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Encyclopedia > President Pro Tempore of the United States Senate
Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate.
Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate.
United States of America

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The president pro tempore of the United States Senate is the second-highest-ranking official of the Senate and the highest-ranking senator. The Vice President of the United States is the President of the Senate ex officio, and thus is the highest-ranking member of the Senate; during his absence, the President pro tempore presides over the Senate. The President pro tempore is elected by the Senate; by custom, he or she is typically the most senior senator in the majority party. Normally, neither the Vice President of the United States nor the President pro tempore presides; instead, the duty is generally delegated to other senators in the majority party. The President pro tempore, after the House of Representatives' Speaker of the House, is third in line of succession to the Presidency. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and local... United States presidential elections determine who serves as President and Vice President of the United States for four-year terms, starting on Inauguration Day, which is January 20th of the year after the election. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal • • Midterm elections are elections in the United States in which members of Congress, state legislatures, and... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      This list of political parties in the United States contains past and present political parties in... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      For other uses, see Republican Party (disambiguation) or GOP (disambiguation). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... A state government is the government of a subnational entity in nation-states with federal forms of government, which shares political power with the federal government or national government. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state or province. ... Current party control of Governors offices (2006). ... State legislatures are the lawmaking bodies of the 50 states in the United States of America. ... In the U.S., a state court has jurisdiction over disputes which occur in a state. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... Pro tempore or pro tem is a latin phrase which best translates to for the time being in English. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is the lower of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the House... The presidential line of succession defines who may become or act as President of the United States upon the incapacity, death, resignation, or removal from office (by impeachment and subsequent conviction) of a sitting president or a president-elect. ...


The current President pro tempore of the Senate is Robert Byrd (D-West Virginia). He replaced Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), who held the office from January 3, 2003 to January 3, 2007. Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Theodore Fulton Ted Stevens (born November 18, 1923) is a United States Senator from Alaska. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ...


The salary of the President pro tempore for 2006 is $183,500, equal to that of the Majority Leader and Minority Leader of both Houses of Congress. All other Senators currently earn a salary of $165,200.

Contents

Power and responsibilities

The seal of the President pro tempore.
The seal of the President pro tempore.

The President pro tempore is an office of the Senate mandated by Article I, section 3 of the Constitution. Although in some ways equivalent to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the powers of the President pro tempore are far more limited. In the Senate, most power rests with party leaders and individual senators. But as the Chamber's presiding officer, the President Pro Tempore is authorized to perform certain duties, including ruling on points of order and enforcing decorum in the Senate Chamber and Galleries. The President Pro Tempore also signs Legislation passed by the Senate before it is sent to the President for his signature. The President pro tempore represents the Senate at formal events. Image File history File links Ppt-seal. ... Image File history File links Ppt-seal. ... Seal on envelope A seal is an impression printed on, embossed upon, or affixed to a document (or any other object) in order to authenticate it, in lieu of or in addition to a signature. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article One of the United States Constitution Article One of the United States Constitution states the establishment of the legislative branch of the United States government, known as the Congress, which includes the House of Representatives and the Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the House...


Presidential disability and succession

The President pro tempore is one of the two authorities to whom declarations of presidential inability or of ability to resume the presidency must be transmitted under the 25th Amendment to the Constitution. (The Speaker of the House is the other.) Amendment XXV (the Twenty-fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities. ...


The President pro tempore is third in the line of presidential succession, following the Vice President and the Speaker of the House. The presidential line of succession defines who may become or act as President of the United States upon the incapacity, death, resignation, or removal from office (by impeachment and subsequent conviction) of a sitting president or a president-elect. ...


History

William P. Frye, whose 1911 resignation as President pro tempore touched off a series of rotating Presidents pro tempore''.
William P. Frye, whose 1911 resignation as President pro tempore touched off a series of rotating Presidents pro tempore''.

The office of President pro tempore was established in 1789 by the Constitution of the United States. Originally, the President pro tempore was appointed on a daily or weekly basis when the Vice President of the United States was not present to preside over the Senate. Until the 1960s, it was common practice for the Vice President to preside over daily Senate sessions, so the President pro tempore rarely presided over the Senate unless the Vice Presidency became vacant. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2156x3014, 595 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): President pro tempore of the United States Senate William P. Frye ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2156x3014, 595 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): President pro tempore of the United States Senate William P. Frye ... William Pierce Frye William Pierce Frye (September 2, 1830 – August 8, 1911) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... From April 4, 1911 to March 3, 1913, the office of President pro tempore of the United States Senate for the 62nd Congress rotated among five individuals. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ...


Until 1891, the President pro tempore only served until the return of the Vice President to the chair or the adjournment of a session of Congress. Between 1792 and 1886, the President pro tempore was second in the line of presidential succession following the Vice President and preceding the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Thus, when President Andrew Johnson was impeached and tried in 1868, Senate President pro tempore Benjamin Wade was next in line to the Presidency. Wade's radicalism is thought by most historians to be a major reason why the Senate, which did not want to see Wade in the White House, acquitted Johnson. The President pro tempore and the Speaker were removed from the line of succession in 1886, but were restored in 1947. This time, however, the President pro tempore followed the Speaker. The presidential line of succession defines who may become or act as President of the United States upon the incapacity, death, resignation, or removal from office (by impeachment and subsequent conviction) of a sitting president or a president-elect. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the House... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... Benjamin Franklin Wade (October 27, 1800–March 2, 1878) was a U.S. lawyer. ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ...


Following the resignation for health reasons of then-President pro tempore William P. Frye, a Congress divided between progressive Republicans, conservative Republicans, and Democrats reached a compromise by which each of their candidates would rotate holding the office from 1911 to 1913. (See Presidents pro tempore of the United States Senate, 1911-1913.) William Pierce Frye William Pierce Frye (September 2, 1830 – August 8, 1911) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... From April 4, 1911 to March 3, 1913, the office of President pro tempore of the United States Senate for the 62nd Congress rotated among five individuals. ...


Variants

Acting President pro tempore

The President pro tempore, just like the Vice President, over time has ceased presiding over the Senate on a daily basis, notably due to the task's lack of power or glamor. More importantly, since the President pro tempore is now usually the most senior senator of the majority party, he or she most likely also chairs a major Senate committee, along with performing other duties related to seniority. Therefore, the President pro tempore has less time now than in the past to preside daily over the Senate. Instead, junior senators of the majority party are designated acting President pro tempore to preside over the Senate on a daily basis. This allows junior senators to learn proper parliamentary procedure.


Permanent Acting President pro tempore

In June 1963, due to the illness of President pro tempore Carl T. Hayden, Senator Lee Metcalf was designated Permanent Acting President pro tempore. No term was imposed on this designation, so Metcalf retained it until he died in office in 1978. Carl T. Hayden Carl Trumbull Hayden (October 2, 1877 – January 25, 1972) was the first United States Senator to serve seven terms. ... Lee Warren Metcalf was a Representative and a Senator from Montana; born in Stevensville, Montana January 28, 1911; graduated from Stanford University in 1936 and received a law degree from Montana State University Law School; admitted to the Montana bar in 1936 and commenced the practice of law; member, State...


Deputy President pro tempore

Hubert Humphrey was the first Deputy President pro tempore in 1977-1978
Hubert Humphrey was the first Deputy President pro tempore in 1977-1978

The ceremonial post of Deputy President pro tempore was created for Hubert Humphrey, a former Vice President of the United States, in 1977 following his losing bid to become the Senate majority leader. The Senate resolution creating the position stated that any former President of the United States or Vice President of the United States serving in the United States Senate would be entitled to this position. Since Humphrey's death in 1978, no other former President or Vice President has served in the Senate. As of 2006, if they successfully sought election to the Senate, three former Presidents, (Jimmy Carter, George H.W. Bush, and Bill Clinton), and three former Vice-Presidents, (Walter Mondale, Dan Quayle, and Al Gore), are eligible for the position of Deputy President pro tempore. Had former Vice-President Walter Mondale won his senate election bid, he would have been entitled to the position of Deputy President pro tempore. Image File history File links Official White House portrait of Humphrey. ... Image File history File links Official White House portrait of Humphrey. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... The Senate Majority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by the party conference which holds the majority in the Senate to serve as the chief Senate spokesman for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... Seal of the U.S. Senate The Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey). ... James Danforth Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey). ...  Republican hold  Republican pickup  Democratic hold  Democratic pickup The U.S. Senate election, 2002 was a fiercely-contested race that resulted in a victory for the Republican Party, which gained two seats and thus a narrow majority from the Democratic Party in the United States Senate. ...

George J. Mitchell served as Deputy President pro tempore in 1987-1988
George J. Mitchell served as Deputy President pro tempore in 1987-1988

When the President pro tempore becomes unable to perform the duties of office for an extended period, the current practice is to elect a Senator as Deputy President pro tempore, as opposed to a Permanent Acting President pro tempore, to carry out the duties until the President pro tempore can resume the duties. George J. Mitchell was elected Deputy President pro tempore in 1987-1988, due to the illness of President pro tempore John C. Stennis. The office to date has remained vacant. Hubert Humphrey and George J. Mitchell are the only Senators to date that have held the title. Image File history File links From [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... George John Mitchell, GBE (born August 20, 1933 in Waterville, Maine) is Chairman of the Walt Disney Company. ... George John Mitchell, GBE (born August 20, 1933 in Waterville, Maine) is Chairman of the Walt Disney Company. ... Sen. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. ... George John Mitchell, GBE (born August 20, 1933 in Waterville, Maine) is Chairman of the Walt Disney Company. ...


The post may be purely honorary and ceremonial, but nevertheless, it comes with a salary. By statute, the compensation granted to the position holder equals the rate of annual compensation paid to the President pro tempore, Majority Leader, and Minority Leader. (See 2 U.S.C. § 32a.) The Senate Minority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by his or her party conference to serve as the chief Senate spokesmen for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. ... The United States Code (U.S.C.) is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal law of the United States. ...


President pro tempore emeritus

Ted Stevens of Alaska, the former President pro tempore and now President pro tempore emeritus of the United States Senate.
Ted Stevens of Alaska, the former President pro tempore and now President pro tempore emeritus of the United States Senate.

President pro tempore emeritus is an honorary title given to the member of the minority party in the United States Senate who has served as President pro tempore at some time in his or her career (Thus, a new person gains the title only when party control in the senate changes). Ted Stevens, a Republican from Alaska, has held the title since January 4, 2007. While it is possible for Congress to be in session without a sitting president pro tempore emeritus, this has not yet happened longer than a 12 day period since the position was created. That gap is due to the fact that Strom Thurmond retired a few days before party control of the Senate switched hands from Democrats to Republicans (January 3, 2003). Ted Stevens, from senate. ... Ted Stevens, from senate. ... Theodore Fulton Ted Stevens (born November 18, 1923) is a United States Senator from Alaska. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Emeritus (IPA pronunciation: or ) is an adjective that is used in the title of a retired professor, bishop or other professional. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Theodore Fulton Ted Stevens (born November 18, 1923) is a United States Senator from Alaska. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      For other uses, see Republican Party (disambiguation) or GOP (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902–June 26, 2003) represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican. ... January 3, 2003 The Immigration and Naturalization Service of the United States proposes rules which will require all Americans traveling abroad to disclose detailed personal information both before leaving the country and before being permitted to re-enter the country. ...

Strom Thurmond was the first President pro tempore emeritus in 2001-2003.
Strom Thurmond was the first President pro tempore emeritus in 2001-2003.

The first President pro tempore emeritus was named in 2001 after Democrats gained a majority in the Senate. Democrat Robert Byrd was elected President pro tempore. To honor the previous President pro tempore, the Senate gave Senator Thurmond the honorary title of President pro tempore emeritus.[1] Thurmond served from June 6, 2001 until January 3, 2003. Image:Strom Thurmond. ... Image:Strom Thurmond. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902–June 26, 2003) represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican. ... Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining // 1508 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year truce and cede several territories to Venice 1513... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


While the President pro tempore emeritus has no official duties, he works closely with party leaders and advises them on the functions of the Senate.


A senator can also switch back to President pro tempore from President pro tempore emeritus. At the beginning of the 110th Congress on January 4, 2007 (when party control switched from the Republicans to the Democrats), Robert Byrd became the first Senator to do so and Ted Stevens became the 3rd President pro tempore emeritus. January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Theodore Fulton Ted Stevens (born November 18, 1923) is a United States Senator from Alaska. ...


See also

This is a complete List of Presidents pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... This is a classification of current U.S. Senators by seniority. ...

References

  1. ^ S.Res. 103, adopted June 6, 2001. “Thanking and Electing Strom Thurmond President pro tempore emeritus,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 147, p. S5844.
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