour (90 km/h) in order to conserve gasoline during the 1973 energy crisis. This law remained in effect until 1995, though states were allowed to raise the limit to 65 miles per hour in rural areas around 1987. January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 55 mph speed limit being erected in response to the National Maximum Speed Law. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Gasoline, also called petrol, is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... (Redirected from 1973 energy crisis) United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ...


Committed to wide-ranging bureaucratic reforms, in a last-minute bid to save his presidency, Nixon signed a significant reform of the federal budgeting process and granted wide authority to Congress in shaping the final budget.


School integration

The Nixon years saw the first large-scale integration of public schools in the South, after the region had stalled in compliance with the 1954 Supreme Court's Brown ruling. Strategically Nixon sought a middle way between the segregationist George C. Wallace and liberal Democrats, whose support of integration was alienating white ethnics. Nixon concentrated on the principle that the law must be color-blind. "I am convinced that while legal segregation is totally wrong, forced integration of housing or education is just as wrong."[15] Though Nixon thought of appealing to southern whites by slowing school desegregation, he decided to enforce the law after the Supreme Court, in Alexander v. Holmes County (1969), prohibited further delays. Nixon's Cabinet committee on school desegregation, under the leadership of Labor Secretary George P. Schultz, quietly set up local biracial committees to assure smooth compliance without violence or political grandstanding. By fall of 1970, two million southern black children enrolled in newly created unitary fully integrated school districts. "In this sense, Nixon was the greatest school desegregator in American history," historian Dean Kotlowski concluded.[16] In the North, meanwhile, the Brown decision did not apply directly, but in city after city federal judges started ordering busing programs to integrate schools, a policy Nixon opposed. George Corley Wallace (August 25, 1919–September 13, 1998) was an American politician who was elected Governor of Alabama (as a Democrat) four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President (in 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1976). ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ...

Mobutu Sese Seko and Richard Nixon at Washington, D.C. in 1973.
Mobutu Sese Seko and Richard Nixon at Washington, D.C. in 1973.

Image File history File links Mobutu_Nixon. ... Image File history File links Mobutu_Nixon. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Joseph Mobutu-Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965 – 1997). ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia. ...

Nixon and the U.S. space program

On July 20, 1969, Nixon addressed Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin live via radio during their historic moonwalk. Nixon also made the world's longest distance phone call to Neil Armstrong on the moon. (All U.S. moon landings, and the attempted moon landing of Apollo 13, took place during Nixon's first term.) On January 5, 1972, Nixon approved the development of the Space Shuttle program, a decision that profoundly influenced U.S. efforts to explore and develop space for several decades thereafter. July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... Colonel Buzz Eugene Aldrin, Sc. ... On July 20, 1969 man first walked on the moon (see the Apollo 11 mission. ... Apollo 13 was the third American-manned lunar-landing mission, part of the Apollo program. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ...


Landslide re-election

In 1972, Nixon was re-elected in one of the biggest landslide election victories in U.S. political history, defeating George McGovern and garnering over 60% of the popular vote. He carried 49 of the 50 states, losing only in Massachusetts and the District of Columbia. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine Dr. George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee, who lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent Richard Nixon. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... ...


Major initiatives

On April 3, 1974, Nixon announced he would pay $432,787.13 in back taxes plus interest after a Congressional committee reported that he had inadvertently underpaid his 1969 and 1972 taxes. Sino-American relations (Simplified Chinese: 中美关系; pinyin: Zhōng-MÄ›i Guānxì) refers to international relations between the United States and China. ... Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanking (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics)) is a term used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than idealistic notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions. // The term was coined by Ludwig August von Rochau, a German writer and politician in the 19th century, following... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... EPA redirects here. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Amtrak is the name of an intercity passenger train system created on May 1, 1971 in the United States. ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... Supplemental Security Income is a monthly stipend provided to some citizens by the United States federal government. ... The Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that promotes growth and competitiveness of the United States minority-owned businesses. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ... The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM treaty or ABMT) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


Given the near certainty of both his impeachment (due to the Watergate scandal) by the House of Representatives and his conviction by the Senate, Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974. August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


Administration and Cabinet

The Nixon Administration comprised an impressive array of talent both in the cabinet and in the White House staff. Among the many people who came to Washington to serve in the administration were one future President (George H. W. Bush); a future Vice President (Dick Cheney); six future secretaries of state (Henry Kissinger, Alexander Haig, George Shultz, James Baker, Lawrence Eagleburger, and Colin Powell); five future secretaries of defense (James Schlesinger, Donald Rumsfeld, Casper Weinberger, Frank Carlucci, and Cheney again); a future chairman of the joint chiefs of staff (Powell again), two future secretaries of the treasury (William Simon and Baker again); a future secretary of energy (Schlesinger again); and three future chiefs of staff (Rumsfeld, Cheney and Baker again). Indeed a member of the Nixon Administration has held a cabinet post or been a senior advisor within the subsequent six presidential administrations. That so many key figures of the Ford, Reagan, George H. W. Bush (41), and Bush (43) Administrations first entered government service in the Nixon White House is arguably the most profound and long-lasting legacy of Richard Nixon. George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... James Addison Baker III (born 28 April 1930 in Houston, Texas) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H... Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (born August 1, 1930), is an American statesman and diplomat who served under Presidents Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is the 21st and current United States Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush, having served as such since 2001. ... Caspar Willard Weinberger (born August 18, 1917) is best known as United States Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from 1982 through 1987, and for his related roles in the Strategic Defense Initiative program (popularly known as Star Wars), and in the Iran-Contra Affair. ... Frank Carlucci Frank Charles Carlucci III (born October 18, 1930) was a government official in the United States, associated with the Republican Party. ... William Edward Simon (November 27, 1927–June 3, 2000) became the 63rd Secretary of the Treasury on May 8, 1974, during the Nixon administration. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...

Official Portrait of President Richard Nixon.
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Official Portrait of President Richard Nixon.
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Richard Nixon 1969–1974
Vice President Spiro T. Agnew 1969–1973
  Gerald Ford 1973–1974
State William P. Rogers 1969–1973
  Henry Kissinger 1973–1974
Treasury David M. Kennedy 1969–1971
  John B. Connally 1971–1972
  George Shultz 1972–1974
  William Simon 1974
Defense Melvin R. Laird 1969–1973
  Elliot L. Richardson 1973–1973
  James Schlesinger 1973–1974
Justice John N. Mitchell 1969–1972
  Richard G. Kleindienst 1972–1973
  Elliot L. Richardson 1973–1974
  William B. Saxbe 1974
Postmaster General Winton M. Blount 1969–1974
Interior Walter J. Hickel 1969–1971
  Rogers C. B. Morton 1971–1974
Agriculture Clifford M. Hardin 1969–1971
  Earl Butz 1971–1974
Commerce Maurice H. Stans 1969–1972
  Peter Peterson 1972–1973
  Frederick B. Dent 1973–1974
Labor George Shultz 1969–1970
  James D. Hodgson 1970–1973
  Peter J. Brennan 1973–1974
HEW Robert Finch 1969–1970
  Elliot L. Richardson 1970–1973
  Caspar Weinberger 1973–1974
HUD George Romney 1969–1973
  James T. Lynn 1973–1974
Transportation John A. Volpe 1969–1973
  Claude S. Brinegar 1973–1974


WHPO-MPF-C6779(04) Richard Nixon, Official Presidential Photograph, 07/08/1971 NARA ARC Holdings, Nixon Presidential Materials Photographer: Hartmann File links The following pages link to this file: Richard Nixon Madman theory Categories: Executive Office of the President images ... WHPO-MPF-C6779(04) Richard Nixon, Official Presidential Photograph, 07/08/1971 NARA ARC Holdings, Nixon Presidential Materials Photographer: Hartmann File links The following pages link to this file: Richard Nixon Madman theory Categories: Executive Office of the President images ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... Spiro Theodore Agnew, born Spiro Anagnostopoulos (November 9, 1918–September 17, 1996), was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1973 under President Richard M. Nixon. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... William Pierce Rogers (June 23, 1913 – January 2, 2001) was an American politician, who served as a Cabinet officer in the administrations of two U.S. Presidents in the third quarter of the 20th century. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, Nobel laureate and statesman. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... For the American historian, see David M. Kennedy (historian). ... John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... William Edward Simon (November 27, 1927–June 3, 2000) became the 63rd Secretary of the Treasury on May 8, 1974, during the Nixon administration. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Melvin Laird Melvin Robert (Bam) Laird was born September 1, 1922 and nicknamed Bambino (shortened to Bam and pronounced like the word bomb) by his mother. ... Elliot Lee Richardson Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 - December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of President Richard Nixon, but he managed to avoid being tainted by the Watergate Scandal. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Mitchell (far left) meeting with Nixon, J. Edgar Hoover, and John Ehrlichman on May 26, 1971. ... Richard Gordon Kleindienst (August 5, 1923–February 3, 2000) was an American lawyer and politician. ... Elliot Lee Richardson Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 - December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of President Richard Nixon, but he managed to avoid being tainted by the Watergate Scandal. ... William Bart Saxbe (born June 24, 1916) was an American politician of the Republican Party, who served as a U.S. Senator from Ohio and as U.S. Attorney General under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Winton Malcolm Red Blount, Junior (born February 1, 1921 in Union Springs, Alabama - died October 24, 2002 in Highlands, North Carolina) was the United States Postmaster General from 1969-1971. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Categories: People stubs | 1919 births | Governors of Alaska | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1914 births | 1979 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior ... Clifford Morris Hardin (born October 9, 1915) served as United States Secretary of Agriculture from 1969 to 1971. ... Earl Lauer Butz (born July 3, 1909) is a former United States government official who served as Secretary of Agriculture under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Maurice Stans Maurice Hubert Stans (March 22, 1908 - April 14, 1998) was the finance chairman for the commmittee to re-elect United States President Richard Nixon (CREEP). ... This article is about the Pete Peterson who was a U.S. government official during the Nixon administration; there is also a Pete Peterson who was a former Florida Congressman and ambassador to Vietnam. ... Frederick Baily Dent United States Secretary of Commerce from February 2, 1973 to March 26, 1975. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... James D. Hodgson (born December 3, 1915, in Dawson, Minnesota) is an American politican. ... Peter Joseph Brennan (May 24, 1918 - October 2, 1996) was United States Secretary of Labor under President Nixon and President Ford. ... The United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare was the head of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. ... Robert Hutchison Finch (October 9, 1925 - October 10, 1995) was a Republican politician from Southern California. ... Elliot Lee Richardson Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 - December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of President Richard Nixon, but he managed to avoid being tainted by the Watergate Scandal. ... Caspar Weinberger in his official Department of Defence publicity photo circa 1983. ... The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... There have been two notable figures named George Romney: George Romney (1734-1802) - English portrait painter. ... James Thomas Lynn (born 1927) was a U.S. administrator. ... John Anthony Volpe (December 8, 1908 - September 11, 1994) was a Governor of Massachusetts and a U.S. Secretary of Transportation. ... Claude Brinegar was Secretary of Transportation in the Cabinet of U.S. President Gerald R. Ford from 1974 to 1975. ...


Administration notables

Chiefs of Staff

H.R. Haldeman, January 21, 1971. ... Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. ...

Undersecretaries

  • Frank Carlucci - undersecretary of Health, Education and Welfare
  • Dick Cheney - special assistant to the Director of the OEO, White House staff assistant, assistant director of the Cost of Living Council, and Deputy Assistant to the President.

Frank Carlucci Frank Charles Carlucci III (born October 18, 1930) was a government official in the United States, associated with the Republican Party. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ...

Assistants

  • Lamar Alexander - Counselor to the President
  • Alexander Butterfield - Deputy Assistant to the President
  • Dwight Chapin - Special Assistant to the President (1968-71) and then Deputy Assistant (1971-73)
  • Lawrence Eagleburger - Assistant to National Security Advisor
  • John Ehrlichman - Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs
  • Jeb Stuart Magruder - Special Assistant to the President
  • Brent Scowcroft - Military Assistant and Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
  • John Whitaker - Principal Advisor on the Environment
  • Harry S. Dent - Special Counsel to the President and Chief Political Advisor

Andrew Lamar Alexander (born July 3, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Tennessee and a member of the Republican Party. ... Alexander Porter Butterfield (born April 6, 1926) was the deputy assistant to Richard Nixon from 1969 until 1973. ... Dwight L. Chapin (born December 2, 1940) was Deputy Assistant to the President Richard M. Nixon. ... Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (born August 1, 1930), is an American statesman and diplomat who served under Presidents Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush. ... John D. Ehrlichman as Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs, May 13, 1969. ... Jeb Magruder, January 31, 1970. ... Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ...

White House Counsel

John Dean, May 7, 1972. ... Booking photos of Charles Colson, 1974. ... Leonard Garment was acting special counsel to U.S. President Richard Nixon for the last two years of his presidency. ...

Communications Office

  • Ken Clawson - Director of White House Communications
  • Herbert G. Klein - Communications Director for the Executive Branch

Press Secretary

  • Ron Ziegler - White House Press Secretary (1969 - 1974), Assistant to the President (1974)

Richard Nixons White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler. ...

Speech writers

  • Aram Bakshian, Jr - speech writer
  • Patrick Buchanan - speech writer
  • David Gergen - speech writer
  • Lee Heubner - special assistant to the president and associate director, White House writing and research staff
  • Jim Keogh - speech writer
  • John McLaughlin - speech writer
  • Ray Price - speech writer [first and second inaugural addresses]
  • William Safire - speech writer
  • Ben Stein - speech writer

This article is becoming very long. ... David Richmond Gergen (born May 9, 1942) was a political consultant and presidential advisor during the Republican administrations of Nixon, Ford, and Reagan. ... John McLaughlin (born March 29, 1927) is the creator, executive producer, and host of The McLaughlin Group, a weekly public affairs television program broadcast in the United States since 1982, and of McLaughlins One on One, an interview program. ... William L. Safire on NBCs Meet The Press with Tim Russert. ... Benjamin Jeremy Stein (born November 25, 1944 in Washington, D.C.) is an American lawyer, economist, law professor, actor, comedian and former White House speechwriter. ...

Others

Robert Bork Robert Heron Bork (born March 1, 1927 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is a conservative American legal scholar who advocates the judicial philosophy of originalism. ... Richard (Dick) Gordon Darman was born May 10, 1943. ... Carla Anderson Hills (born January 3, 1934) is an American lawyer and public figure. ... Everette Howard Hunt (born October 9, 1918 in East Hamburg, New York, United States) worked for the White House under President Richard Nixon. ... The White House Plumbers or simply The Plumbers is the popular name given to the covert Nixon White House Special Investigations Unit established July 24, 1971. ... G. Gordon Liddy George Gordon Battle Liddy (born November 30, 1930) was the chief operative for President Richard Nixons White House Plumbers unit. ... Categories: People stubs ... Henry M. Paulson, Jr. ... John D. Ehrlichman as Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs, May 13, 1969. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... The White House Fellows program was established by American President Lyndon B. Johnson in October 1964. ... William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932) is an attorney and civil servant in the United States. ...

Supreme Court appointments

Nixon appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and is the only part of the judicial branch of the United States federal government explicitly specified in the United States Constitution. ...

Nixon also made the following unsuccessful Supreme Court nominations: Warren Earl Burger (September 17, 1907 – June 25, 1995) was Chief Justice of the United States from 1969 to 1986. ... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Harold Andrew Blackmun (November 12, 1908 - March 4, 1999) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 to 1994. ... Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure, who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ...

George Harrold Harold Carswell (December 22, 1919 – July 13, 1992) was a Federal Judge and an unsuccessful nominee to the United States Supreme Court. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Clement Furman Haynsworth, Jr. ... Herschel Friday was an Arkansas lawyer whom President Richard Nixon considered appointing to the United States Supreme Court. ... American Bar Associations Washington, DC office The American Bar Association (ABA) is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. ... Mildred Lillie (January 25, 1915–October 27, 2001) was a California judge whom President Richard Nixon announced as the first female nominee for the United States Supreme Court. ...

Watergate

Main article: Watergate scandal
Nixon's letter of resignation.
Nixon's letter of resignation.
Nixon departing the White House on August 9, 1974.
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Nixon departing the White House on August 9, 1974.

The term Watergate has come to encompass a large array of illegal and secret activities undertaken by Nixon or his aides during his administration. Some of these began as early as 1969, when Nixon and Kissinger tapped the phones of numerous journalists and administration officials in an effort to stop leaks. Other major or well-known episodes of wrongdoing included the 1971 burglary of Dr. Lewis Fielding in search of the psychiatric records of Daniel Ellsberg, who leaked the Pentagon Papers to the press; Nixon's order to have the FBI investigate CBS News reporter Daniel Schorr after he reported critically on the administration; and talk by G. Gordon Liddy about having the newspaper columnist Jack Anderson assassinated. The term Watergate scandal refers to a series of events, spanning from 1972 to 1974, that gained its name from burglaries of the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C.. Though then-President Richard Nixon had endured two years of mounting political embarrassments... Richard Nixons letter of resignation to Henry Kissinger. ... Richard Nixons letter of resignation to Henry Kissinger. ... Image File history File links Richard Nixon delivering the V sign outside Army One upon his final departure from the White House Photograph by Robert L. Knudsen, August 9, 1974, National Archives (http://www. ... Image File history File links Richard Nixon delivering the V sign outside Army One upon his final departure from the White House Photograph by Robert L. Knudsen, August 9, 1974, National Archives (http://www. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Daniel Ellsberg ©1990 Jock McDonald Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national uproar in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, the US militarys account of activities during the Vietnam War, to The New York... Daniel Schorr (born August 31, 1916) is a journalist who has covered the world for more than 60 years. ... G. Gordon Liddy George Gordon Battle Liddy (born November 30, 1930) was the chief operative for President Richard Nixons White House Plumbers unit. ... Jackson Northman Anderson (October 19, 1922 – December 17, 2005) was an American newspaper columnist and is considered one of the fathers of modern investigative journalism. ...


But these episodes did not come to light until several of Nixon's men were caught breaking into Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate Hotel in Washington, DC in June 1972. In October 1972, The Washington Post reported that the FBI had determined Nixon aides had spied on and sabotaged numerous Democratic presidential candidates as a part of the operations that led to the infamous Watergate scandal. During the campaign five burglars were arrested on June 17, 1972 in the Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate office complex. They were subsequently linked to the White House. This became one of a series of major scandals involving the Committee to Re-Elect the President (known as CRP but referred to by opponents as CREEP), including the White House enemies list and assorted "dirty tricks." The ensuing Watergate scandal exposed the Nixon Administration's rampant corruption, illegality, and deceit. The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Watergate complex in Washington, DC., with the Kennedy Center visible in the background. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ... The Committee to Re-elect the President, often abbreviated to CRP or CREEP (which was also the way it was pronounced), was a Nixon White House fund-raising organization headed by John N. Mitchell, who had previously served as United States Attorney General. ... Nixons enemies list was compiled by Charles Colson and sent to John Dean Nixons Enemies List is the informal name of what started as a list of President Richard Nixons major political opponents compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell [1] (assistant to Colson, special... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Nixon himself downplayed the scandal as mere politics, but when his aides resigned in disgrace, Nixon's role in ordering an illegal cover-up came to light in the press, courts, and congressional investigations. Nixon evaded taxes, accepted illicit campaign contributions, ordered secret bombings, and harassed opponents with executive agencies, wiretaps, and break-ins. Unlike the tape recordings by earlier Presidents, his secret recordings of White House conversations were revealed and subpoenaed and showed details of his complicity in the cover-up. Nixon was named by the grand jury investigating Watergate as "an unindicted co-conspirator" in the Watergate scandal. Campaign finance refers to the means by which money is raised for political election campaigns. ... An Executive Agency is a British public institution that carries out some part of the executive functions of the United Kingdom government, Scottish Executive, Welsh Assembly and Northern Ireland Executive. ... Telephone tapping or Wire tapping/ Wiretapping (in US) describes the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ... A subpoena is a writ commanding a person to appear under penalty (from Latin). ...


He lost support from some in his own party as well as much popular support after what became known as the Saturday Night Massacre of October 20, 1973, in which he ordered Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor in the Watergate case, to be fired, as well as firing several of his own subordinates who objected to this move. The House Judiciary Committee controlled by Democrats opened formal and public impeachment hearings against Nixon on May 9, 1974. Despite his efforts, one of the secret recordings, known as the "smoking gun" tape, was released on August 5, 1974, and revealed that Nixon authorized hush money to Watergate burglar E. Howard Hunt, and also revealed that Nixon ordered the CIA to tell the FBI to stop investigating certain topics because of "the Bay of Pigs thing." Such an order was later withdrawn or never carried out. In light of his loss of political support and the near certainty of both his impeachment by the House of Representatives and his probable conviction by the Senate, he resigned on August 9, 1974, after addressing the nation on television the previous evening. listen  He never admitted criminal wrongdoing, although he later conceded errors of judgment. The Saturday night massacre (October 20, 1973) was the term given by political commentators to U.S. President Richard Nixons executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the forced resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus during the controversial and drawn-out... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Archibald Cox, Jr. ... A special prosecutor is a lawyer from outside the government appointed by the attorney general or Congress to investigate a federal official for misconduct while in office. ... U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Nixon Resign. ...


On September 8, 1974 a blanket pardon from President Gerald R. Ford, who served as Nixon's second Vice President, effectively ended any possibility of indictment. The pardon was highly controversial and Nixon's critics claimed that the blanket pardon was quid pro quo for his resignation. No evidence of this "corrupt bargain" has ever been proven, and many modern historians dismiss any claims of overt collusion between the two men concerning the pardon. The pardon of Richard Nixon hurt Ford politically, and it was one of the many reasons cited for Ford's defeat in the election of 1976. The Democratic win in the 1974 mid-term elections was astounding, and provided a governing majority that added an extra two decades to their control of the House of Representatives. September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... Quid pro quo (Latin for something for something[1]) indicates a more-or-less equal exchange or substitution of goods or services. ... Two deals cut in contested United States presidential elections have been known as Corrupt Bargains. ...


Drug abuse

It has been alleged that Richard Nixon was an alcoholic[17] who, in 1968, received a supply of the anti-convulsant Dilantin from his friend Jack Dreyfus[18]. Nixon took Dilantin without a prescription for several years. In 1979, close friend and advisor the Reverend Billy Graham remarked about the former president, "He took all those sleeping pills, and through history, drugs and demons have gone together."[19] Phenytoin sodium (marketed as Dilantin® in the USA and as Epanutin® in the UK, by Parke-Davis, now part of Pfizer) is a commonly used antiepileptic. ... Jack Dreyfus, was the founder of the Dreyfus Fund, and is widely publicized for being the man who invented the commonplace mutual fund[citation needed]. After selling the fund during the early 1970s he became a major proponent of phenytoin as a means to control nervousness and depression when... Billy Graham, April 1966 The Rev. ...


Later years and death

Nixon in Russia, March 1994.
Nixon in Russia, March 1994.

In 1976, Nixon was disbarred by the State of New York,[20] and soon resigned his other law licenses. Image File history File links Nixon94. ... Image File history File links Nixon94. ...


In his later years Nixon worked hard to rehabilitate his public image, and he enjoyed considerably more success than was anticipated at the time of his resignation. He gained great respect as an elder statesman in the area of foreign affairs, being consulted by both Democratic and Republican successors to the Presidency. He made many foreign visits in his post-presidential years, including his final one, to Russia in March 1994 just one month before his death.


Further tape releases, however, removed any doubt of Nixon's involvement both in the Watergate cover-up and also the illegal campaign finances and intrusive government surveillance that were at the heart of the scandal.


Nixon wrote many books after his departure from politics, including his memoirs.

U.S. Presidents Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton at Nixon's funeral in 1994. Nixon was the first President to die since Lyndon Johnson, who died during the Nixon Administration in 1973.
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U.S. Presidents Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton at Nixon's funeral in 1994. Nixon was the first President to die since Lyndon Johnson, who died during the Nixon Administration in 1973.

On Monday, April 18, 1994, at 5:45 PM EDT, Nixon suffered a severe stroke while preparing to eat dinner in his Park Ridge, New Jersey home; his last words were yelling out to a housekeeper for help. It was later determined that a blood clot that had formed in his upper heart as a result of his heart condition broke off and traveled to his brain. He was rushed by ambulance to New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center in Manhattan. For a day, he was alert, but unable to speak or to move his right arm or leg. Doctors initially said his stroke was minor, but the damage to the brain caused it to swell inside the skull, called cerebral edema, which resulted in his condition worsening over the next few days. Nixon's living will stipulated that he was not to be placed on a respirator to sustain his life. On Thursday, April 21, he slipped into a deep coma, and on Friday, April 22, Nixon died at 9:08 PM at the age of 81 years and 103 days. He was buried beside his wife Pat Nixon (also 81, who had died ten months earlier, on June 22, 1993, of lung cancer) on the grounds of the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace in Yorba Linda. Download high resolution version (934x578, 121 KB)Five presidents and first ladies attended the funeral of Richard Nixon on April 27, 1994, in Nixons hometown of Yorba Linda, California. ... Download high resolution version (934x578, 121 KB)Five presidents and first ladies attended the funeral of Richard Nixon on April 27, 1994, in Nixons hometown of Yorba Linda, California. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA),[1] is an acute neurologic injury in which the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted. ... Map highlighting Park Ridges location within Bergen County. ... New York-Presbyterian Hospital is a prominent university hospital in New York City, composed of two medical centers, Columbia University Medical Center and New York Weill Cornell Medical Center. ... The Borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... Cerebral edema is swelling of the brain which can occur as the result of a head injury, cardiac arrest or from the lack of proper altitude acclimatization. ... It has been suggested that gas mask be merged into this article or section. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... Comatose redirects here. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... Patricia Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of Richard Nixon and the First Lady of the United States from 1969 to 1974. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace is the presidential library of Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th President of the United States, located at 18001 Yorba Linda Boulevard in Yorba Linda, California. ...


President Bill Clinton, former secretary of state Henry Kissinger, Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole and California Republican Governor Pete Wilson spoke at the April 27 funeral, the first for an American president since that of Lyndon B. Johnson on January 25, 1973, which, coincidentally, was presided over by Nixon during his presidency. Also in attendance were former Presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush and their respective first ladies. His two daughters, along with his four grandchildren, survived Nixon. William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Robert Joseph Bob Dole (born July 22, 1923) is best known as a former Republican presidential nominee in the 1996 presidential election, in which he was defeated by then-incumbent President Bill Clinton. ... Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23, 1933) is an American Republican politician from California. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


The Nixon Library contains only Nixon's pre- and post-presidential papers, because his presidential papers have been retained as government evidence. Nixon's attempts to protect his papers and gain tax advantages from them had been one of the important themes of the Watergate affair. Because of disputes over the papers, the library is privately funded and does not, like the other presidential libraries, receive support from the National Archives. The Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace is the presidential library of Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th President of the United States, located at 18001 Yorba Linda Boulevard in Yorba Linda, California. ... The Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace is the presidential library of Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th President of the United States, located at 18001 Yorba Linda Boulevard in Yorba Linda, California. ... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum is on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin. ... The National Archives building in Washington, DC The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ...


Legacy

Presidential scholars, both liberal and conservative, rank Richard Nixon near the bottom of the list because of the scandals, but most agree that he presents a special problem because his foreign policy and domestic policy successes stand in dramatic contradiction to the corruption of his top aides and Nixon himself. Political scientist Walter Dean Burnham noted the "dichotomous or schizoid profiles. On some very important dimensions both Wilson and L.B. Johnson were outright failures in my view; while on others they rank very high indeed. Similarly with Nixon." Historian Alan Brinkley said: "There are presidents who could be considered both failures and great or near great (for example, Wilson, Johnson, Nixon)." James MacGregor Burns observed of Nixon, "How can one evaluate such an idiosyncratic president, so brilliant and so morally lacking?"[21] Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and President Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ...


Media

Nixon Resignation. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... OGG can refer to several items: Ogg is a multimedia bitstream container, used for audio and video files, especially Vorbis audio files. ... Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ... Nixon Resign. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1024 or 1000 bytes. ... OGG can refer to several items: Ogg is a multimedia bitstream container, used for audio and video files, especially Vorbis audio files. ... Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ...

Popular culture

Nixon meets Elvis Presley in December 1970
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Nixon meets Elvis Presley in December 1970

Nixon's career was frequently dogged by his personality, and the public perception of it. Editorial cartoonists such as Herblock and comedians had fun exaggerating Nixon's appearance and mannerisms, to the point where the line between the human and the caricature version of him became increasingly blurred. He was often portrayed as a sullen loner, with unshaven jowls, slumped shoulders, and a furrowed, sweaty brow. He was also characterized as the epitome of a "square" and the personification of unpleasant adult authority. Elvis Presley meeting Richard Nixon. ... Elvis Presley meeting Richard Nixon. ... Elvis Aron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), often known simply as Elvis and also called The King of Rock n Roll or simply The King, was an American singer, musician and actor. ... Herbert Lawrence Block, commonly known as Herblock (October 13, 1909 – October 7, 2001), was a U.S. editorial cartoonist. ...


Nixon tried to shed these perceptions by staging photo-ops with young people and even cameo appearances on popular TV shows such as Laugh-In and Hee Haw (before he was President). He also frequently brandished the two-finger V sign (alternately viewed as the "Victory sign" or "peace sign") using both hands, an act which became one of his best-known trademarks. Due to his uptight image, many Americans were shocked to hear that the president had a much gruffer, aggressive side, revealed by the sheer amount of swearing and vicious comments seen on the transcripts of the president's White House tapes. This did not help the public perception and fed the comedians even more. Nixon's sense of being persecuted by his "enemies," his grandiose belief in his own moral and political excellence, and his commitment to use ruthless power at all costs led some experts to describe him as having a narcissistic and paranoid personality.[22] During the Watergate scandal, Nixon's approval rating had fallen to 25%. A photo op, short for photograph opportunity, is a carefully planned human event that results in a memorable and effective photograph. ... Rowan & Martins Laugh-In was a United States comedy television show broadcast from January 22, 1968 through 1973 over the NBC Network. ... Hee Haw was a long-running U.S. television variety show hosted by Buck Owens and Roy Clark and featuring country music and humor with rural Kornfield Kounty as a backdrop. ... The V sign is a hand gesture in which the first and second fingers are raised and parted, whilst the remaining fingers are clenched. ... Narcissism is the pattern of traits and behaviors which involve infatuation and obsession with ones self to the exclusion of others and the egotistic and ruthless pursuit of ones gratification, dominance and ambition. ... Paranoid redirects here. ... An approval rating is a polling term which reflects the percent of respondants to an opinion poll who approve of a particular person or program. ...


Media inspired by the Nixon presidency

Robot Nixon "election" poster
Robot Nixon "election" poster
  • Frost/Nixon is a play by Peter Morgan that debuted in London's West End in 2006.
  • The book and movie All the President's Men tell Woodward and Bernstein's story of the Watergate affair.
  • Best-selling historian-author Stephen Ambrose wrote a three-volume biography (Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913-1962, Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962-1972, Nixon: Ruin and Recovery 1973-1990) considered the definitive work among many Nixon biographies. The detailed accounts were favorably regarded by both liberal and conservative reviewers.
  • The Philip Roth novel Our Gang (1971) satirizes the Nixon administration. In the book, the character depicting Nixon is named "Trick E. Dixon".
  • Conservative author Victor Lasky published a book in 1977 called It Didn't Start With Watergate. The book points out that past presidents may have used wiretaps and engaged in other activities that Nixon was accused of, but were never pursued by the press or the subject of impeachment hearings.
  • Chuck Colson gives an insider account of the Watergate affair in Born Again.
  • H.R. Haldeman also provides an insider's perspective in the books The Ends of Power and The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House
  • G. Gordon Liddy gives his version of the Watergate scandal in his autobiography Will.
  • Hunter S. Thompson's Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail '72 discusses Nixon at length.
  • Nixon in China is an opera dealing with Nixon's visit there.
  • The movie Nixon directed by Oliver Stone as well as Richard (Lorees Yerby, Harry Hutwitz, 1972) and Millhouse (Emile de Antonio, 1971).
  • The comedy film Dick tells the tale of the Watergate scandal by saying that Deep Throat was two teenage girls. They choose the name because their older brother saw Deep Throat at the theater. They get in the White House since they are presidential dogwalkers.
  • The 2004 movie The Assassination of Richard Nixon starring Sean Penn as a salesman who becomes disillusioned by the American dream and eventually decides to crash a plane into the White House in protest, killing the President. While not appearing as a character, Nixon (through television interviews and clips) is used to represent the American establishment and its use of capitalism to control the country.
  • From 1976 to 1979, Nixon was portrayed on NBC's Saturday Night Live by Dan Aykroyd.
  • In That 70's Show, season 1 episode 3 Red asks Gerald Ford how he could pardon Nixon.
Richard Milhous Nixon's head in a jar on the cartoon Futurama
Richard Milhous Nixon's head in a jar on the cartoon Futurama
  • Richard Nixon was elected President of Earth in Matt Groening's cartoon series Futurama, claiming that the constitution stated that nobody may be elected more than twice, and he is now just a head in a jar and was then using a robot body. Many other people are heads in jars on Futurama, but Nixon's is the one with the biggest role. He also appears in The Simpsons in flashbacks or on television. The actual text of the 22nd Amendment of the U.S. Constitution states that no person may be elected President more than twice, and serve no more than ten years as President.
  • The Simpsons character Milhouse Van Houten was named, in part, after Richard Milhous Nixon.
  • The Manic Street Preachers offered a rare sympathetic look at Nixon during their song The Love of Richard Nixon.
  • Neil Young's song Campaigner contains the line "Even Richard Nixon has got soul".
  • The late folk singer Phil Ochs changed his earlier song "Here's to the State of Mississippi", to "Here's to the State of Richard Nixon" in which the last line of every verse is "Here's to the land you torn out the heart of, Richard Nixon (Mississippi) find yourself another country to be part of". It is then met with large cheers.
  • The start of James Taylor's song 'Line 'em up' refers to the final scenes on the day that Nixon leaves the White House.
  • In Alan Moore's graphic novel Watchmen, President Nixon sends the superhuman Dr. Manhattan to win the Vietnam War, which he does in just three months. In the afterglow of Dr. Manhattan's triumph, the 22nd Amendment is repealed, and Nixon is reelected in 1976, 1980, and 1984 (and is still serving at the time of the story, in 1985).
  • In The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975), Nixon's resignation speech can be heard playing over a car radio, and briefly on the cover of a newspaper.
  • Orson Scott Card wrote the short story A Cross-Country Trip to Kill Richard Nixon, about a disillusioned young man who blames all the country's ills on the former president.
  • In Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, Captain Spock chooses his friend Captain James T. Kirk to be the main negotiator with the Klingon delegation after a mining accident severely damages their atmosphere, causing the normally bellicose Klingons to call an end to long-standing hostilities against the United Federation of Planets. When Kirk, whose son was killed by Klingons, asks Spock "Why me?", Spock replies, "There is an old Vulcan proverb. 'Only Nixon could go to China'.", alluding to the fact that Kirk was generally feared as a cunning adversary by his regularly fearless enemy Klingons and only he (Kirk) had the credibility to negotiate a peace treaty with the Klingons.
  • Elton John and Bernie Taupin wrote a song entitled "Postcards from Richard Nixon", which appears on Elton's album The Captain and the Kid.
  • Billy Joel's seminal 1989 hit song We Didn't Start the Fire features Richard Nixon in its second verse chronicling the events of 1950 (Nixons election to the United States Senate).

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (462x685, 90 KB) Summary Permission given to use this image in RMN article, provided credit is given. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (462x685, 90 KB) Summary Permission given to use this image in RMN article, provided credit is given. ... Frost/Nixon is a play by the British screenwriter and dramatist Peter Morgan. ... Peter Morgan (born April 10, 1963-) is a British screenwriter and playwright. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of the United Kingdom and the largest city of England (strangely, England has no constitutional existence within the United Kingdom, and therefore cannot be said to have a capital). ... // West End theatre is a popular term for mainstream professional theatre in London, or sometimes more specifically for shows staged in the large theatres of Londons Theatreland . Along with New Yorks Broadway Theatre, West End theatre is usually considered to represent the highest level of theatre in the... Cover of 2005 printing All the Presidents Men is a 1974 non-fiction book by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, the two journalists investigating the Watergate first break-in and ensuing Watergate scandal for the Washington Post. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premiere of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose, Ph. ... Philip Roth Philip Milton Roth (born March 19, 1933, Newark, New Jersey) is an American novelist. ... Our Gang (1971) is Philip Roths fifth novel. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Telephone tapping or Wire tapping/ Wiretapping (in US) describes the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... Charles Wendell Chuck Colson was the chief counsel for President Richard Nixon from 1969 to 1973. ... Born again is a term used originally and mainly in Christianity, where it is associated with salvation, conversion and spiritual rebirth. ... Harry Robbins (Bob) Haldeman (October 27, 1926 - November 12, 1993) was a U.S. political aide and businessman, best known for his service in the Nixon White House, and for his role in the Watergate scandal, for which he was convicted and imprisoned. ... Hunter Stockton Thompson (July 18, 1937 – February 20, 2005) was an American journalist and author. ... Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail 1972 is a collection of articles covering the 1972 presidential campaign serialized in Rolling Stone magazine and later released as a book, written by gonzo journalist Hunter S Thompson and illustrated by Ralph Steadman. ... Promotional flier for the Nixon in China opera. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan. ... Nixon is a 1995 film which tells the story of the political and personal life of former President Richard Nixon. ... William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946), known simply as Oliver Stone, is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director and screenwriter. ... Robin Rhodes Millhouse is an Australian politician. ... Movie poster Dick is a 1999 US comedy movie directed by Andrew Fleming from a script by himself and Sheryl Longin. ... W. Mark Felt, on the set of CBSs Face the Nation in 1976. ... Deep Throat is an American pornographic movie released in the summer of 1972, written and directed by Gerard Damiano and starring Linda Lovelace (the pseudonym of Linda Susan Boreman). ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ... The Assassination of Richard Nixon is a 2004 drama film, directed by Niels Mueller. ... Sean Justin Penn (born August 17, 1960) is an Academy Award-winning American film actor & director. ... Historical American flags in Washington, DC: the Betsy Ross flag hangs on both ends and the classic Old Glory is to each side of the current 50 state version. ... This box:      Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately or corporately owned and operated for profit, in which investment is determined by private decision, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free... It has been suggested that NBC Radio City Studios, NBC Studios be merged into this article or section. ... Saturday Night Live (SNL) is a weekly late night 90-minute American comedy-variety show based in New York City which has been broadcast by NBC on Saturday nights since October 11, 1975. ... Daniel Edward Aykroyd CM (born July 1, 1952) is an Academy Award-nominated Canadian comedian, actor, screenwriter and musician. ... That 70s Show logo That 70s Show is a Fox Network television sitcom centered around the lives of a group of teenagers living in the fictional suburb of Point Place, near Green Bay, during the late 1970s. ... Image File history File links Richardm. ... Image File history File links Richardm. ... Futurama is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening (creator of The Simpsons) and David X. Cohen for the Fox Network. ... The President of Earth is a theoretical future political office that is common in many science fiction works. ... Matthew Abram Groening (born February 15, 1954 in Portland, Oregon; his family name is pronounced , rhyming with gaining and raining) is an Emmy-winning American cartoonist and the creator of the American animated television series The Simpsons [1] and Futurama, as well as the comic strip Life in Hell. ... Futurama is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening (creator of The Simpsons) and David X. Cohen for the Fox Network. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Milhouse Mussolini Van Houten is a fictional character featured in the animated television series The Simpsons, voiced by Pamela Hayden. ... Manic Street Preachers (often known colloquially as The Manics) are a Welsh rock band often associated with the Britpop scene, and were one of the biggest bands in Britain for a period in the late 1990s. ... The Love of Richard Nixon is the first single to be released from the Manic Street Preachers seventh studio album Lifeblood. ... Neil Percival Young OM (born November 12, 1945, Toronto, Ontario) is a Canadian singer-songwriter, guitarist and film director who grew up during his teen years in Winnipeg, Manitoba. ... Philip David Ochs (December 19, 1940 – April 9, 1976) was a U.S. protest singer (or, as he preferred, a topical singer), songwriter, musician and recording artist who was known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism, insightful and alliterative lyrics, and haunting voice. ... James Vernon Taylor (born March 12, 1948) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, born in Belmont, Massachusetts. ... Alan Moore (born November 18, 1953, in Northampton) is an English writer most famous for his work in comics, including the acclaimed graphic novels Watchmen, V for Vendetta and From Hell. ... Sabre (1978), one of the first graphic novels. ... Watchmen is a twelve-issue graphic novel written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Dave Gibbons. ... Doctor Manhattan is a fictional superhero who is a central character in the classic comic book series, Watchmen by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons and published by DC Comics. ... (Redirected from 22nd Amendment) The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution establishes a two-term limit for the Presidency. ... The Rocky Horror Picture Show (RHPS) (first released in the United Kingdom on 14 August 1975) is a science fiction-comedy-horror musical film directed by Jim Sharman from a screenplay by Sharman and Richard OBrien. ... Orson Scott Card (born August 24, 1951)[1] is a prolific and best-selling author, working in numerous genres. ... Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (Paramount Pictures, 1991; see also 1991 in film) is the sixth feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article or section may need to be cleaned up and rewritten because it describes a work of fiction in a primarily in-universe style. ... The phrase Nixon in China is a historical reference to US President Richard Nixons visit to the Peoples Republic of China in 1972, where he met with Chairman Mao Zedong. ... Sir Elton Hercules[1] John, CBE[2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is an English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ... Bernie Taupin (born May 22, 1950) is an English lyricist famous for his collaboration with Elton John. ... William Martin Billy Joel (born May 9, 1949, in Bronx, New York) is an American singer, pianist, and songwriter. ... We Didnt Start the Fire is a song by Billy Joel which chronicles 120 well-known events, people, things, and places widely noted during his lifetime, from March 1949 to 1989, when the song was released on his album Storm Front. ... We Didnt Start the Fire is a song by Billy Joel which chronicles 120 well-known events, people, things, and places widely noted during his lifetime, from March 1949 to 1989, when the song was released on his album Storm Front. ...

Trivia

  • Nixon was the first (and to date only) person to be elected Vice President & President twice.
  • The first Kennedy-Nixon debate took place on April 21, 1947, when Democratic Congressman Frank Buchanan selected freshman congressmen Nixon and John F. Kennedy to debate the Taft-Hartley Act at a public meeting.
  • The shoulder Nixon weeps on after the "Checkers Speech" by U.S. Senator William F. Knowland of California: Knowland gave the Vice-Presidential oath to Nixon in 1953 and 1957. Nixon saw Knowland and California Governor Goodwin J. Knight as a threat to his political future. He convinced Knowland of the "Big Switch" in 1958. The double defeat of Knowland and Knight cleared the powerful California Republicans from the path of Nixon's political future.
  • On June 14, 1959, Vice-President Nixon and his family inaugurated the Disneyland Monorail System, the first daily operating monorail in the western hemisphere.
  • At the time of John F. Kennedy's assassination, Nixon was attending a Pepsi convention in Dallas. Nixon, Mudge, Rose, Guthrie & Alexander, the law firm of which he was senior partner, was in charge of managing the Pepsi account.
  • On December 22, 1968, Julie Nixon (Richard's daughter) and David Eisenhower (Dwight's grandson) were married by Norman Vincent Peale at the Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan.
  • From January 22, 1973, when his predecessor Lyndon B. Johnson died, until his resignation on August 9, 1974, Nixon was the only living current or former U.S. President.
  • Nixon was an accomplished pianist and played violin as a youth.
  • Nixon was the second U.S. President to visit the Soviet Union (the first one was President Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference in 1945).
  • Nixon is one of only two men to have run on five National tickets for a major party (the other one is Roosevelt again) for Vice President in 1952 and 1956 and for the presidency in 1960, 1968 and 1972. He was nominated as a resident of two different states: between his 1960 and 1968 presidential campaigns, he moved from California to New York.
  • Nixon was granted a coat of arms by the short-lived American College of Heraldry and Arms.
  • Nixon was an avid bowler and allegedly once bowled a perfect game.
  • Nixon was a knowledgeable sports fan, with a particular interest in football and baseball. During his presidency, he even had the odd habit of calling the losing team after the Super Bowl to offer his condolences and support.
  • Nixon took a particular interest in the NFL's 1971 season. During the playoffs, he contacted George Allen to suggest he tell his Washington Redskins team that Nixon designed a play for them. He did not actually design the play. Once the Redskins were eliminated, he began to root for the Miami Dolphins. He called Dolphins coach Don Shula on January 3, 1972 to suggest the team use a quick slant pass in the Super Bowl.
  • Nixon was the first President to visit all 50 states.
  • Nixon played golf frequently.
  • Nixon's last public appearance was in April of 1994 at a Conestoga High School performance of Into the Woods. His granddaughter Jennie Eisenhower, great-granddaughter of Dwight D. Eisenhower, played the role of Little Red Riding Hood.[23]
  • In the final four days of Nixon's life after suffering his ultimately fatal stroke he was at the same hospital (New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center) as Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, who was suffering from cancer and died less than a month after Nixon.
  • Nixon applied for the Special Agent position in the FBI.
  • Gonzo journalist and counter-culture figure Hunter S. Thompson considered Nixon to be his greatest foe, and made a habit of bashing him in his writings.
  • Throughout his life Richard Nixon developed a passion for rare antique clocks. Nixon collected numerous examples from the Viennese School headed by Schuppan and Klonitz, which date from the 1660s.[citation needed]
  • Nixon's top five favorite presidents were Dwight D. Eisenhower, Herbert Hoover, Woodrow Wilson, Abraham Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt. Ronald Reagan was number 6.
  • Richard Nixon went target shooting as a favorite hobby.
  • Nixon is credited with coining the term "media steroids" to refer to the media buildup a presidential candidate will often receive after performing well enough in a major political party's primaries and caucuses to become its presumed nominee.
  • He met Elvis Presley in 1970 and Johnny Cash in 1972.
  • Nixon is the only President to fly commercially while in office (source: Executive One article).
  • Nixon's favorite dinner was a chicken casserole dish.
  • Not only was Nixon the 37th president to serve, but he was also the 37th president to be born. Ronald Reagan, born in 1911, was the 36th born and the 40th to serve. Gerald Ford, also born in 1913, was the 38th president in birth order as well as the 38th to serve.
  • Nixon was also the 37th president in the order of death. Lyndon B. Johnson was the 36th to die back in 1973. Reagan was the 38th to die in 2004. Nixon was one of the few presidents to be the same numerically in terms of serving, birth and death. Also with Reagan being the 38th to die and the different birth orders of the other living former presidents, no currently living former president or current president can be the same numerically in all three categories.
  • Despite helping Ronald Reagan with his campaigns for Governor of California and endorsements for president in 1980 and 1984, as well as Reagan helping Nixon on his three campaigns for president and his 1962 campaign for governor of California, Nixon and Reagan were not friends.[citation needed]
  • Nixon was a distant cousin of Leka, Crown Prince of Albania [3].

April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Frank Buchanan (December 1, 1902–April 27, 1951) was a Democrat member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... Alternate uses: Student (disambiguation) Etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb stŭdērĕ, which means to study, a student is one who studies. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... The Labor-Management Relations Act, commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act, is a United States federal law that severely restricts the activities and power of labor unions. ... William Fife Knowland (June 26, 1908 – February 23, 1974) was a U.S. politician and newpaperman. ... Goodwin Jess Knight (December 9, 1896 - May 22, 1970) was the 31st Governor of California. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Disneyland Monorail System is an attraction and transportation system at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California. ... Pepsi-Cola, most commonly called Pepsi, is a soft drink produced and manufactured by PepsiCo. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Julie Nixon Eisenhower (born July 5, 1948 in Washington, D.C.) is the daughter of Richard Nixon and married to David Eisenhower, grandson of the 34th president, Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... Dwight David Eisenhower II (born 1948) is the grandson of the supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II and the 34th President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... Norman Vincent Peale Norman Vincent Peale (May 31, 1898 – December 24, 1993) was a Christian preacher and author (most notably of The Power of Positive Thinking) and a progenitor of the theory of positive thinking. Peale was born in Bowersville, Ohio and died in Pawling, New York. ... Marble Collegiate Church is located at Fifth Avenue and Twenty-Ninth Street in New York City. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4, 1945 to February 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union — Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin, respectively. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... A seal bearing the arms of The American College of Heraldry and Arms The American College of Heraldry and Arms, Inc. ... Bowling ball and two pins Ten-pin bowling lane Bowling is a game in which players attempt to score points by rolling a ball along a flat surface in an attempt to knock down objects called pins. ... A 300-point game in bowling is the best score possible. ... NFL logo For other uses of the abbreviation NFL, see NFL (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Allen (April 29, 1918 – December 31, 1990) was an American football coach in the NFL. // Allen was born in Detroit, Michigan, where his father, Earl Allen, was recorded in the 1920 and 1930 U. S. census records for Wayne County, Michigan as working as a chauffeur to a... City Landover, Maryland Other nicknames The Skins Team colors Burgundy and Gold Head Coach Joe Gibbs Owner Daniel Snyder General manager Vinny Cerrato Fight song Hail to the Redskins League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1932–present) Eastern Division (1933-1949) American Conference (1950-1952) Eastern Conference (1953-1969) Capitol... City Miami Gardens, Florida Other nicknames The Fins, The Fish Team colors Aqua Green, Coral Orange, Navy Blue, and White Head Coach Nick Saban Owner Wayne Huizenga General manager Randy Mueller Mascot T. D. League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1966-1969) Eastern Division (1966-1969) National Football League (1970... Shula was the 1993 Sportsman of the Year Donald Francis Shula (born January 4, 1930 in Grand River, Ohio) is an American former professional football coach in the National Football League. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ... Conestoga High School in 2006 Conestoga High School, located in Devon-Berwyn, a community in Tredyffrin Township, Pennsylvania, is the only high school in the Tredyffrin/Easttown School District. ... Into the Woods is an award-winning musical featuring a score by Stephen Sondheim and book by James Lapine. ... This page is about Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... A depiction by Gustave Dore Little Red Riding Hood is a famous folktale about a young girls encounter with a wolf. ... Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis (July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994), known in the 1960s as Jackie Kennedy, and later as Jackie Onassis, was the wife of President John F. Kennedy, and First Lady of the United States from 1961 to 1963. ... Special Agent may refer to: // In the United States Government Any civilian (i. ... // At present, the FBI has investigative jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes and is second to only the United States Marshal Service in terms of law enforcement jurisdiction (although the USMS by practice relegates itself to judicial duties, making the FBI the de-facto lead... Elvis Aron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), often known simply as Elvis and also called The King of Rock n Roll or simply The King, was an American singer, musician and actor. ... Johnny Cash (born J.R. Cash, February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003) was an influential American country and rock and roll singer and songwriter. ... Executive One is the call sign designated any civilian aircraft when the President of the United States is onboard. ... In cooking, a casserole (from the French for stew pan) is a dish consisting of tough cuts of meat, poultry or game stewed in liquid with vegetables and flavourings. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

See also

Main article: :Category:Richard Nixon

Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... // Civil rights The assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963 changed the political mood of the country. ... The Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace is the presidential library of Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th President of the United States, located at 18001 Yorba Linda Boulevard in Yorba Linda, California. ... A Richard Nixon mask is a mask with the features of U.S. President Richard Nixon. ...

Sources

Primary sources

  • Foreign Relations of the United States: Nixon-Ford Administrations[4]

By Richard Nixon

  • - The Challenges We Face: Edited and Compiled from the Speeches and Papers of Richard M. Nixon (1960) ISBN 0-19-545762-6.
  • - Six Crises, Doubleday (1962) ISBN 0-385-00125-8
  • - RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon Simon & Schuster (Reprint, 1978) ISBN 0-671-70741-8
  • - The Real War. Sidgwich Jackson (1980) ISBN 0-283-98650-6. Written as a cri de coeur against what RN saw as serious threats to U.S. security from Soviet expansionism in the late 1970s.
  • - Leaders. Random House (1982) ISBN 0-446-51249-4. Character study of various leaders that RN came to know during his career.
  • - Real Peace. Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd (1984) ISBN 0-283-99076-7
  • - No More Vietnams Arbor House Publishing (1987) ISBN 0-87795-668-5
  • - 1999: Victory Without War Simon & Schuster (1988) ISBN 0-671-62712-0.
  • - In the Arena: A Memoir of Victory, Defeat, and Renewal Simon & Schuster (1990) ISBN 0-671-72318-9. A more personal memoir than RN, shows RNs reflections on life, politics, and personal philosophy.
  • - Seize The Moment: America's Challenge In A One-Superpower World Simon & Schuster (1992) ISBN 0-671-74343-0
  • - Beyond Peace. Random House (1994) ISBN 0-679-43323-6

By other authors

  • Ehrlichman, John D. Witness to Power. The Nixon Years (1982)
  • Haldeman, H. R. ('Bob') The Haldeman Diaries. Inside the Nixon White House (1994), abridged version; complete diaries were published on CD-ROM by SONY
  • Kissinger, Henry White House Years Little Brown & Co. (1979)
  • - Years of Upheaval (1982)
  • Price, Raymond With Nixon (1977)
  • Safire, William Before the Fall. An Inside View of the Pre-Watergate White House (1975)
  • Stans, Maurice H.One of the President's Men: Twenty Years with Eisenhower and Nixon (1995)

Secondary sources

Biographies

  • Aitken, Jonathan. Nixon: A Life (1993), favorable
  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913–1962 (1987)
  • - Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962–1972 (1989)
  • - Nixon: Ruin and Recovery 1973–1990 (1991). The most detailed scholarly biographies; hostile
  • Greenberg, David Nixon's Shadow: The History of an Image (2003). Important study of how Nixon was perceived by media and scholars
  • Hoff, Joan. Nixon Reconsidered (1994). quite favorable
  • Morris, Roger Richard Milhous Nixon: The Rise of an American Politician (1990)
  • Morgan, Iwan On Nixon (2002), favourable British view
  • Parmet, Herbert S. Richard Nixon and His America (1990)
  • Reeves, Richard President Nixon: Alone in the White House (2002)
  • Wicker, Tom One of Us: Richard Nixon and the American Dream (1991)

Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premiere of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose, Ph. ...

Political studies

  • Bochin, Hal W. Richard Nixon: Rhetorical Strategist Greenwood Press 1990
  • Friedman, Leon and William F. Levantrosser, eds. Richard M. Nixon: Politician, President, Administrator (1991), essays by scholars
  • Genovese, Michael A. The Nixon Presidency: Power and Politics in Turbulent Times (1990)
  • Greene, John Robert The Limits of Power: The Nixon and Ford Administrations (1992)
  • Gellman, Irwin The Contender: Richard Nixon: The Congress Years, 1946 to 1952 (1999)
  • Mason, Robert. Richard Nixon and the Quest for a New Majority (2004). 289 pp.
  • Matusow, Allen J. Nixon's Economy: Booms, Busts, Dollars and Votes. U. Press of Kansas, 1998. 323 pp.
  • Marvillas, Anthony Rama. "Nixon in Nixonland" Southern California Quarterly 2002 84(2): 169-181. ISSN 0038-3929 Examines the Nixonlanders, loyal supporters of Nixon throughout his political career, and how well Nixon fit their perception of his political views. Mostly Protestants and prosperous small business owners, the Nixonlanders opposed the New Deal's domestic programs and the Democrats' foreign policy. They believed in individualism, self-reliance, and thrift and stood fast against the Soviet Union and communism. These old guard Republicans believed Nixon shared these views, but in reality Nixon was far more pragmatic, distrusting wealthy Republicans and open to change. He considered himself a moderate Republican as defined by his mentor, Dwight Eisenhower, and thus was an "extremely imprecise fit" to the Nixonlander definition.
  • Reichley, A. James Conservatives in an Age of Change: The Nixon and Ford Administrations (1981)
  • Small, Melvin The Presidency of Richard Nixon (2003)
  • Summers, Anthony The Arrogance of Power The Secret World of Richard Nixon (2000)
  • White, Theodore The Making of the President 1968 : A narrative History of American politics in Action (1969)
  • White, Theodore The Making of the President, 1972 (1973)

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

Foreign policy

  • Bundy, William. A Tangled Web: The Making of Foreign Policy in the Nixon Presidency. 1998. 647 pp. online review
  • Daum, Andreas W.; Gardner, Lloyd C.; Mausbach, Wilfred, eds. America, the Vietnam War, and the World : Comparative and International Perspectives (Publications of the German Historical Institute) (2003)
  • Gaddis, John Lewis Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy 1982.
  • Goh, Evelyn. "Nixon, Kissinger, and the 'Soviet Card' in the U.s. Opening to China, 1971-1974." Diplomatic History 2005 29(3): 475-502. ISSN 0145-2096 Fulltext in Ingenta and Ebsco; Kissinger's use of the "Soviet card" in relations with China between 1971 and 1974 offers diplomatic historians an interesting, if not yet conclusive, perspective on the rise and fall of détente and the problems of "triangular diplomacy." Kissinger sought to play up the Soviet threat to the Chinese as a way of promoting closer relations with the PRC. While at times he suggested a US-PRC alliance, declassified sources indicate that his suggestions were more hyperbole than actual US policy. He was really using the Soviet threat as a means to a closer relationship with China, but one that was still subordinated to improved US-Soviet relations. Unfortunately for Kissinger and the Nixon administration, the triangular diplomacy failed because of Chinese suspicions and the Watergate crisis.
  • Kimball, Jeffrey P. Nixon's Vietnam War (2002)
  • Levantrosser, William F. ed. Cold War Patriot and Statesman, Richard M. Nixon (1993), essays by scholars and senior officials.
  • Shawcross, William. Sideshow: Kissinger, Nixon, and the Destruction of Cambodia (1979), Simon and Schuster. Strong critique of Cambodia policy. Kissinger responds directly to Shawcross' claims in appendix to Years of Upheaval.
  • Thornton, Richard C. The Nixon-Kissinger Years: Reshaping America's Foreign Policy (1989)
  • Tucker, Nancy Bernkopf. "Taiwan Expendable? Nixon and Kissinger Go to China" Journal of American History 2005 92(1): 109-135. ISSN 0021-8723 Fulltext in History Cooperative and Ebsco. Analyzes US policy toward China and finds that Nixon and Kissinger pursued a deeply flawed and ultimately harmful path toward establishing relations with Communist China. Nixon and Kissinger operated in secrecy in order to hide the "collateral damage" of their China policy, particularly the damage it did to the former US client state of Taiwan.
  • Warner, Geoffrey, “Nixon, Kissinger, and the Breakup of Pakistan, 1971,” International Affairs (London), 81 (Oct. 2005), 1097–1118.

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

Domestic policy

  • Burke, Vincent J. Nixon's Good Deed: Welfare Reform (1974)
  • Hood, J. Larry "The Nixon Administration and the Revised Philadelphia Plan for Affirmative Action: A Study in Expanding Presidential Power and Divided Government" Presidential Studies Quarterly 23 (Winter 1993): 145-67
  • Flippen, J. Brooks. Nixon and the Environment (2000).
  • Kotlowski, Dean J. Nixon's Civil Rights: Politics, Principle, and Policy (2001).
  • Kotlowski, Dean J. ; "Richard Nixon and the Origins of Affirmative Action" The Historian. Volume: 60. Issue: 3. 1998. pp. 523 ff.
  • Kotlowski, Dean J. "Deeds Versus Words: Richard Nixon and Civil Rights Policy." New England Journal of History 1999-2000 56(2-3): 122-144. Abstract: Political considerations and his own personal views gave President Nixon a mixed record in the area of civil rights, which included such advances as the implementation of affirmative action, school desegregation, and other types of economic support promoting racial equality, but opposed busing, ignored women, and made compromises to placate Southern conservatives.
  • McAndrews, Lawrence J.; "The Politics of Principle: Richard Nixon and School Desegregation" The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 83 #3, 1998 pp 187+
  • O'Reilly, Kenneth Nixon's Piano: Presidents and Racial Politics from Washington to Clinton (1995)
  • Matusow, Allen J. Nixon's Economy: Booms, Busts, Dollars, and Votes (1998)
  • Schell, Jonathan "The Time of Illusion" Vintage (1976)
  • Sussman, Glen and Daynes, Byron W. "Spanning the Century: Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, Richard Nixon, Bill Clinton, and the Environment." White House Studies 2004 4(3): 337-354. ISSN 1535-4768

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

Watergate

  • Bernstein, Carl; Woodward, Bob All the President's Men (1974)
  • Friedman, Leon and Levantrosser, William F. eds. Watergate and Afterward: The Legacy of Richard M. Nixon (1992), essays by scholars
  • Kutler, Stanley I. The Wars of Watergate: The Last Crisis of Richard Nixon. (1990).
  • Olson, Keith W. Watergate: The Presidential Scandal That Shook America. (2003). 220 pp.
  • Schudson, Michael Watergate in American Memory: How We Remember, Forget, and Reconstruct the Past (1993)

References

  1. ^ Hove, Duane T. American Warriors: Five Presidents in the Pacific Theater of WWII, Burd Street Press, 2003 ISBN 1-57249-307-0; summary accessed at [1] August 2, 2006
  2. ^ Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debates, 1960 - Erika Tyner Allen, Museum of Broadcast Communications, accessed April 4, 2006
  3. ^ Victor S. Kaufman; Confronting Communism: U.S. and British Policies toward China (2001), 228-31; Anthony Kubek, "The 'Opening' of China: President Nixon's 1972 Journey." American Asian Review 1992 10(4): 1-22. ISSN 0737-6650; Nancy Bernkopf Tucker, "Taiwan Expendable? Nixon and Kissinger Go to China," Journal of American History (2005) 92(1): 109-135. ISSN 0021-8723
  4. ^ John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment 1982 p 294, 299; Ang Cheng Guan, Ending the Vietnam War: The Vietnamese Communists' Perspective (2003) pp 61, 69, 77-79; Qiang Zhai China and the Vietnam Wars p 136
  5. ^ Nixon, No More Vietnams (1987), pp. 105–6.
  6. ^ NSA archives on South Asia crisis
  7. ^ Harold H. Saunders, “Memorandum of Conversation: Kenneth Keating, Henry A. Kissinger and Harold H. Saunders,” June 3, 1971, The National Security Archive
  8. ^ Detente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan, - Raymond L Garthodd, p 298
  9. ^ The Tilt: The U.S. and the South Asian Crisis of 1971 - Sajit Gandhi, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 79, December 16, 2002
  10. ^ Thornton, The Nixon-Kissinger Years: Reshaping American’s Foreign Policy, pp.113-115
  11. ^ Sharma, Dhirendra (May 1991). "India's lopsided science". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist 47 (4): 32-36. http://www.thebulletin.org/article.php?art_ofn=may91sharma
  12. ^ Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira - BBC News.
  13. ^ Shirin R. Tahir-Kheli, The United States and Pakistan: the Evolution of an Influence Relationship, pp.49
  14. ^ Policy and Principle: Reconsidering the Realism of Nixon's Foreign Policy
  15. ^ Kotlowski (2001) p. 8
  16. ^ Kotlowski (2001) p. 37
  17. ^ "Mental Illness In U.S. Presidents Between 1776 and 1974" Davidson, Connor, Swartz; Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 194(1):47-51, January 2006
  18. ^ The Pursuit of Oblivion, Richard Davenport-Hines, 2001, p. 420-421
  19. ^ Anthony SummersThe Arrogance of Power, 2000, p. 317-18,449
  20. ^ "Richard M. Nixon: Before and After Watergate", The History Channel
  21. ^ * Skidmore, Max J. "Ranking and Evaluating Presidents: The Case of Theodore Roosevelt" White House Studies. Volume: 1. Issue: 4. 2001. pp 495+.
  22. ^ Nixon: A Psychobiography - Vamik D. Volkan, Norman Itzkowitz, and Andrew W. Dod, book review by Michael A. Ingall, accessed April 4, 2006
  23. ^ Choosing theater over politics - Ruth Rovner, Main Line Times, December 11, 2003

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External links

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Biographies

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Watergate

Speeches

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Video

  • "Nixon Now" Nixon's 1972 Campaign Jingle video
  • "Nervous About Nixon?" 1956 Democratic Campaign Ad video

Eulogies

Preceded by
Jerry Voorhis
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 12th congressional district

1947 – 1950
Succeeded by
Patrick J. Hillings
Preceded by
Sheridan Downey
United States Senator (Class 3) from California
1950 – 1953
Served alongside: William F. Knowland
Succeeded by
Thomas Kuchel
Preceded by
Earl Warren
Republican Party Vice Presidential nominee
1952 (won), 1956 (won)
Succeeded by
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Preceded by
Alben W. Barkley
Vice President of the United States
January 20, 1953January 20, 1961
Succeeded by
Lyndon B. Johnson
Preceded by
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party Presidential nominee
1960 (lost)
Succeeded by
Barry Goldwater
Preceded by
Barry Goldwater
Republican Party Presidential nominee
1968 (won), 1972 (won)
Succeeded by
Gerald Ford
Preceded by
Lyndon B. Johnson
President of the United States
January 20, 1969August 9, 1974

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Richard Nixon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5255 words)
Nixon was elected to the United States Senate in 1950, defeating actress turned congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas, whom Nixon accused during the campaign of having communist sympathies, calling her the "Pink Lady." In the campaign the Independent Review newspaper tagged Nixon with the name he would never shake: "Tricky Dick".
Nixon was notable among Vice Presidents in having actually stepped up to run the government three times when Eisenhower was ill: on the occasions of Eisenhower's heart attack on September 24, 1955; his ileitis in June 1956; and his stroke in November 1957.
Nixon likewise was instructed by CBS television producers to wear a grey suit that blended into the backdrop, whereas Kennedy was told by the same producer to wear a fl suit which would stand out when fl and white television was the standard.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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