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Encyclopedia > President Franklin Roosevelt
Franklin D Roosevelt

Order 32nd President
President from March 4, 1933April 12, 1945
Vice President John N. Garner
Henry A. Wallace
Harry S. Truman
Preceded by Herbert Hoover
Succeeded by Harry S. Truman
Born January 30, 1882
Hyde Park, New York
Died April 12, 1945
Warm Springs, Georgia
Political party Democratic
Spouse Eleanor Roosevelt
Signature [[Image:{{{signature}}}|128px]]
"FDR" redirects here. For other uses, see FDR (disambiguation).

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States (1933-1945), is best known for leading the U.S. through the Great Depression with his New Deal programs, building a powerful political coalition -- the New Deal Coalition -- that dominated American politics for decades, a major leader in the military alliance that defeated Nazi Germany, Italy and the Empire of Japan in World War II, and led the U.S. into the creation of the United Nations. Description: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1933. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... John Nance Cactus Jack Garner (November 22, 1868–November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941-45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933-40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945-46). ... For other people named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ... For other people named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Hyde Park is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Warm Springs is a city located in Meriwether County, Georgia. ... It has been suggested that Democratic presidents be merged into this article or section. ... Eleanor Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American human rights activist, stateswoman, journalist, educator, author, and diplomat. ... FDR may refer to: Franklin D. Roosevelt - The 32nd President of the United States. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The President of the United States (often abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age thirty-two, in Nipomo, California, March 1936. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal The New Deal is the name given to the series of programs implemented under president Franklin Delano Roosevelt with the goal of stabilizing, reforming and stimulating the United States economy during the Great Depression. ... The New Deal coalition was the poop alignment of interest groups and voting blocs who supported the New Deal and voted for United States Democratic Party presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, and which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that time. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Flag of Imperial Japan The Empire of Japan (: 大日本帝國; Shinjitai: 大日本帝国; pronounced Dai Nippon Teikoku) commonly refers to Japan from the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II. Politically, it covers the period from the enforced establishment of prefectures in place of feudal domains (廃藩置県; Hai-han Chi-ken) in July... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War II, also known as the Second World War (sometimes WW2 or WWII or World War Two), was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Born wealthy and privileged, he overcame crippling illness to place himself at the head of the forces of reform. Universally called FDR, he was both loved and hated in his day, but is now considered by many to be in the top tier of American presidents.


He was elected to four successive terms, two more than any other president. In response to his lengthy presidency, the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution was later ratified in 1951, which limits the number of terms a person may serve as president for a maximum of two terms, and makes it very unlikely that Roosevelt's record presidency of over twelve years will ever be broken. The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for the President of the United States, providing that No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President...

Contents


Early life

Franklin Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, at Hyde Park, in the Hudson River valley in upstate New York. His father, James Roosevelt (1828–1900), was a wealthy landowner and vice-president of the Delaware and Hudson Railway. The Roosevelt family (see Roosevelt family tree) had lived in New York for more than 200 years: Claes van Rosenvelt, originally from Haarlem in the Netherlands, arrived in New York (then called Nieuw Amsterdam) in about 1650. In 1788, Isaac Roosevelt was a member of the state convention in Poughkeepsie which voted to ratify the United States Constitution - a matter of great pride to his great-great-grandson Franklin. January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Hyde Park is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. ... View of the Hudson in the 1880s showing Jersey City The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river running mainly through New York State but partly forming the boundary between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... Upstate New York is the region of New York State outside of the core of the New York metropolitan area. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... James Roosevelt (July 16, 1828 - December 8, 1900) was a United States businessman and father of President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ... 1886 map The Delaware and Hudson Railway (D&H) (AAR reporting mark DH) is a subsidiary of the Canadian Pacific Railway, giving it access to New York City and other parts of the northeastern United States. ... This table shows the descent of President Theodore Roosevelt and President Franklin D. Roosevelt from their common ancestor Claes van Roosevelt. ... Haarlem is a city in the west of the Netherlands, capital of the North Holland province. ... New Amsterdam may refer to: New Amsterdam, the colonial settlement in the New Netherland colony that became New York City New Amsterdam, Indiana New Amsterdam, Guyana Nieuw Amsterdam, Netherlands, in the Dutch municipality of Emmen Nieuw Amsterdam, Suriname Suriname New Amsterdam Brewing Company in New York City This is a... Poughkeepsie City of Poughkeepsie Town of Poughkeepsie Poughkeepsie, Arkansas This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


In the 18th century the Roosevelt family had divided into two branches, the "Hyde Park Roosevelts", who by the late 19th century were Democrats, and the "Oyster Bay Roosevelts", who were Republicans. President Theodore Roosevelt, an Oyster Bay Republican, was Franklin's fifth cousin. Despite their political differences, the two branches remained friendly: James Roosevelt met his wife at a Roosevelt family gathering at Oyster Bay, and Franklin was to marry Theodore's niece. The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Oyster Bay is the name of a hamlet on the North Shore of Long Island in Nassau County in the state of New York, USA. The hamlet is also the site of a station on the Long Island Rail Road and the eastern termination point of that branch of the... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Theodore Roosevelt, formally Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ...


Roosevelt's mother Sara Ann Delano (1854–1941) was of French Protestant (Huguenot) descent, her ancestor Phillippe de la Noye having arrived in Massachusetts in 1621. Her mother was a Lyman, another very old American family. Franklin was her only child, and she was an extremely possessive mother. Since James was an elderly and remote father (he was 54 when Franklin was born), Sara was the dominant influence in Franklin's early years. He later told friends that he was afraid of her all his life. Sara Ann Delano Roosevelt (September 21, 1854 – September 7, 1941) was the wife of James Roosevelt, Sr. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, or historically as the French Calvinists. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 44th 10,555 mi²; 27,360 km² 183 mi; 295 km 113 mi; 182 km 13. ... Lyman may refer to: Lyman, Maine, a town in the United States Lyman, Wyoming a town in the United States in physics, the Lyman series of spectral lines Theodore Lyman, discoverer of the Lyman series Lyman (see Garfield), a comic strip character Lyman, a type of wooden clinker built boat...


Roosevelt grew up in an atmosphere of privilege. He learned to ride, to shoot, to row and to play polo and lawn tennis. Frequent trips to Europe made him conversant in German and French. The fact that his father was a Democrat, however, set him apart to some extent from most other members of the Hudson Valley aristocracy. The Roosevelts believed in public service, and were wealthy enough to be able to spend time and money on philanthropy. Playing polo Polo (also known as Cho-gan) is a team game played on a field with one goal for each team. ... This article is about the sport, tennis. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... For the magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine). ...


Roosevelt went to Groton School, an elite Episcopal boarding school near Boston. He was heavily influenced by the headmaster, Endicott Peabody, who preached the duty of Christians to help the less fortunate and urged his students to enter public service. Roosevelt graduated from Groton in 1900, and naturally progressed to Harvard University, where he enjoyed himself in conventional fashion and graduated with an A.B. (arts degree) in 1904 without much serious study. While he was at Harvard, Theodore Roosevelt became President and his vigorous leadership style and reforming zeal made him Franklin's role model. In 1903 he met his future wife Eleanor Roosevelt, Theodore's niece, at a White House reception. (They had previously met as children, but this was their first serious encounter.) Groton School is a private Episcopal boarding school located in Groton, Massachusetts. ... The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in Washington DC is the National Cathedral of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. ... Endicott Peabody (1857-20 January 1944) was the American Episcopal priest who founded the Groton School for Boys in 1884. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Eleanor Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American human rights activist, stateswoman, journalist, educator, author, and diplomat. ... The southern side of the White House The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America. ...


Roosevelt next attended the Columbia Law School. He passed the bar exam and completed the requirements for a law degree in 1907 but did not bother to actually graduate. In 1908 he took a job with the prestigious Wall Street firm of Carter, Ledyard and Milburn, dealing mainly with corporate law. Columbia University is a private university in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. ... A bar examination is an series of tests conducted at regular intervals to determine whether a candidate is qualified to practice law in a given American examination usually consists of the following: complicated essay questions concerning that jurisdictions law; the Multistate Bar Examination, a standardized, nationwide examination containing generalized... Corporations law or corporate law is the law concerning the creation and regulation of corporations. ...


Marriage and children

Meanwhile he had become engaged to Eleanor, despite the fierce resistance of Sara Delano Roosevelt, who was terrified of losing control of Franklin. They were married on March 17, 1905, and moved into a house bought for them by Sara, who became a frequent house-guest, much to Eleanor's mortification. Eleanor was painfully shy and hated social life, and at first she desired nothing more than to stay at home and raise Franklin's children, of which they had six in rapid succession: March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

The five surviving Roosevelt children all led tumultuous lives overshadowed by their famous parents. They had between them fifteen marriages, ten divorces and twenty-nine children. All four sons were officers in World War II and were decorated, on merit, for bravery. Their postwar careers, whether in business or politics, were disappointing. Two of them were elected briefly to the House of Representatives but none attained higher office despite several attempts. One even became a Republican. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt Dall Boettiger Halsted (May 3, 1906 – December 1, 1975) was the first child of Eleanor Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... James Roosevelt (December 23, 1907 – August 13, 1991) was the last surviving child of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Eleanor Roosevelt. ... Elliott Roosevelt (September 23, 1910 – October 27, 1990), World War II hero and an author, was the son of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor Roosevelt. ... Ethel du Pont & Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. ... John Aspinwall Roosevelt (born Washington DC March 13, 1916 - died New York City April 27, 1981) was the 6th and last child of the 32nd President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his wife Anna Eleanor Roosevelt. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War II, also known as the Second World War (sometimes WW2 or WWII or World War Two), was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the... The chamber of the United States House of Representatives is located in the south wing of the Capitol building, in Washington, D.C.. The Media:United States House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States. ...


Political career

FDR as Assistant Secretary for the Navy
FDR as Assistant Secretary for the Navy

In 1910 Roosevelt ran for the New York State Senate from the district around Hyde Park, which had not elected a Democrat since 1884. The Roosevelt name, Roosevelt money and the Democratic landslide that year carried him to the state capital Albany, where he became a leader of a group of reformers who opposed Manhattan's Tammany Hall machine which dominated the state Democratic Party. Roosevelt was young (30 in 1912), tall, handsome, and well spoken, and soon became a popular figure among New York Democrats. When Woodrow Wilson was elected President in 1912, Roosevelt took the major position of Assistant Secretary of the Navy. In 1914 he ran for the Democratic nomination for the United States Senate, but was handily defeated in the primary by Tammany Hall-backed James W. Gerard. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (399x614, 21 KB) Description Franklin Roosevelt, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing left as Asst. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (399x614, 21 KB) Description Franklin Roosevelt, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing left as Asst. ... The New York State Senate is one of two houses in the New York State Legislature and has members each elected to two-year terms. ... Motto: Nickname: Map Location in Albany County, New York Political Statistics Founded 1614 Sister Cities {{{sister cities}}} Incorporated 1686 County Albany County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor Gerald D. Jennings Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Water 56. ... Tammany Hall was the name given to the Democratic Party political machine that dominated New York City politics from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 through the election of Fiorello LaGuardia in 1934. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Categories: Substubs | 1867 births | 1951 deaths ...


Between 1913 and 1917 Roosevelt worked to expand the Navy (in the face of considerable opposition from pacifists in the administration such as the Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan), and founded the United States Navy Reserve to provide a pool of trained men who could be mobilized in wartime. Wilson sent the Navy and Marines to intervene in Central American and Caribbean countries. Roosevelt personally wrote the constitution which the U.S. imposed on Haiti in 1915. When the U.S. entered World War I in April 1917, Roosevelt became the effective administrative head of the United States Navy, since the Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels, had been appointed mainly for political reasons and handled symbolic duties. William Jennings Bryan, 1907 William Jennings Bryan, (March 19, 1860–July 26, 1925) born in Salem, Illinois, was a gifted orator and three-time United States Democratic nominee for President. ... The United States Navy Reserve is the reserve component of the United States Navy. ... Commonly, Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... The Caribbean, (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Dutch: Cariben or Caraïben, or more commonly Antillen) or the West Indies, is a group of islands and countries which are in or border the Caribbean Sea which lies on the Caribbean Plate. ... Combatants Entente Powers Central Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties > 5 million military deaths > 3 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars, was a world... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Josephus Daniels Josephus Daniels (18 May 1862–15 January 1948) was an American politician and newspaper publisher from North Carolina, who served as Secretary of the Navy during World War I. A native of Washington, North Carolina, Daniels owned and managed several newspapers before purchasing the Raleigh News and Observer...


Roosevelt developed a life-long affection for the Navy. He showed great administrative talent, and quickly learned to negotiate with Congressional leaders and other government departments to get budgets approved and achieve a rapid expansion of the Navy. He became an enthusiastic advocate of the submarine, and also of means to combat the German submarine menace to Allied shipping: he proposed building a mine barrage across the North Sea from Norway to Scotland. In 1918 he visited Britain and France to inspect American naval facilities — during this visit he met Winston Churchill for the first time. With the end of the war in November 1918, he was in charge of demobilization, although he opposed plans to completely dismantle the Navy. HMS Vanguard, a Vanguard-class nuclear ballistic missile (SSBN) submarine HMCS Windsor, a Victoria-class diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarine HMAS Rankin, a Collins-class diesel-electric guided missile (SSG) submarine USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the UK Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Demobilization is the process of standing down a nations armed forces from combat-ready status. ...


The 1920 Democratic National Convention chose Roosevelt as the candidate for Vice-President of the United States on the ticket headed by Governor James M. Cox of Ohio. Republican opponents denounced eight years of Democratic "mismanagement" and called for a "Return to Normalcy." The Cox-Roosevelt ticket was heavily defeated by Republican Warren Harding. Roosevelt then retired to a New York legal practice, but few doubted that he would soon run for public office again. Featured at the Democratic National Convention are speeches by prominent party figures. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who is, in the words of Adlai Stevenson, a heartbeat from the presidency. ... James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 - July 15, 1957) was a Governor of Ohio, U.S. Representative from Ohio and Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was the 29th (1921-1923) President of the United States and the sixth President to die in office. ...


Private crises

Statue of FDR in his wheelchair at the FDR Memorial in Washington, D.C.
Statue of FDR in his wheelchair at the FDR Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Roosevelt was a charismatic, handsome and socially active man, while his wife Eleanor was shy and retiring, and furthermore was almost constantly pregnant during the decade after 1906. Roosevelt soon found romantic outlets outside his marriage. One of these was Eleanor's social secretary Lucy Mercer, with whom Roosevelt began an affair soon after she was hired in early 1914. In September 1918, Eleanor found letters in Franklin's luggage which revealed the affair. Eleanor was both mortified and angry, and confronted him with the letters, demanding a divorce. Franklin's mother Sara Roosevelt soon learned of the crisis, and decisively intervened. She argued that a divorce would ruin Roosevelt's political career, and pointed out that Eleanor would have to raise five children on her own if she divorced him. Since Sara was financially supporting the Roosevelts, this was a strong incentive to preserve the marriage. Statue of FDR in wheelchair File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Statue of FDR in wheelchair File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... FDR with his dog Fala, by sculptor Neil Estern Located along the famous Cherry Tree Walk on the Tidal Basin near the National Mall, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial is a memorial not only to President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt, but also to the era he represents. ... Nickname: the District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Official website: http://www. ... Lucy Page Mercer Rutherfurd, born Lucy Mercer, is best known as the mistress of Franklin Roosevelt. ...


Eventually a deal was struck. The facade of the marriage would be preserved, but sexual relations would cease. Sara would pay for a separate home at Hyde Park for Eleanor, and she would also fund Eleanor's philanthropic interests. When Franklin became President—as Sara was always convinced he would—Eleanor would be able to use her position to support her causes. Eleanor accepted these terms, and in time Franklin and Eleanor developed a new relationship as friends and political colleagues, while living separate lives. Franklin continued to see various women, including his secretary Missy LeHand. Marguerite Missy LeHand was the private secretary to Franklin Delano Roosevelt for many years. ...


In August 1921, while the Roosevelts were vacationing at Campobello Island, New Brunswick, Roosevelt was stricken with poliomyelitis, a viral infection of the nerve fibers of the spinal cord, probably contracted while swimming in the stagnant water of a nearby lake. The result was that Roosevelt was totally and permanently paralyzed from the waist down. At first the muscles of his abdomen and lower back were also affected, but these eventually recovered. Thus he could sit up and, with aid of leg-braces, stand upright, but he could not walk. Unlike in other forms of paraplegia, his bowels, bladder and sexual functions were not affected. Campobello Island is a Canadian island located in the Bay of Fundy near the entrances to Passamaquoddy Bay and Cobscook Bay. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Infection is also the title of an episode of the television series Babylon 5; see Infection (Babylon 5). ... Nerves (yellow)    Nerves redirects here. ... Cross-section through cervical spinal cord. ... Paraplegia is a condition where the lower half of a patients body is paralyzed and cannot move. ...


Although the paralysis resulting from polio had no cure (and still does not, although the disease is now very rare in developed countries), for the rest of his life Roosevelt refused to accept that he was permanently paralyzed. He tried a wide range of therapies, but none had any effect. Nevertheless, he became convinced of the benefits of hydrotherapy, and in 1926 he bought a resort at Warm Springs, Georgia, where he founded a hydrotherapy center for the treatment of polio patients which still operates as the Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation (with an expanded mission), and spent a lot of time there in the 1920s. This was in part to escape from his mother, who tried to resume control of his life following his illness. Hydrotherapy, formerly called hydropathy, is probably the oldest form of medical treatment. ... Warm Springs is a city located in Meriwether County, Georgia. ... The Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation is a rehabilitation facility located in Warm Springs, Georgia. ...


At a time when media intrusion in the private lives of public figures was much less intense than it is today, Roosevelt was able to convince many people that he was in fact getting better, which he believed was essential if he was to run for public office again. (The Encyclopedia Britannica, for example, says that "by careful exercises and treatments at Warm Springs he gradually recovered", although this is quite untrue.) Fitting his hips and legs with iron braces, he laboriously taught himself to walk a short distance by swiveling his torso while supporting himself with a cane. In private he used a wheelchair, but he was careful never to be seen in it in public, although he sometimes appeared on crutches. He usually appeared in public standing upright, while being supported on one side by an aide or one of his sons. For major speaking occasions an especially solid lectern was placed on the stage so that he could support himself from it; as a result if one watches documentary films of him speaking one can observe him using his head to make gestures because his hands were gripping the lectern. Despite his known dislike of being seen in a wheelchair, a statue of him in a wheelchair has been placed at the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial in Washington, D.C. 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt - look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) is the oldest English-language general encyclopedia. ... FDR with his dog Fala, by sculptor Neil Estern Located along the famous Cherry Tree Walk on the Tidal Basin near the National Mall, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial is a memorial not only to President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt, but also to the era he represents. ... Nickname: the District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Official website: http://www. ...


Governor of New York, 1928-1932

By 1928 Roosevelt believed he had recovered sufficiently to resume his political career. He had been careful to maintain his contacts in the Democratic Party. In 1924 he had attended the Democratic Convention and made a presidential nomination speech for the Governor of New York, Alfred E. Smith. Although Smith was not nominated, in 1928 he ran again, and Roosevelt again supported him. This time he became the Democratic candidate, and he urged Roosevelt to run for Governor of New York. To gain the Democratic nomination, Roosevelt had to make his peace with Tammany Hall, which he did with some reluctance. At the November election, Smith was heavily defeated by the Republican Herbert Hoover, but Roosevelt was elected Governor by a margin of 25,000 votes out of 2.2 million. As a native of upstate New York he was able to appeal to voters outside New York City in a way other Democrats could not. Alfred Emanuel Smith ( December 30, 1873– October 4, 1944), often known as Al Smith, was Governor of New York and a U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... Tammany Hall was the name given to the Democratic Party political machine that dominated New York City politics from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 through the election of Fiorello LaGuardia in 1934. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ...


Roosevelt came to office in 1929 as a reform Democrat, but with no overall plan for his administration. He tackled official corruption by dismissing Smith's cronies and instituting a Public Service Commission, and took action to address New York's growing need for power through the development of hydroelectricity on the St. Lawrence River. He reformed the state's prison administration and built a new state prison at Attica. He had a long feud with Robert Moses, the state's most powerful public servant, whom he removed as Secretary of State but kept on as Parks Commissioner and head of urban planning. When the Wall Street Crash in October ushered in the Great Depression, Roosevelt started a relief system that became the model for the New Deal. Roosevelt followed President Herbert Hoover's advice and asked the state legislature for $20 million in relief funds, which he spent mainly on public works in the hope of stimulating demand and providing employment. Aid to the unemployed, he said, "must be extended by Government, not as a matter of charity, but as a matter of social duty." Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Attica is the name of some places in the U.S. state of New York: Town of Attica, Wyoming County Village of Attica, Wyoming and Genesse Counties Also see Attica (disambiguation). ... Robert Moses. ... Urban, city, or town planning, deals with the physical, social and economic development of metropolitan regions, municipalities and neighborhoods. ... The 1929 stock market crash devastated economies worldwide The Wall Street Crash refers to the stock market crash that occurred on October 29, 1929, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed, leading eventually to the Great Depression. ... Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age thirty-two, in Nipomo, California, March 1936. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal The New Deal is the name given to the series of programs implemented under president Franklin Delano Roosevelt with the goal of stabilizing, reforming and stimulating the United States economy during the Great Depression. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ...


Roosevelt knew little about economics, but he took advice from leading academics and social workers, and also from Eleanor, who had developed a network of friends in the welfare and labor fields and who took a close interest in social questions. On Eleanor's recommendation he appointed one of her friends, Frances Perkins, as Labor Secretary, and there was a sweeping reform of the labor laws. He established the first state relief agency under Harry Hopkins, who became a key advisor, and urged the legislature to pass an old age pension bill and an unemployment insurance bill. Frances Perkins wearing a veil after the death of president Roosevelt Frances Coralie Perkins (nèe Fannie Coralie Perkins). ... Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Roosevelts closest advisors and one of the key architects of the New Deal. ...


The main weakness of the Roosevelt administration was the blatant corruption of the Tammany Hall machine in New York City, where the Mayor, Jimmy Walker, was the puppet of Tammany boss John F. Curry, and where corruption of all kinds was rife. Roosevelt had made his name as an opponent of Tammany, but he needed the machine's goodwill to be re-elected in 1930 and for a possible future presidential bid. Roosevelt fell back on the line that the Governor could not interfere in the government of New York City. But as the 1930 election approached Roosevelt acted by setting up a judicial investigation into the corrupt sale of offices. This eventually resulted in Walker resigning and fleeing to Europe to escape prosecution. But Tammany Hall's power was not seriously affected. In 1930 Roosevelt was elected to a second term by a margin of more than 700,000 votes. Tammany Hall was the name given to the Democratic Party political machine that dominated New York City politics from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 through the election of Fiorello LaGuardia in 1934. ... Nickname: The Big Apple Motto: Official website: City of New York Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ... This article is about the 1926 Mayor of New York. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... Tammany Hall was the name given to the Democratic Party political machine that dominated New York City politics from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 through the election of Fiorello LaGuardia in 1934. ...


Election as President

The coat of arms of Franklin Roosevelt.
The coat of arms of Franklin Roosevelt.

Roosevelt's strong base in the largest state made him an obvious candidate for the Democratic nomination, which was hotly contested since it seemed clear that Hoover would be defeated at the 1932 presidential election. Al Smith also wanted the nomination, and was supported by some city bosses, but he was tagged as a loser--and he had lost control of the New York Democratic party to Roosevelt. Roosevelt built his own national coalition using powerful allies such as newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, Irish leader Joseph P. Kennedy, and California leader William G. McAdoo. When Texas leader John Nance Garner switched to FDR he was given the vice presidential nomination. Image File history File links RooseveltCoatofArms. ... Image File history File links RooseveltCoatofArms. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American newspaper magnate, born in San Francisco, California. ... Joseph Joe Patrick Kennedy, Sr. ... William Gibbs McAdoo (October 31, 1863–February 1, 1941) was a U.S. Senator and United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... John Nance Cactus Jack Garner (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ...


The election campaign was conducted under the shadow of the Great Depression. At San Francisco's Commonwealth Club on September 23 Roosevelt made the gloomy evaluation that, "Our industrial plant is built; the problem just now is whether under existing conditions it is not overbuilt. Our last frontier has long since been reached." Hoover damned that pessimism as a denial of "the promise of American life . . . the counsel of despair." On October 19 he attacked Hoover's deficits and called for sharp reductions in government spending. Economist Marriner Eccles observed that "given later developments, the campaign speeches often read like a giant misprint, in which Roosevelt and Hoover speak each other's lines." [Kennedy, 102] The prohibition issue solidified the wet vote for Roosevelt, who noted that repeal would bring in new tax revenues. During the campaign Roosevelt said: "I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people", coining a slogan that was later adopted for his legislative program. Roosevelt did not put forward clear alternatives to the policies of the Hoover Administration, but nevertheless won 57 percent of the vote and carried all but six states. During the long interregnum, Roosevelt refused Hoover's requests for a meeting to come up with a joint program to stop the downward spiral. In February 1933, in Miami an assassin Giuseppe Zangara fired five shots at Roosevelt, missing him but killing the Mayor of Chicago, Anton Cermak. Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age thirty-two, in Nipomo, California, March 1936. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal The New Deal is the name given to the series of programs implemented under president Franklin Delano Roosevelt with the goal of stabilizing, reforming and stimulating the United States economy during the Great Depression. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... Giuseppe Zangara (September 7, 1900 - March 20, 1933) fired upon the United States President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1933. ... Anton Cermak, in Czech Antonín Čermák, (May 9, 1873 - March 6, 1933) was the mayor of Chicago, Illinois, from 1931 until his death in 1933. ...


The first term and a New Deal, 1933-1937

Main articles: Great Depression and New Deal Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age thirty-two, in Nipomo, California, March 1936. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal The New Deal is the name given to the series of programs implemented under president Franklin Delano Roosevelt with the goal of stabilizing, reforming and stimulating the United States economy during the Great Depression. ...


When Roosevelt was inaugurated in March 1933 the U.S. was at the pinnacle of the worst depression in its history. Some 13 million people, a third of the workforce, were unemployed. Industrial production had fallen by more than half since 1929. In a country with few government social services, millions were living on the edge of starvation, and two million were homeless. The banking system seemed to be on the point of collapse. There were occasional outbreaks of violence, but most observers considered it remarkable that such an obvious breakdown of the capitalist system had not led to a rapid growth of socialism, communism, or fascism (as happened for example in Germany). Instead of adopting revolutionary solutions, the American people had turned to the Democrats and to a leader who had grown up in privilege. Socialism is an ideology of a social and economic system where the means of production are owned and controlled by all of society. ... Communism refers to a conjectured future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production, and can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The First New Deal, 1933-1934

Roosevelt indeed had few systematic economic beliefs. He saw the Depression as mainly a matter of confidence—people had stopped spending, investing, and employing labor because they were afraid to do so. As he put it in his inaugural address: "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." He therefore set out to restore confidence through a series of dramatic gestures. An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority. ...


During the first hundred days of his administration, Roosevelt used his enormous prestige and the sense of impending disaster to force a series of bills through Congress, establishing and funding various new government agencies. These included the Emergency Relief Administration (ERA), which granted funds to the states for unemployment relief; the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) to hire millions of unemployed to work on local projects; and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), with powers to increase farm prices and support struggling farmers. The Works Progress Administration (later Works Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 with the signing of U.S. Presidential Executive Order 7034. ... Civilian Conservation Corps workers restoring the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. ... The United States Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) (P.L. 73-10 of May 12, 1933) restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area. ... Farmer spreading grasshopper bait in his alfalfa field. ...


He called an emergency session of Congress to stabilize the financial system. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was created to guarantee the funds held in all banks in the Federal Reserve System, and called a "bank holiday" to prevent a threatened run on the banks and thus prevent runs and bank failures. Roosevelt's series of radio speeches known as Fireside Chats presented his proposals to the American public. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is an independent federal agency created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... The Fireside Chats were a series of 30 evening radio talks given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt during his administration, between 1933 and 1944. ...


Following these emergency measures came the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), which imposed an unprecedented amount of state regulation on industry, including fair practice codes and a guaranteed role for trade unions, in exchange for the repeal of anti-trust laws and huge amounts of financial assistance as a stimulus to the economy. Later came one of the largest pieces of state industrial enterprise in American history, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), which built dams and power stations, controlled floods, and improved agriculture in one of the poorest parts of the country. The repeal of prohibition also provided stimulus to the economy, while eliminating a major source of corruption. NRA Blue Eagle poster. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... Media:Example. ... TVA logo The Tennessee Valley Authority is a New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley. ... Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ...


In 1934, retired Marine General Smedley Butler, who was at the time a prominent left-wing speaker, reported that leading capitalists had invited him to lead a march on Washington, seize the government, and become their dictator. This alleged attempt was known as the "Business Plot." Smedley Butler Smedley Darlington Butler (July 30, 1881 – June 21, 1940), nicknamed the fighting Quaker and Old Gimlet Eye, was a Major General in the U.S. Marine Corps and, at the time of his death, the most decorated Marine in U.S. history. ... The Business Plot, The Plot Against FDR, or The White House Putsch was a conspiracy of moneyed interests which tried to overthrow President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the early years of the Great Depression. ...


Second New Deal 1935-1936

After the 1934 Congressional elections, which gave the Democrats large majorities in both houses, there was a fresh surge of New Deal legislation, driven by the "brain trust" of young economists and social planners gathered in the White House, including Raymond Moley, Rexford Tugwell and Adolf Berle of Columbia University, attorney Basil O'Connor, economist Bernard Baruch and Felix Frankfurter of Harvard Law School. Eleanor Roosevelt, Labor Secretary Frances Perkins (the first female Cabinet Secretary) and Agriculture Secretary Henry A. Wallace were also important influences. These measures included bills to regulate the stock market and prevent the corrupt practices which had led to the 1929 Crash; the Social Security Act (SSA), which established Social Security and promised economic security for the elderly, the poor and the sick; and the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), which established the rights of workers to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining and to take part in strikes in support of their demands. The Brain Trust was the name given to a group of diverse academics who served as advisers to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the early period of his tenure. ... The southern side of the White House The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America. ... Raymond Moley, a leading New Dealer who became its bitter opponent. ... Rexford Guy Tugwell (July 10, 1891 - July 21, 1979) was an agricultural economist who became part of Franklin D. Roosevelts Brains Trust, a group of Columbia academics who helped develop policy recommendations leading up to Roosevelts 1932 election as President. ... Adolf Augustus Berle Jr. ... Columbia University is a private university in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. ... Bernard Baruch on the cover of TIME magazine, 1928. ... Justice Frankfurter Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882 – February 22, 1965) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... Harvard Law School (HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Frances Perkins wearing a veil after the death of president Roosevelt Frances Coralie Perkins (nèe Fannie Coralie Perkins). ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941-45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933-40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945-46). ... The New York Stock Exchange The stock market is the market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both those securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... United States Social Security Card Social Security is a social insurance program administered by the Social Security Administration under the authority of the United States federal government. ... Social Security in the United States is a social insurance program funded through a dedicated payroll tax. ... The National Labor Relations Act (or Wagner Act) is a 1935 United States federal law that protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Collective bargaining is the process of negotiation between representatives of a union and employers (represented by management) in respect of the terms and conditions of employment of employees, such as wages, hours of work, working conditions and grievance procedures, and about the rights and responsibilities of trade unions. ...


One effect of these measures was to restore confidence and optimism, allowing the country to begin the long process of recovery from the Depression. Some people believe that Roosevelt's programs, collectively known as the New Deal, cured the Great Depression. Historians and economists debate over the extent to which this is true. Several economists and historians now believe that the New Deal did more to prolong the Great Depression than it did to end it. The New Deal ran up large deficits and in a sense it implemented the economic theories of John Maynard Keynes, who advocated an interventionist government policy using fiscal measures to mitigate the depression. It is unclear whether Roosevelt was influenced by these theories directly, and questionable whether he really understood them - although some of his advisers did. After a meeting with Keynes, who kept drawing diagrams, he remarked that "He must be a mathematician rather than a political economist." John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton (pronounced kānz / kAnze), ) (June 5, 1883 – April 21, 1946) was an English economist, whose ideas had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on American and British fiscal policies. ... WORLD OF WARCRAFT IS THE BEST GAME EVER INVENTED AND PLAY IT. IF YOU DONT PLAY WORLD OF WARCRAFT, YOU ARE A nOOb. ...


The extent to which the large appropriations that Roosevelt extracted from Congress and spent on relief and assistance to industry provided a sufficient fiscal stimulus to revive the U.S. economy is also debated. The economy recovered significantly during Roosevelt's first term, but fell back into recession in 1937 and 1938 before making another recovery in 1939. While Gross National Product had surpassed its 1929 peak by 1940, unemployment remained about 15%. Some economists said there was a permanent structural unemployment. Others blamed the high tariff barriers that many countries had erected in response to the Depression, although foreign trade was not as important to the U.S. economy as it is today. The economy did start to grow after 1940 or 1941, but many simultaneous programs were involved, such as massive spending, price controls, bond campaigns, controls over raw materials, prohibitions on new housing and new automobiles, rationing, guaranteed cost-plus profits, subsidized wages, and the draft of 12 million soldiers. Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California during the Great Depression. ...


The second term, 1937-1941

Roosevelt's ebullient public personality did a great deal to help restore the nation's confidence.
Roosevelt's ebullient public personality did a great deal to help restore the nation's confidence.

In the 1936 presidential election, Roosevelt campaigned on his New Deal programs against Kansas governor Alfred Landon, who accepted much of the New Deal but objected that it was hostile to business and involved too much waste. Roosevelt and Garner won 61 percent of the vote and carried every state except Maine and Vermont. The New Deal Democrats won enough seats in Congress to outvote both the Republicans and the conservative Southern Democrats (who supported programs which brought benefits for their states but opposed measures which strengthened labor unions). Roosevelt was backed by a coalition of voters which included traditional Democrats across the country, small farmers, the "Solid South", Catholics, big city machines, labor unions, northern African-Americans, Jews, intellectuals and political liberals. This coalition, frequently referred to as the New Deal coalition, remained largely intact for the Democratic Party until the 1960s. The Roosevelt ascendancy also prevented the growth of both communism and fascism. (AP/Wide World Photos) This work is copyrighted. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Official language(s) None Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 15th 82,277 mi²; 213,096 km² 211 mi; 340 km 400 mi; 645 km 0. ... Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 - October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, notable nationally for his 1936 nomination as the Republican opponent of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ... Official language(s) None Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 39th 86,542 km² 305 km 515 km 13. ... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 43th 24,923 km² 130 km 260 km 3. ... The phrase Solid South describes the reliable electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era. ... A political machine is an unofficial system of political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, and behind-the-scenes control within the structure of a representative democracy. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black), is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... American liberalism (also called modern liberalism) is a political current that claims descent from classical liberalism in terms of devotion to individual liberty, but rejects the laissez faire economics of classical liberalism in favor of institutions that promote social and economic equity. ... The New Deal coalition was the poop alignment of interest groups and voting blocs who supported the New Deal and voted for United States Democratic Party presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, and which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that time. ... Communism refers to a conjectured future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production, and can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Roosevelt's second term agenda included an act creating the United States Housing Authority (1937), a second Agricultural Adjustment Act and the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938, which created the minimum wage. When the economy began to deteriorate again in late 1937, Roosevelt responded with an aggressive program of stimulation, asking Congress for $5 billion for relief and public works programs. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938 is federal legislation of the United States. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics. ...


With the Republicans powerless in Congress, the conservative majority on the United States Supreme Court was the only obstacle to Roosevelt's programs. During 1935 the Court ruled that the National Recovery Act and some other pieces of New Deal legislation were unconstitutional. Roosevelt's response was to propose enlarging the Court so that he could appoint more sympathetic judges. This "court packing" plan was the first Roosevelt scheme to run into serious political opposition, since it seemed to upset the separation of powers which is one of the cornerstones of the American constitutional structure. Eventually Roosevelt was forced to abandon the plan, but the Court also drew back from confrontation with the administration by finding the Labor Relations Act and the Social Security Act to be constitutional. Deaths and retirements on the Supreme Court soon allowed Roosevelt to make his own appointments to the bench. Between 1937 and 1941 he appointed eight justices to the court, including liberals such as Felix Frankfurter, Hugo Black and William O. Douglas, reducing the possibility of further clashes. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... -1... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into constitutionality. ... Court packing is the name given to President Franklin Delano Roosevelts plan to create a judiciary more favorable to his New Deal policies. ... The separation of powers (or trias politica, coined by French political thinker Montesquieu) is a model for the governance of the state which requires the division of political power between an executive, a legislature, and a judiciary. ... Justice Frankfurter Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882 – February 22, 1965) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... Hugo Black Hugo LaFayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1937 - 1971). ... Douglas William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 - January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ...


Foreign policy, 1933-1941

The rejection of the League of Nations treaty in 1919 marked the dominance of isolationism in American foreign policy. Despite Roosevelt's Wilsonian background, he and his Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, acted with great care not to provoke isolationist sentiment. The main foreign policy initiative of Roosevelt's first term was the Good Neighbor Policy, a re-evaluation of American policy towards Latin America, which ever since the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 had been seen as an American sphere of influence. American forces were withdrawn from Haiti, and new treaties with Cuba and Panama ended their status as American protectorates. At the Seventh International Conference of American States in Montevideo in December 1933, Roosevelt and Hull signed the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, renouncing the assumed American right to intervene unilaterally in the affairs of Latin American countries. Nevertheless, the realities of American support for various Latin American dictators, often to serve American corporate interests, remained unchanged. It was Roosevelt who made the often-quoted remark about the dictator of Nicaragua, Anastasio Somoza: "Somoza may be a son of a bitch, but he's our son of a bitch." The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ... International Relations Theory Realism Liberalism Idealism Neoconservatism Institutionalism Functionalism Marxism Critical theory Isolationism Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military and political policy with a policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ... Secretary Hull Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) served as United States Secretary of State from 1933-1944 under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. ... The Good Neighbor policy was the policy of the United States Administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in relation to Latin America during 1933-45, when the active U.S. intervention of previous decades was moderated in pursuit of hemispheric solidarity against external threats. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Monroe Doctrine, expressed in 1823, proclaimed the United States opinion that European powers should no longer colonize the Americas or interfere with the affairs of sovereign nations located in the Americas, such as the United States, Mexico, and others. ... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country or a region of economic influence around an urban area. ... For the rule of Oliver Cromwell, see The Protectorate. ... Montevideo Independence Plaza Independence Plaza, c. ... The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States was a treaty signed at Montevideo on December 26, 1933, at the Seventh International Conference of American States. ... In modern usage, Dictator refers to an absolutist or autocratic ruler who governs outside the rule of law. ... Anastasio Somoza was the name of two presidents of Nicaragua. ...


Meanwhile, the rise to power of Adolf Hitler in Germany aroused fears of a new world war. In 1935, at the time of Italy's invasion of Abyssinia, Congress passed the Neutrality Act, applying a mandatory ban on the shipment of arms from the U.S. to any combatant nation. Roosevelt opposed the act on the grounds that it penalized the victims of aggression such as Abyssinia, and that it restricted his right as President to assist friendly countries, but he eventually signed it. In 1937 Congress passed an even more stringent Act, but when the Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1937 Roosevelt found various ways to assist China, and warned that Italy, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan were threats to world peace and to the U.S. When World War II in Europe broke out in 1939, Roosevelt became increasingly eager to assist Britain and France, and he began a regular secret correspondence with Winston Churchill, in which the two freely discussed ways of circumventing the Neutrality Acts. (help· info) (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ... The Second Italo-Abyssinian War, also called the Rape of Ethiopia, lasted seven months in 1935-1936. ... Several United States laws have been called Neutrality Acts: The Neutrality Act of 1935 prohibited American citizens from selling arms to belligerents in international war. ... The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Flag of Imperial Japan The Empire of Japan (: 大日本帝國; Shinjitai: 大日本帝国; pronounced Dai Nippon Teikoku) commonly refers to Japan from the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II. Politically, it covers the period from the enforced establishment of prefectures in place of feudal domains (廃藩置県; Hai-han Chi-ken) in July... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War II, also known as the Second World War (sometimes WW2 or WWII or World War Two), was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ...


In May 1940 Germany attacked France and rapidly occupied the country, leaving Britain vulnerable to German air attack and possible invasion. Roosevelt was determined to prevent this and sought to shift public opinion in favor of aiding Britain. He secretly aided a private body, the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies, and he appointed two anti-isolationist Republicans, Henry L. Stimson and Frank Knox, as Secretaries of War and the Navy respectively. The fall of Paris shocked American opinion, and isolationist sentiment declined. Both parties gave strong support to his plans to rapidly build up the American military. He began the first peacetime draft in 1940 (it was renewed in 1941 by one vote in Congress). America should be the "Arsenal of Democracy" he told his fireside audience, but he did not tell the people or Congress that he was overruling his senior generals and sending the best new airplanes to Britain. In August, Roosevelt openly defied the Neutrality Acts with the Destroyers for Bases Agreement, which gave 50 American destroyers to Britain and Canada in exchange for base rights in the British Caribbean islands. This was a precursor of the March 1941 Lend-Lease agreement which began to direct massive military and economic aid to Britain. The Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies (CDAAA) was an American political action group formed in May, 1940. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... The Destroyers for Bases Agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom, September 2, 1940, transferred 50 obsolete destroyers from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ...


The third term and the path to war, 1941-1945

After the 1938 Congressional elections the Republicans staged their first comeback since 1932. They gained seats in both Houses of Congress and reduced Roosevelt's ability to pass legislation at will. Roosevelt's campaign to have conservative Democratic Senators such as Walter F. George replaced by pro-Administration candidates were defeated. This increased speculation that Roosevelt would retire in 1940. Following a precedent set by George Washington, no American President who had served two full terms had ever sought a third term in office. However during 1940, with the international situation growing increasingly threatening, Roosevelt decided that he could best lead the nation through the coming crisis. Some Republicans and others said that this was a sign of his increasing arrogance, but the country agreed with Roosevelt. His huge personal popularity allowed him to win the 1940 election with 55 percent of the vote and 38 of the 48 states, defeating Indiana lawyer Wendell Willkie. A shift to the left within the Administration was shown by the adoption of Henry A. Wallace as his Vice-President in place of the conservative Texan John Nance Garner. Walter Franklin George (January 29, 1878 – August 24, 1957) was an American politician from the state of Georgia. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the successful Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and later became the first President of the United States, an office to which he was elected, unanimously, twice (1789-1797). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer, born in Elwood, Indiana, the only native of Indiana to be nominated as the presidential candidate for a national party, having never held any sort of high elected office. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941-45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933-40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945-46). ... John Nance Cactus Jack Garner (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ...


Roosevelt's third term was dominated by World War II, in Europe and in the Pacific. Facing strong anti-war sentiment Roosevelt slowly began a re-armament in 1938. By 1940 it was in high gear, with bipartisan support, partly to expand and re-equip the United States Army and Navy and partly to become the "Arsenal of Democracy" supporting Britain, France, China and (after June 1941), the Soviet Union, From 1939, unemployment fell rapidly, as the unemployed either joined the armed forces or found work in arms factories. By 1941 there was a growing labor shortage in all the nation's major manufacturing centers, accelerating the Great Migration of African-American workers from the Southern states, and of underemployed farmers and workers from all rural areas and small towns. For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... US Army Seal HHC, US Army Distinctive Unit Insignia The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces that has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The Migration - In every town Negroes were leaving by the hundreds to go North and enter into Northern industry Jacob Lawrence, (1940–41) The Great Migration is a term used to describe the mass migration of African Americans from the southern United States to the industrial centers of the Northeast...


Roosevelt turned for foreign policy advice to Harry Hopkins. They sought innovative ways to help Britain, whose financial resources were exhausted by the end of 1940. Congress, where isolationist sentiment was in retreat, passed the Lend-Lease Act in March 1941, allowing America to "lend" huge amounts of military equipment in return for "leases" on British naval bases in the Western Hemisphere. In sharp contrast to the loans of World War I, there would be no repayment after the war. Britain agreed to dismantle preferential trade arrangements that kept American exports out of the British Empire. This underlined the point that the war aims of the U.S. and Britain were not the same. Roosevelt was a lifelong free trader and anti-imperialist, and ending European colonialism was one of his objectives. Roosevelt forged a close personal relationship with Churchill, who became British Prime Minister in May 1940. Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Roosevelts closest advisors and one of the key architects of the New Deal. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... The British Empire was, at one time, the foremost global power and the largest empire in history. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister A prime minister is a politician who serves as the head of the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, Roosevelt extended Lend-Lease to the Soviets. During 1941 Roosevelt also agreed that the U.S. Navy would escort Allied convoys as far east as Iceland, and would fire on German ships or submarines if they attacked Allied shipping within the U.S. Navy zone. Thus by mid-1941 Roosevelt had committed the U.S. to the Allied side with a policy of "all aid short of war." Roosevelt met with Churchill on August 14, 1941 to develop the Atlantic Charter in what was to be the first of several wartime conferences. August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Churchill meets FDR aboard the USS Augusta (CA-31) at their 1941 secret meeting at Argentia Bay, Newfoundland, lasting August 9th through the 12th. ... List of World War II conferences of the Allied forces In total Churchill attended 14 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 5. ...


Pearl Harbor

Main article: Attack on Pearl Harbor
Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 1941.
Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 1941.

Roosevelt was less keen to involve the U.S. in the war developing in East Asia, where Japan occupied French Indo-China in late 1940. He authorized increased aid to China, and in July 1941 he restricted the sales of oil and other strategic materials to Japan, but also continued negotiations with the Japanese government in the hope of averting war. Through 1941 the Japanese planned their attack on the western powers, including the U.S., while spinning out the negotiations in Washington. The "hawks" in the Administration, led by Stimson and Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, were in favor of a tough policy towards Japan, but Roosevelt, emotionally committed to the war in Europe, refused to believe that Japan might attack the U.S. and favored continued negotiations. The U.S. Ambassador in Tokyo, Joseph C. Grew, passed on warnings about the planned attack on the American Pacific Fleet's base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, but these were ignored by the State Department. Listen to this article (2 parts) Part 1 · Part 2 This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-01-12, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (923x1162, 169 KB) Description President Franklin Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 1941. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (923x1162, 169 KB) Description President Franklin Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 1941. ... Geographic scope of East Asia East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... Henry Morgenthau, Jr. ... View of Tokyos Shibuya district Long a symbol of Tokyo, the Nijubashi Bridge at the Imperial Palace. ... Joseph C. Grew was the ambassador to America in Japan during the year of 1941. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 43rd 28,337 km² n/a km 2,450 km 41. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


On 7 December 1941 the Japanese attacked the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor, damaging most of it and killing 3,000 American personnel. The American commanders at Pearl Harbor, Admiral Husband E. Kimmel and General Walter Short, were taken completely by surprise, and were later made scapegoats for this disaster. The fault really lay with the War Department in Washington, which since August 1940 had been able to read the Japanese diplomatic codes and had thus been given ample warning of the imminence of the attack (though not of its actual date). In later investigations, the War Department claimed that it had not passed warnings on to the commanders in Hawaii because its analysts refused to believe that the Japanese would really have the effrontery to attack the United States. December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Listen to this article (2 parts) Part 1 · Part 2 This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-01-12, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Husband Edward Kimmel (February 26, 1882 - May 14, 1958) was an admiral in the United States Navy. ... Lieutenant General Walter Campbell Short (March 30, 1880–March 9, 1949) was the U.S. military Commander responsible for the defense of U.S. military installations in Hawaii at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. ... The United States Department of War was the military department of the United States governments executive branch from 1789 until 1949, when it became part of the United States Department of Defense. ...


It has become a staple of postwar revisionist history that Roosevelt knew about the planned attack on Pearl Harbor but did nothing to prevent it so that the U.S. could be brought into the war as a result of being attacked. There is no evidence to support this theory. Conspiracy theorists cite a document known as the McCollum memo, written by a Naval Intelligence officer in 1940 and declassified in 1994, as evidence that the Roosevelt administration actively sought to enter into a war with Japan. It has never been shown, however, that Roosevelt or his Cabinet saw this document or were aware of the arguments it contained, let alone adopted them. No reputable historian accepts such conspiracy theories, although they are repeatedly promoted in the media. In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism is the reexamination of historical facts, with an eye towards updating histories with newly discovered, more accurate, or less biased information. ... This proposed logo for a U.S. government agency was dropped due to fears that its pseudo-Masonic symbolism would provoke conspiracy theories. ... More than a year before the Pearl Harbor attack, Lieutenant Commander Arthur McCollum of the Office of Naval Intelligence submitted a memo to Navy Captains Walter Anderson and Dudley Knox. ...


In fact it is clear that when the Cabinet met on 5 December, its members were not aware of the impending attack. The Cabinet discussed the mounting intelligence evidence that the Japanese were mobilizing for war. Navy Secretary Knox told the Cabinet of the decoded messages showing that the Japanese fleet was at sea, but stated his opinion that it was heading south to attack the British in Malaya and Singapore, and to seize the oil resources of the Dutch East Indies. Roosevelt and the rest of the Cabinet seemed to accept this view. There were intercepted Japanese messages suggesting an attack on Pearl Harbor, but delays in translating and passing on these messages through the inefficient War Department bureaucracy meant that they did not reach the Cabinet before the attack took place. There is no evidence that Roosevelt was made aware of them. All contemporary accounts describe Roosevelt, Hull and Stimson as shocked and outraged when they heard news of the attack. December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ...


The Japanese took advantage of their pre-emptive destruction of most of the Pacific Fleet to rapidly occupy the Philippines and all the British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia, taking Singapore in February 1942 and advancing through Burma to the borders of British India by May, thus cutting off the overland supply route to China. Isolationism evaporated overnight and the country united behind Roosevelt as a wartime leader. Despite the wave of anger that swept across the U.S. in the wake of Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt decided from the start that the defeat of Nazi Germany had to take priority. Germany played directly into Roosevelt's hands when it declared war against the USA on December 11 which removed any meaningful opposition to "beating Hitler first." Roosevelt met with Churchill in late December and planned a broad alliance between the U.S., Britain, and the Soviet Union, with the objectives of, first, halting the German advances in the Soviet Union and in North Africa; second, launching an invasion of western Europe with the aim of crushing Nazi Germany between two fronts, and only third turning to the task of defeating Japan. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although Roosevelt was constitutionally the Commander-in-Chief of the United States armed forces, he had never worn a uniform and he did not interfere in operational military matters in anything like the way Churchill did in Britain, let alone take direct command of the forces as Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin did. He placed great trust in the Army Chief of Staff, General George Marshall, and later in his Supreme Commander in Europe, General Dwight Eisenhower, and left almost all strategic and tactical decisions to them, within the broad framework for the conduct of the war decided by the Cabinet in agreement with the other Allied powers. He had less confidence in his commander in the Pacific, General Douglas MacArthur, whom he rightly suspected of planning to run for President against him. But since the war in the Pacific was mainly a naval war, this did not greatly matter until later in the war. Given his close personal interest in the Navy, Roosevelt tended to intervene more in naval matters, but strong Navy commanders like Admirals Ernest King in the Atlantic theater and Chester Nimitz in the Pacific enjoyed his confidence. Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... (help· info) (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... George C. Marshall For the Olympic athlete, see George Marshall (athlete). ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 — April 5, 1964) was an American military leader who served in World War II. He helped rebuild Japan after the war and played a key role in limiting the Communist takeover of Korea with his daring Inchon landing. ... Ernest King Fleet Admiral Ernest Joseph King (November 23, 1878 - June 25, 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations (COMINCH-CNO) during World War II. As such, he was in charge of all the United States Navys operations, planning, and administration and was... Chester Nimitz Chester William Nimitz (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the nations leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation...


Japanese-American internment

Main article: Japanese American internment

Following the outbreak of the Pacific War, Roosevelt came under immediate pressure to remove or intern the estimated 120,000 people of Japanese citizenship living in California. Pressure came from the Democratic governor of California Culbert Olson, the Hearst newspapers and General John L. DeWitt, the U.S. Army Commander in California, whose simple attitude was that "a Jap is a Jap." Opponents of the suggestion were Interior Secretary Harold L. Ickes, Attorney-General Francis Biddle and FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who said that there was no evidence of Japanese-American involvement in espionage or sabotage. Jerome Relocation Camp The Japanese American Internment refers to the forcible relocation of approximately 112,000 to 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans, 62 percent of whom were United States citizens, from the west coast of the United States during World War II to hastily constructed housing facilities called War... US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in Asia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority... Culbert Levy Olson (November 7, 1876 – April 13, 1962) was an American politician and governor of California. ... William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American newspaper magnate, born in San Francisco, California. ... Jap or JAP is a three-letter abbreviation that could refer to: Jap, Japo, or Japse, a slur for the Japanese people Java Anon Proxy Jewish-American princess J.A.P., a make of motorcycle engine, also used in some cars Journal of Applied Physics, American Institute of Physics journal... Harold LeClair Ickes (March 15, 1874–February 3, 1952) was a U.S. administrator and political figure. ... The Nuremberg judges, left to right: John Parker, Francis Biddle, Alexander Volchkov, Iona Nikitchenko, Geoffrey Lawrence, Norman Birkett Francis Beverley Biddle (May 9, 1886–October 4, 1968) was an American lawyer and judge who is most famous as the primary American judge during the Nuremberg trials after World War II... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Hoover in 1961 John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the founder of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its present form and its director from May 10, 1924 until his death in 1972. ... Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ...


Roosevelt ordered that a plan be drawn up to evacuate the Japanese-Americans from California in the event of a landing or air attacks on the West Coast by Japan, but not otherwise. But on February 11 he met with Secretary of War Stimson, who persuaded him to approve an immediate evacuation. There was evidence of espionage compiled by code-breakers that decrypted messages to Japan from agents in North America and Hawaii before and after Pearl Harbor. These MAGIC cables were kept secret from all but those with the highest clearance, such as Roosevelt, lest the Japanese discover the decryption and change their code. On February 19, 1942 Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 which ordered Secretary of War, and military commanders to designate military areas "from which any or all persons may be excluded." February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Espionage is the practice of obtaining secrets (spying) from rivals or enemies for military, political, or economic advantage. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 43rd 28,337 km² n/a km 2,450 km 41. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... In World War II, Magic was the United States codename for intelligence derived from the cryptanalysis of PURPLE, a Japanese foreign office cipher. ... Exclusion order posted at First and Front Streets in San Francisco, California, directing removal of persons of Japanese ancestry. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ...


Interior Secretary Ickes lobbied Roosevelt through 1944 to release the Japanese-American internees, but Roosevelt did not act until after the November presidential election. A fight for Japanese-American civil rights meant a fight with influential Democrats, the Army, and the Hearst press and would have endangered Roosevelt's chances of winning California in 1944. Critics of Roosevelt's actions believe they were motivated in part by racism. In 1925 Roosevelt had written about Japanese immigration: "Californians have properly objected on the sound basic grounds that Japanese immigrants are not capable of assimilation into the American population... Anyone who has traveled in the Far East knows that the mingling of Asiatic blood with European and American blood produces, in nine cases out of ten, the most unfortunate results" But, on February 1, 1943, when activating the 442nd Regimental Combat Team -- an unit composed mostly of formerly interned Japanese citizens -- Roosevelt said, "No loyal citizen of the United States should be denied the democratic right to exercise the responsibilities of his citizenship, regardless of his ancestry. The principle on which this country was founded and by which it has always been governed is that Americanism is a matter of the mind and heart; Americanism is not, and never was, a matter of race or ancestry." In 1944, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the legality of the executive order in the Korematsu v. United States case. The executive order remained in force until December of that year. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... It has been suggested that Scientific racism be merged into this article or section. ... The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, hiking up a muddy French road in the Chambois Sector, France, in late 1944. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the supreme court in the United States. ... Holding The Japanese American internment was not unconstitutional because the need to protect against espionage outweighed Korematsus rights. ...


Civil rights and refugees

Roosevelt's attitudes to race were also tested by the issue of African-American (or "Negro", to use the term of the time) service in the armed forces. The Democratic Party at this time was dominated by Southerners who were opposed to any concession to demands for racial equality. During the New Deal years, there had been a series of conflicts over whether African-Americans should be segregated in the various new government benefits and programs. Whenever a move was made to integrate the races Southern governors or congressmen would complain to Roosevelt, who would intervene to uphold segregation for the sake of keeping his party together. The Works Progress Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps, for example, segregated their work forces by race at Roosevelt's insistence after Southern governors protested at unemployed whites being required to work alongside blacks. Roosevelt's personal racial attitudes were conventional for his time and class. Some historians argue that he nevertheless played a major role in advancing the rights of blacks, and others say it was due to prodding from Eleanor Roosevelt and liberals such as Ickes, Perkins, Hopkins, Mary Mcleod Bethune, Aubrey Williams and Claude Pepper. Negro means black in Spanish, Portuguese and ancient Italian languages, being derived from the Latin word niger of the same meaning. ... The Works Progress Administration (later Works Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 with the signing of U.S. Presidential Executive Order 7034. ... Civilian Conservation Corps workers restoring the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. ... Claude Denson Pepper (September 8, 1900 – May 30, 1989) was an American attorney and politician. ...


Roosevelt explained his reluctance to support anti-lynching legislation in a conversation with Walter White of the NAACP. "I did not choose the tools with which I must work. Had I been permitted to choose then I would have selected quite different ones. But I've got to get legislation passed by Congress to save America. The Southerners by reason of the seniority rule in Congress are chairmen or occupy strategic places on most of the Senate and House committees. If I come out for the anti-lynching bill now, they will block every bill I ask Congress to pass to keep America from collapsing. I just can't take that risk." However, he did move Blacks into important advisory roles, brought them as delegates to the Democratic National Convention for the first time, abolished the two-thirds rule that gave the South veto power over presidential nominations, added a civil rights plank for the first time ever to the 1940 party platform, and included Blacks in the draft with the same rights and pay scales as whites. Lynching is violence, usually murder, conceived by its perpetrators as extra-legal execution, or used as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... Walter Francis White (July 1, 1893, Atlanta, Georgia - March 21, 1955, New York, New York) was a spokesman for blacks in the United States for almost a quarter of a century and executive secretary (1931–55) of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ...


In June 1941 Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802, which created the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC). It was the most important federal move in support of the rights of African Americans between Reconstruction and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The President's order stated that the federal government would not hire any person based on their race, color, creed, or national origin. The FEPC enforced the order to ban discriminatory hiring within the federal government and in corporations that received federal contracts. Millions of blacks and women achieved better jobs and better pay as a result. The war brought the race issue to the forefront. The Army and Navy had been segregated since the Civil War. But by 1940 the African-American vote had largely shifted from Republican to Democrat, and African-American leaders like Walter White of the NAACP and T. Arnold Hill of the Urban League had become recognized as part of the Roosevelt coalition. In June 1941, at the urging of A. Philip Randolph, the leading African-American trade unionist, Roosevelt signed an executive order establishing the Fair Employment Practice Commission and prohibiting discrimination by any government agency, including the armed forces. In practice the services, particularly the Navy and the Marines, found ways to evade this order — the Marine Corps remained all-white until 1943. In September 1942, at Eleanor's instigation, Roosevelt met with a delegation of African-American leaders, who demanded full integration into the forces, including the right to serve in combat roles and in the Navy, the Marine Corps and the United States Army Air Force. Roosevelt, with his usual desire to please everyone, agreed, but then did nothing to implement his promise. It was left to his successor, Harry S. Truman, to fully desegregate the armed forces. On June 25, 1941, President Roosevelt created the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) by signing Executive Order 8802. ... The American Civil War (1861–1865) was fought in North America between the United States of America, called the Union and the Confederate States of America, a coalition of eleven southern states that declared their independence and claimed the right of secession from the Union. ... Walter Francis White (July 1, 1893, Atlanta, Georgia - March 21, 1955, New York, New York) was a spokesman for blacks in the United States for almost a quarter of a century and executive secretary (1931–55) of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a socialist in the labor movement and the US civil rights movement. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... The United States Army Air Forces, or USAAF, was a part of the U.S. military during World War II. The direct precursor to the U.S. Air Force, the USAAF formally existed between 1941 and 1947. ... For other people named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ...


Roosevelt's complex attitudes to American Jews were also ambivalent. Franklin's mother Sara shared the conventional anti-Semitic attitudes common among Americans at a time when Jewish immigrants were flooding into the U.S. and their children were advancing rapidly into the business and professional classes to the alarm of those already there. Roosevelt apparently inherited some of his mother's attitudes, and at times expressed them in private. Paradoxically some of his closest political associates, such as Felix Frankfurter, Bernard Baruch and Samuel I. Rosenman, were Jewish, and he happily cultivated the important Jewish vote in New York City. He appointed Henry Morgenthau, Jr. as the first Jewish Secretary of the Treasury and appointed Frankfurter to the Supreme Court. Justice Frankfurter Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882 – February 22, 1965) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... Bernard Baruch on the cover of TIME magazine, 1928. ... Samuel Irving Rosenman (1896 - 1973) was a U.S. lawyer. ... Henry Morgenthau, Jr. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ...


During his first term Roosevelt condemned Hitler's persecution of German Jews, but said "this is not a governmental affair" and refused to make any public comment. As the Jewish exodus from Germany increased after 1937, Roosevelt was asked by American Jewish organizations and Congressmen to allow these refugees to settle in the U.S. At first he suggested that the Jewish refugees should be "resettled" elsewhere, and suggested Venezuela, Ethiopia or West Africa — anywhere but the U.S. Morgenthau, Ickes and Eleanor pressed him to adopt a more generous policy but he was afraid of provoking the isolationists — men such as Charles Lindbergh who exploited anti-Semitism as a means of attacking Roosevelt's policies. In practice very few Jewish refugees came to the U.S. — only 22,000 German refugees were admitted in 1940, not all of them Jewish. The State Department official in charge of refugee issues, Breckinridge Long, was a visceral anti-Semite who did everything he could to obstruct Jewish immigration. Despite frequent complaints, Roosevelt failed to remove him. West Africa is the region of. ... Charles Lindbergh Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr. ...


After 1942, when Roosevelt was made aware of the Nazi extermination of the Jews by Rabbi Stephen Wise, the Polish envoy Jan Karski and others, he refused to allow any systematic attempt to rescue European Jewish refugees and bring them to the U.S. In May 1943 he wrote to Cordell Hull (whose wife was Jewish): "I do not think we can do other than strictly comply with the present immigration laws." In January 1944, however, Morgenthau succeeded in persuading Roosevelt to allow the creation of a War Refugee Board in the Treasury Department. This allowed an increasing number of Jews to enter the U.S. in 1944 and 1945. By this time, however, the European Jewish communities had already been largely destroyed in Hitler's Holocaust. Stephen Samuel Wise (1874 - 1949) was a U.S. rabbi and Zionist leader. ... Before a wall map of the Warsaw Ghetto at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jan Karski recalls his secret 1942 missions into the Nazi prison-city-within-a-city. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ...


In any case after 1945 the focus of Jewish aspirations shifted from migration to the U.S. to settlement in Palestine, where the Zionist movement hoped to create a Jewish state. Roosevelt was also opposed to this idea. When he met King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia in February 1945, he assured him he did not support a Jewish state in Palestine. He suggested that since the Nazis had killed three million Polish Jews, there should now be plenty of room in Poland to resettle all the Jewish refugees. Roosevelt's attitudes towards Japanese-Americans, Blacks and Jews remain in striking contrast with the generosity of spirit he displayed, and the social liberalism he practiced in other realms. Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian) 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ... `Abd al-`Azīz as-Sa`ūd ( 1880 - November 9, 1953) (Arabic:عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ...


Strategy and diplomacy

Main article: World War II
Chiang Kai-shek of China, Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill of Britain at the Cairo Conference in 1943
Chiang Kai-shek of China, Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill of Britain at the Cairo Conference in 1943

As Churchill rightly saw, the entry of the U.S. into the war meant that the ultimate victory of the Allied powers was assured. Even though Britain was exhausted by the end of 1942, the alliance between the manpower of the Soviet Union and the industrial resources of the U.S. was bound to defeat Germany and Japan in the long run. But mobilizing those resources and deploying them effectively was a difficult task. The U.S. took the straightforward view that the quickest way to defeat Germany was to transport its army to Britain, invade France across the English Channel and attack Germany directly from the west, Churchill, wary of the huge casualties he feared this would entail, favored a more indirect approach, advancing northwards from the Mediterranean, where the Allies were fully in control by early 1943, into either Italy or Greece, and thus into central Europe. Churchill also saw this as a way of blocking the Soviet Union's advance into east and central Europe, a political issue which Roosevelt and his commanders refused to take into account. Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War II, also known as the Second World War (sometimes WW2 or WWII or World War Two), was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the... File links The following pages link to this file: Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Cairo Conference Military history of Egypt during World War II ... File links The following pages link to this file: Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Cairo Conference Military history of Egypt during World War II ... Chiang Kai-shek (Jiǎng Jiè Shí in standard Mandarin) (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Chiang, Roosevelt, and Churchill in Cairo, 11/25/1943 The Cairo Conference of November 22-26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: La Manche, IPA: , the sleeve), also for some time known in England as the British Sea, is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Since the U.S. would be providing most of the manpower and funds, Roosevelt's views prevailed, and through 1942 and 1943 plans for a cross-Channel invasion were advanced. But Churchill succeeded in persuading Roosevelt to undertake the invasions of French Morocco and Algeria (Operation Torch) in November 1942, of Sicily (Operation Husky) in July 1943, and of Italy (Operation Avalanche) in September 1943). This entailed postponing the cross-Channel invasion from 1943 to 1944. Following the American defeat at Anzio, however, the invasion of Italy became bogged down, and failed to meet Churchill's expectations. This undermined his opposition to the cross-Channel invasion (Operation Overlord), which finally took place in June 1944. Although most of France was quickly liberated, the Allies were blocked on the German border in the "Battle of the Bulge" in December 1944, and final victory over Germany was not achieved until May 1945, by which time the Soviet Union, as Churchill feared, had occupied all of eastern and central Europe as far west as the Elbe River in central Germany. Combatants Allies (United States, United Kingdom, French resistance forces in Algiers) Vichy France, Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower François Darlan Strength 73,500 Casualties 479 dead + 720 wounded 1346 dead + 1997 wounded {{{notes}}} Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the... Sicilian disambiguates here; see also Sicilian language or Sicilian Defence. ... Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Anzio (2003 pop. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... Combatants Western Allies Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 500,000 men, 400 tanks, 400 guns (Dec 16 - start of the Battle) 600,000 men, 600 tanks, 1,900 guns (Dec 16 - start of the Battle) Casualties 80,987 casualties (10,276 dead, 23,218 missing, 47... The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ...


Meanwhile in the Pacific the Japanese advance reached its maximum extent by June 1942, when Japan sustained a major naval defeat at the hands of the U.S. at the Battle of Midway. The Japanese advance to the south and south-east was halted at the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942 and the Battle of Guadalcanal between August 1942 and February 1943. MacArthur and Nimitz then began a slow and costly progress through the Pacific islands, with the objective of gaining bases from which strategic air power could be brought to bear on Japan and from which Japan could ultimately be invaded. In the event, this did not prove necessary, because the almost simultaneous declaration of war on Japan by the Soviet Union and the use of the atomic bomb on Japanese cities brought about Japan's surrender in September 1945. Combatants United States Japan Commanders Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Chuichi Nagumo Isoroku Yamamoto Strength Three carriers, about 50 support ships Four carriers, about 150 support ships Casualties 1 carrier, 1 destroyer sunk; 307 killed 4 carriers, 1 cruiser sunk; 2,500 killed The Battle of Midway took place... Combatants United States, Australia Japan Commanders Frank Jack Fletcher Shigeyoshi Inoue Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 small carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 large carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker, 543 personnel 1 small carrier, 1 destroyer, 1,074 personnel The Battle of the Coral Sea... Combatants United States, New Zealand, Australia, Fiji, Tonga, Solomon Islands Japan Commanders Frank Fletcher (tactical commander) Alexander Vandegrift (ground force commander) Hyakutake Haruyoshi (ground forces) Gunichi Mikawa (naval forces) Strength 29,000 (November 12) 30,000 (November 12) Casualties 1,492 killed, 4,500 wounded 15,000 KIA, 9,000... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


By late 1943 it was apparent that the Allies would ultimately defeat Nazi Germany, and it became increasingly important to make high-level political decisions about the course of the war and the postwar future of Europe. Roosevelt met with Churchill and the Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek at the Cairo Conference in November 1943, and then went to Tehran to confer with Churchill and Stalin. At the Tehran Conference Roosevelt and Churchill told Stalin about the plan to invade France in 1944, and Roosevelt also discussed his plans for a postwar international organization. Stalin was pleased that the western Allies had abandoned any idea of moving into the Balkans or central Europe via Italy, and he went along with Roosevelt's plan for the United Nations, which involved no costs to him. Stalin also agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the war against Japan when Germany was defeated. At this time Churchill and Roosevelt were acutely aware of the huge and disproportionate sacrifices the Soviets were making on the eastern front while their invasion of France was still six months away, so they did not raise awkward political issues which did not require immediate solutions, such as the future of Germany and Eastern Europe. Chiang Kai-shek (Jiǎng Jiè Shí in standard Mandarin) (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Chiang, Roosevelt, and Churchill in Cairo, 11/25/1943 The Cairo Conference of November 22-26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran The towering Alborz mountains rising above modern Elahiyeh district and its green neighborhoods. ... From left to right, Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill The Tehran Conference was the meeting of Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943 that took place in Tehran, Iran. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern Europe. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


By the beginning of 1945, however, with the Allied armies advancing into Germany, consideration of these issues could not be put off any longer. In February, Roosevelt, despite his steadily deteriorating health, traveled to Yalta, in the Soviet Crimea, to meet again with Stalin and Churchill. This meeting, the Yalta Conference, is often portrayed as a decisive turning point in modern history, but in fact, most of the decisions made there were retrospective recognitions of realities which had already been established by force of arms. The decision of the western Allies to delay the invasion of France from 1943 to 1944 had allowed the Soviet Union to occupy all of eastern Europe, including Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, as well as eastern Germany. Since Stalin was in full control of these areas, there was little Roosevelt and Churchill could do to prevent him imposing his will on them, as he was rapidly doing by establishing Communist-controlled governments in all these countries. View of Yalta Yalta (Russian: Ялта) is a town in the Crimea in southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... The Crimea /kraɪˈmia/ is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...


Churchill, aware that Britain had gone to war in 1939 in defense of Polish independence, and also of his promises to the Polish government in exile in London, did his best to insist that Stalin agree to the establishment of a non-Communist government and the holding of free elections in liberated Poland, although he was unwilling to confront Stalin over the issue of Poland's postwar frontiers, on which he considered the Polish position to be indefensible. But Roosevelt was not interested in having a fight with Stalin over Poland, for two reasons. The first was that he believed that Soviet support was essential for the projected invasion of Japan, in which the Allies ran the risk of huge casualties. He feared that if Stalin was provoked over Poland he might renege on his Tehran commitment to enter the war against Japan. The second was that he saw the United Nations as the ultimate solution to all postwar problems, and he feared the United Nations project would fail without Soviet cooperation. The Government of the Polish Republic in exile was the government of Poland after the German occupation of Poland in September 1939. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The fourth term and his death, 1945

The "Big Three" Allied leaders at Yalta: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
The "Big Three" Allied leaders at Yalta: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin

Although Roosevelt was only 62 in 1944, his health had been in decline since at least 1940. The strain of his paralysis and the physical exertion needed to compensate for it for over 20 years had taken their toll, as had many years of stress and a lifetime of chain-smoking. He had been diagnosed with high blood pressure and long-term heart disease, and was advised to modify his diet (though not to stop smoking). Had it not been for the war, he would certainly have retired at the 1944 election, but under the circumstances both he and his advisors felt there was no alternative to his running for a fourth term. Aware of the risk that Roosevelt would die during his fourth term, the party regulars insisted that Henry A. Wallace, who was seen as too pro-Soviet, be dropped as Vice President. Roosevelt at first resisted but finally agreed to replace Wallace with the little known Senator Harry S. Truman. In the November elections Roosevelt and Truman won 53 percent of the vote and carried 36 states, against New York Governor Thomas Dewey. After the elections, Cordell Hull, the longest-serving Secretary of State in American history, retired and was succeeded by Edward Stettinius Jr.. New version of photograph of Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference. ... New version of photograph of Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference. ... View of Yalta Yalta (Russian: Ялта) is a town in the Crimea in southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... There are different forms of heart disease: Coronary heart disease Ischaemic heart disease Cardiovascular disease Pulmonary heart disease The study of the heart (and diseases of the heart) is Cardiology. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941-45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933-40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945-46). ... For other people named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in two elections (1944 and 1948), losing both times. ... Secretary Hull Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) served as United States Secretary of State from 1933-1944 under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. ...


After the Yalta conference, relations between the western Allies and Stalin deteriorated rapidly, and so did Roosevelt's health. When he addressed Congress on his return from Yalta, many were shocked to see how old, thin and sick he looked. He spoke from his wheelchair, an unprecedented concession to his physical incapacity. But he was still mentally fully in command. "The Crimean Conference," he said firmly, "ought to spell the end of a system of unilateral action, the exclusive alliances, the spheres of influence, the balances of power, and all the other expedients that have been tried for centuries — and have always failed. We propose to substitute for all these, a universal organization in which all peace-loving nations will finally have a chance to join." Many in his audience doubted that the proposed United Nations would achieve these objectives, but there was no doubting the depth of Roosevelt's commitment to these ideals, which he had inherited from Woodrow Wilson. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). ...


Roosevelt is often accused of being naively trusting of Stalin, but in the last months of the war he took an increasingly tough line. During March and early April he sent strongly worded messages to Stalin accusing him of breaking his Yalta commitments over Poland, Germany, prisoners of war and other issues. When Stalin accused the western Allies of plotting a separate peace with Hitler behind his back, Roosevelt replied: "I cannot avoid a feeling of bitter resentment towards your informers, whoever they are, for such vile misrepresentations of my actions or those of my trusted subordinates." Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...

Roosevelt's funeral procession.
Roosevelt's funeral procession.

On March 30, Roosevelt went to Warm Springs to rest before his anticipated appearance at the April 25 San Francisco founding conference of the United Nations. Among the guests was Lucy Mercer, his lover from 30 years previously (by then Mrs. Lucy Rutherfurd), and the artist Elizabeth Shoumatoff, who was painting a portrait of him. On the morning of April 12 he was sitting in a leather chair signing letters, his legs propped up on a stool, while Shoumatoff worked at her easel. Just before lunch was to be served, he dropped his pen and complained of a sudden headache. Then he slumped forward in his chair and lost consciousness. A doctor was summoned and he was carried to bed; it was immediately obvious that he had suffered a massive cerebral hemorrhage. At 3:31 pm he was pronounced dead. The painting by Shoumatoff was not finished and is known as the Unfinished Portrait. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1182, 204 KB) Description Franklin Roosevelts funeral procession with horse-drawn casket, Pennsylvania Ave. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1182, 204 KB) Description Franklin Roosevelts funeral procession with horse-drawn casket, Pennsylvania Ave. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Lucy Page Mercer Rutherfurd,(April 26, 1891-July 31, 1948) born in Washington,D.C..She was rumored to be the mistress of Franklin Roosevelt. ... Unfinished Portrait Elizabeth Shoumatoff was a painter. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... A cerebral hemorrhage is bleeding directly into the brain parenchyma (tissue) itself, otherwise known as hemorrhagic stroke. ... Unfinished Portrait The Unfinished Portrait of Franklin Delano Roosevelt refers to a portrait being drawn of him at the time of his death. ...


Roosevelt's death was greeted with shock and grief across the U.S. and around the world. At a time when the press did not pry into the health or private lives of presidents, his declining health had not been known to the general public. Roosevelt had been President for more than 12 years, much longer than any other person, and had led the country through some of its greatest crises to the brink of its greatest triumph, the complete defeat of Nazi Germany, and to within sight of the defeat of Japan as well. Although in the decades since his death there have been many critical reassessments of his career, few commentators at the time had anything but praise for a commander-in-chief who had been robbed by death of a victory which was only a few weeks away. On May 8, the new president, Harry S. Truman, who turned 61 that day, dedicated V-E Day to Roosevelt's memory, paying tribute to his commitment towards ending the war in Europe. May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... For other people named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Reich. ...


Legacy

Roosevelt's legacies to the U.S. were a greatly expanded role for government in the management of the economy, increased government regulation of companies to protect the environment and prevent corruption, a Social Security system which allowed senior citizens to be able to retire with income and benefits, a nation on the winning side of World War II (with a booming wartime economy), and a coalition of voters supporting the Democratic Party which would survive intact until the 1960s and in part until the 1980s, when it was finally shattered by Ronald Reagan, a Roosevelt Democrat in his youth who became a conservative Republican. Internationally, Roosevelt's monument was the United Nations, an organization which offered at least his hope of an end to the international anarchy which led to two world wars in his lifetime. Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ...


Majority support for the essentials of the Roosevelt domestic program survived their author by 35 years. The Republican administrations of Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon did nothing to overturn the Roosevelt-era social programs. It was not until the administration of Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) that this was reversed, although Reagan made clear that though he wanted to greatly scale back many of FDR's programs, he would keep them intact (especially Social Security). Bill Clinton, with his program of welfare reform, was the first Democratic president to repudiate elements of the Roosevelt program. Nevertheless, this has not undermined Roosevelt's posthumous reputation as a great president. A 1999 survey of academic historians by CSPAN found that historians consider Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, and Roosevelt the three greatest presidents by a wide margin.[1]. A 2000 survey by The Washington Post found Washington, Lincoln, and Roosevelt to be the only "great" Presidents. Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Welfare reform is the name for a political movement in countries with a state-administered social welfare system to institute changes in that system, generally in a more conservative direction. ... C-SPAN, which originally stood for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, was the first United States cable television network dedicated to 24-hour coverage of government and public affairs. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the successful Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and later became the first President of the United States, an office to which he was elected, unanimously, twice (1789-1797). ... The Washington Post is the largest and oldest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ...


Cabinet members

OFFICE NAME TERM
President Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-1945
Vice President John Nance Garner 1933-1941
Henry A. Wallace 1941-1945
Harry S. Truman 1945
State Cordell Hull 1933-1944
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. 1944-1945
War George H. Dern 1933-1936
Harry H. Woodring 1936-1940
Henry L. Stimson 1940-1945
Treasury William H. Woodin 1933-1934
Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 1934-1945
Justice Homer S. Cummings 1933-1939
William F. Murphy 1939-1940
Robert H. Jackson 1940-1941
Francis B. Biddle 1941-1945
Post James A. Farley 1933-1940
Frank C. Walker 1940-1945
Navy Claude A. Swanson 1933-1939
Charles Edison 1940
Frank Knox 1940-1944
James V. Forrestal 1944-1945
Interior Harold L. Ickes 1933-1945
Agriculture Henry A. Wallace 1933-1940
Claude R. Wickard 1940-1945
Commerce Daniel C. Roper 1933-1938
Harry L. Hopkins 1939-1940
Jesse H. Jones 1940-1945
Henry A. Wallace 1945
Labor Frances C. Perkins 1933-1945


The President of the United States (often abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who, in the words of Adlai Stevenson, is a heartbeat from the presidency. ... John Nance Cactus Jack Garner (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941-45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933-40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945-46). ... For other people named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... The Seal of the United States Department of State The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Secretary Hull Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) served as United States Secretary of State from 1933-1944 under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... George Henry Dern (born 1872) was an American politician, and the 54th War Secretary. ... Harry Hines Woodring (May 31, 1887/90 - September 9, 1967) was a U.S. political figure. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... John W. Snow, the current Secretary of the Treasury. ... William Hartman Woodin (1868 - 1934) was a U.S. industrialist. ... Henry Morgenthau, Jr. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Homer Stille Cummings (1870 - 1956) was a U.S. political figure. ... For the Australian rules footballer, see Frank Murphy (footballer). ... Justice Jackson Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892 – October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General (1940 - 1941) and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1941 - 1954). ... The Nuremberg judges, left to right: John Parker, Francis Biddle, Alexander Volchkov, Iona Nikitchenko, Geoffrey Lawrence, Norman Birkett Francis Beverley Biddle (May 9, 1886–October 4, 1968) was an American lawyer and judge who is most famous as the primary American judge during the Nuremberg trials after World War II... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... James (Jim) Aloysius Farley (May 30, 1888–June 9, 1976) was an American politican who served as head of the Democratic National Committee and Postmaster General. ... Frank Comerford Walker (May 30, 1886–September 13, 1959) was a United States political figure. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Claude Augustus Swanson (March 31, 1862–July 7, 1939) was an American politician. ... Charles Edison (August 3, 1890–July 31, 1969), son of Thomas Edison, was a businessman, Assistant and then Acting Secretary of the Navy, and governor of New Jersey. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense (September 17, 1947–March 28, 1949). ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Harold LeClair Ickes (March 15, 1874–February 3, 1952) was a U.S. administrator and political figure. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941-45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933-40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945-46). ... Claude Raymond Wickard (1893-1967), born in Indiana, Secretary of Agriculture under President Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1940 to 1945. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Categories: Stub | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1867 births | 1943 deaths ... Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Roosevelts closest advisors and one of the key architects of the New Deal. ... Jesse Holman Jones Jesse Holman Jones (also known as Jesse H. Jones) (April 5, 1874 – June 1, 1956) was a Houston, Texas politician and entrepreneur. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941-45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933-40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945-46). ... Frances Perkins wearing a veil after the death of president Roosevelt Frances Coralie Perkins (nèe Fannie Coralie Perkins). ...


Supreme Court appointments

President Roosevelt appointed nine Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States. George Washington appointed eleven. By 1941 eight of the nine Justices were Roosevelt appointees. Hugo Black Hugo LaFayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1937 - 1971). ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... Stanley Forman Reed ( December 31, 1884 – April 2, 1980) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1938 to 1957. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Justice Frankfurter Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882 – February 22, 1965) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Douglas William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 - January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... For the Australian rules footballer, see Frank Murphy (footballer). ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Harlan Fiske Stone (October 11, 1872 – April 22, 1946) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as the dean of Columbia Law School, Attorney General of the United States, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and later Chief Justice of the United States. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes James Francis Byrnes ( May 2, 1879 - April 9, 1972) was a confidante of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and at one point was suggested as his running mate for Vice President. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in Leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... Justice Jackson Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892 – October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General (1940 - 1941) and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1941 - 1954). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (283rd in Leap years). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wiley Blount Rutledge (July 20, 1894 - September 10, 1949) was a U.S. educator and jurist. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the supreme court in the United States. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the successful Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and later became the first President of the United States, an office to which he was elected, unanimously, twice (1789-1797). ...


In 1937, Roosevelt proposed the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937 (called the Court-packing Bill by its opponents). The proposal gave the President the power to appoint an extra Supreme Court Justice for every sitting Justice over the age of 70. The bill caused a deep division in the Democratic party, as newly reelected Vice president John Nance Garner led the opposition. The proposal was defeated. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... John Nance Cactus Jack Garner (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ...


Media

(video)
FDR video montage ( info)
Collection of video clips of the president. (7.2 MB, ogg/Theora format).
Problems seeing the videos? Media help.


Image File history File links Image:FilmRoll-small. ... FDR video montage. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... OGG can refer to several items: Ogg was the name of a fictional character on the animated TV show Cro, see: Ogg Ogg is a multimedia bitstream container, used for audio and video files, especially Vorbis audio files. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

(audio)
FDR Pearl Harbor speech ( file info)
Speech given before Joint Session of Congress in entirety. (3.1 MB, ogg/Vorbis format).
Problems listening to the files? See media help.


Image File history File links Gnome-speakernotes. ... Roosevelt Pearl Harbor. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... OGG can refer to several items: Ogg was the name of a fictional character on the animated TV show Cro, see: Ogg Ogg is a multimedia bitstream container, used for audio and video files, especially Vorbis audio files. ... This article needs to be updated. ...

(audio)
"A date which will live in infamy" ( file info)
Section of Pearl Harbor speech with famous phrase. (168 KB, ogg/Vorbis format).
Problems listening to the files? See media help.


Image File history File links Gnome-speakernotes. ... Roosevelt Infamy. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1024 or 1000 bytes. ... OGG can refer to several items: Ogg was the name of a fictional character on the animated TV show Cro, see: Ogg Ogg is a multimedia bitstream container, used for audio and video files, especially Vorbis audio files. ... This article needs to be updated. ...


See also

Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... // Red Scare from 1918 to 1921 Main article: Red Scare The roots of the Red Scare lie in the efforts of the U.S. government to suppress dissent and engineer pro-war opinion in the preparation for the American entry into World War I. After the war, fear and hysteria... The Franklin D. Roosevelt Library is the first of the United States presidential libraries. ... The Business Plot, The Plot Against FDR, or The White House Putsch was a conspiracy of moneyed interests which tried to overthrow President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the early years of the Great Depression. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal The New Deal is the name given to the series of programs implemented under president Franklin Delano Roosevelt with the goal of stabilizing, reforming and stimulating the United States economy during the Great Depression. ... During the Great Depression, which took place between 1929 and 1936, President Franklin D. Roosevelts instituted a series of programs called the New Deal. ... This article is being considered for deletion, in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... FDR with Fala at Warm Springs, Georgia. ... // Earlier Events See Timeline of evolution See Geologic time scale Pleistocene Younger Dryas stadial Holocene 10th millennium BC Circa 10,000 BC — North America: Dire Wolf, Smilodon, Giant beaver, Ground sloth, Mammoth, and American lion all become extinct. ...

References

Primary sources

  • Cantril, Hadley and Mildred Strunk, eds. Public Opinion, 1935-1946 (1951), massive compilation of many public opinion polls from USA and elsewhere.
  • Gallup, George Horace, ed. The Gallup Poll; Public Opinion, 1935-1971 3 vol (1972) summarizes results of each poll.
  • Loewenheim, Francis L. et al, eds. Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence (1975)
  • Nixon, Edgar B. ed. Franklin D. Roosevelt and Foreign Affairs (3 vol 1969), covers 1933-37. 2nd series 1937-39 available on microfiche and in a 14 vol print edition at some academic libraries.
  • Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Rosenman, Samuel Irving, ed. The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (13 vol, 1938, 1945); public material only (no letters); covers 1928-1945.
  • Documentary History of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration 20 vol. available in some large academic libraries.
  • Zevin, B. D. ed. Nothing to Fear: The Selected Addresses of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1932-1945 (1946)

Secondary sources

  • Beasley, Maurine, et al eds. The Eleanor Roosevelt Encyclopedia (2001)
  • Black, Conrad. Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Champion of Freedom, Public Affairs, 2003. Popular biography
  • Burns, James MacGregor. Roosevelt (1956, 1970), 2 vol; interpretive biography, emphasis on politics.
  • Davis, Kenneth R. FDR: The Beckoning of Destiny, 1182-1928 (1972)=
  • Freidel, Frank. Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Rendezvous with Destiny (1990), One-volume scholarly biography; covers entire life
  • Freidel, Frank. Franklin D. Roosevelt (4 vol 1952-73), scholarly biography; ends in 1934.
  • Graham, Otis L. and Meghan Robinson Wander, eds. Franklin D. Roosevelt: His Life and Times. (1985).
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns. No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II (1995)
  • Kennedy, David M. Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945. (1999)
  • Lash, Joseph P. Eleanor and Franklin: The Story of Their Relationship Based on Eleanor Roosevelt's Private Papers (1971), history of a marriage.
  • Leuchtenberg, William E. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932-1940. (1963). A standard interpretive history of era.
  • Moley, Raymond. After Seven Years (1939), conservative critique, by former brain truster.
  • Morgan, Ted, FDR: A biography, Simon & Schuster, New York (1985), a popular biography
  • Powell, Jim. FDR's Folly: How Roosevelt and His New Deal Prolonged the Great Depression. (New York: Crown Forum, 2003), a stinging attack on New Deal policies from the right.
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr., The Age of Roosevelt, 3 vols, (1957-1960), the classic narrative history. Strongly supports FDR. Online at vol 2 vol 3
  • Trifkovic, Srdja, A Tale of Two Fascists: FDR and Mussolini (August 2000) Chronicles magazine.
  • Ward, Geoffrey C. Before The Trumpet: Young Franklin Roosevelt, 1882-1905 HarperCollins, 1985.
    • Geoffrey C. Ward, A First Class Temperament: The Emergence of Franklin Roosevelt, HarperCollins, 1992, covers 1905-1932.

The Brain Trust was the name given to a group of diverse academics who served as advisers to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the early period of his tenure. ...

Foreign Policy and World War II

  • Barnes, Harry Elmer. Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace: A Critical Examination of the Foreign Policy of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Its Aftermath (1953). "revisionist" attack on FDR
  • Beschloss, Michael R. The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941-1945 (2002).
  • Borg, Dorothy and Shumpei Okamoto, eds. Pearl Harbor as History: Japanese-American Relations, 1931-1941 (1973)
  • Burns, James MacGregor. Roosevelt: Soldier of Freedom (1970), vol 2 covers the war years.
  • Clemens, Diana Shaver. Yalta (1970);
  • Dallek, Robert. Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932-1945 (2nd ed. 1995).
  • Divine, Robert A. ed. Causes and Consequences of World War II (1969). debates among historians
  • Heinrichs, Waldo. Threshold of War. Franklin Delano Roosevelt and American Entry into World War II (1988).
  • Herring Jr. George C. Aid to Russia, 1941-1946: Strategy, Diplomacy, the Origins of the Cold War (1973)
  • Hurstfield, Julian G. America and the French Nation, 1939-1945 (1986)
  • Kennedy, Thomas C. Charles A. Beard and American Foreign Policy (1975)
  • Kimball, Warren. The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as World Statesman (1991)
  • Langer, William and S. Everett Gleason. The Challenge to Isolation, 1937-1940 (1952). Vol 1 of highly influential semi-official history
  • Langer, William L. and S. Everett Gleason. The Undeclared War, 1940-1941 (1953). Vol 2 of highly influential semi-official history
  • Larrabee, Eric. Commander in Chief: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, His Lieutenants, and Their War. History of the how FDR handled the war
  • Loewenheim, Francis L. ed. Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence (1975)
  • Matloff, Maurice and Edwin M. Snell. Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1941-1942 (1953). military strategy
  • Morley, James William and David A. Titus. The Final Confrontation: Japan's Negotiations with the United States, 1941 (1994)
  • Offner, Arnold A. America and the Origins of World War II, 1933-1941: New Perspectives in History (1971)
  • Prange, Gordon. At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor (1981)
  • Rauch, Basil. Roosevelt, from Munich to Pearl Harbor: A Study in the Creation of a Foreign Policy (1950)
  • Russett, Bruce M. No Clear and Present Danger: A Skeptical View of the United States Entry into World War II 2nd ed. (1997)
  • Schaller, Michael. The U.S. Crusade in China, 1938-1945 (1979)
  • Schneider, James C. Should America Go to War? The Debate over Foreign Policy in Chicago, 1939-1941 (1989)
  • Schroeder, Paul W. The Axis Alliance and Japanese-American Relations, 1941 (1958)
  • Schulzinger, Robert D. U.S. Diplomacy since 1900 (1998)
  • Schmitz, David F. and Richard D. Challener. Appeasement in Europe: A Reassessment of U.S. Policies (1990)
  • Traina, Richard P. American Diplomacy and the Spanish Civil War (1968).
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II (1994). Overall history of the war; strong on diplomacy
  • Wood, Bryce. The Making of the Good Neighbor Policy (1961).
  • Woods, Randall Bennett. A Changing of the Guard: Anglo-American Relations, 1941-1946 (1990)

External links

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1920 (lost)
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Governor of New York
1929 – 1933
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Al Smith
Democratic Party Presidential candidate
1932 (won), 1936 (won), 1940 (won), 1944 (won)
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Herbert Hoover
President of the United States
March 4, 1933April 12, 1945
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Yale University is a private university in New Haven, Connecticut. ... The student think tank is a model pioneered by the Roosevelt Institution, which seeks to connect the work of university students to the policy process. ... Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... [1] Resigned. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Charles Wayland Bryan (February 10, 1867 - March 4, 1945), was the younger brother of perennial U.S. Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan. ... Alfred Emanuel Smith ( December 30, 1873– October 4, 1944), often known as Al Smith, was Governor of New York and a U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... Herbert Lehman Herbert Henry Lehman (March 28, 1878 – December 5, 1963) was a Governor and Senator from New York. ... Al Smith waves to crowds, 1928 Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, a leading Catholic, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... [1] Resigned. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For the victim of Mt. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ... The President of the United States (often abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the victim of Mt. ... The President of the United States (often abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Image File history File links USPresidentialSeal. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the successful Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and later became the first President of the United States, an office to which he was elected, unanimously, twice (1789-1797). ... 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Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845), was the seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), hero of the Battle of New Orleans (1815), a founder of the Democratic Party, and the eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... John Tyler (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862) was the tenth (1841-1845) President of the United States. ... James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795–June 15, 1849) was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 3, 1849. ... Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850), also known as Old Rough and Ready, was the twelfth President of the United States, serving from 1849 to 1850. ... 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Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was the 19th President of the United States (1877 – 1881). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881), and the second U.S. President to be assassinated. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as 21st President of the United States. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd (1885–1889) and 24th (1893–1897) President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. ... Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was the 23rd President of the United States (1889-1893). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd (1885–1889) and 24th (1893–1897) President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. ... The name Mckinley redirects here. ... Theodore Roosevelt, formally Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, serving from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... 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Portrait of U.S. Vice President Daniel D Tompkins Daniel D[ecius?] Tompkins (June 21, 1774 – June 11, 1825) was an entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman, Governor of New York, and the sixth Vice President of the United States. ... John Tayler John Tayler (July 4, 1742 - March 19, 1829) was an American businessman and politician. ... DeWitt Clinton (March 2, 1769 - February 11, 1828) was an early American politician. ... Governor Joseph C. Yates, as painted by Ezra Ames, circa 1825 Joseph Christopher Yates (November 9, 1768–March 19, 1837), born in Schenectady, New York, was an American lawyer, statesman and politician. ... DeWitt Clinton (March 2, 1769 - February 11, 1828) was an early American politician. ... Nathaniel Pitcher (1777–1836) was governor of the U.S. state of New York from 1828 to 1829, having succeeded as Lt. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States. ... Enos Thompson Throop (August 21, 1784–November 1, 1874) was an early settler in Auburn, New York. ... William Learned Marcy ( December 12, 1786– July 4, 1857) was an American statesman. ... William H. Seward William Henry Seward (May 16, 1801 – October 10, 1872) was United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. ... William C. Bouck (1796 - 1859) was governor of the U.S. state of New York from 1843 to 1845. ... Silas Wright, Jr. ... John Young (June 12, 1802 - April 23, 1852) was an American politician. ... Hamilton Fish, (3 August 1808–7 September 1893), born in New York City, was an American politician during the time of the American Civil War. ... Washington Hunt (1811 - 1867) was born in Greene County, New York and died in New York City. ... Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810 - February 12, 1886) was an American politician. ... Myron Holley Clark (1806 - 1892) was born and died in Ontario County, New York. ... John Alsop King (1788–1867) was an American politician who served as governor (1857–1859) of New York. ... Edwin Dennison Morgan (February 8, 1811 - February 14, 1883) was governor of New York in the USA from 1859 to 1862. ... Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810 - February 12, 1886) was an American politician. ... Reuben Eaton Fenton (4 July 1819–15 August 1885) was an American politician from New York. ... John Thompson Hoffman (10 January 1828–24 March 1888) was born in Ossining in Westchester County, New York. ... John Adams Dix (July 24, 1798–April 21, 1879) was an American politician. ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... Lucius Robinson (4 November 1810 - 23 May 1886) was a governor of New York from 1877 to 1879. ... Alonzo Barton Cornell (22 January 1832–15 October 1904) was Governor of New York from 1880 to 1883. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd (1885–1889) and 24th (1893–1897) President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. ... David Bennett Hill (August 29, 1843 - October 20, 1910) was a Governor of New York. ... Roswell Pettibone Flower (August 7, 1835 - May 12, 1899) was the Governor of New York between 1892 and 1895. ... Levi Parsons Morton. ... Frank Swett Black (March 8, 1853 - March 22, 1913) is a Governor and a Representative from New York. ... Theodore Roosevelt, formally Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ... Benjamin Barker Odell, Jr. ... Frank Wayland Higgins (August 18, 1856 - February 12, 1907) was a Governor of New York. ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Horace White (October 7, 1865 - November 26, 1943) was a Governor of New York. ... John Alden Dix (December 25, 1860 - April 9, 1928) was Governor of New York from 1911 to 1913. ... William Sulzer (March 18, 1863 - November 6, 1941) was a Governor of New York. ... Martin Henry Glynn (September 27, 1871 - December 14, 1924) was a Democratic Governor of New York. ... Charles S. Whitman (September 29, 1868 - March 29, 1947) served as Republican Governor of New York between 1915 and 1919. ... Al Smith waves to crowds, 1928 Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, a leading Catholic, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... Nathan Lewis Miller (October 10, 1868 - June 26, 1953) was a Governor of New York. ... Al Smith waves to crowds, 1928 Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, a leading Catholic, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... Herbert Lehman Herbert Henry Lehman (March 28, 1878 – December 5, 1963) was a Governor and Senator from New York. ... Charles Poletti (July 2, 1903 – August 8, 2002) was the governor of New York between 1942 and 1943. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in two elections (1944 and 1948), losing both times. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), an American politician, was Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... Charles Malcolm Wilson (February 26, 1914 - March 13, 2000) was the Governor of New York between 1973 and 1975. ... Hugh Leo Carey (born April 11, 1919) was the Governor of New York between 1975 and 1983. ... Cuomo making a speech in mid 2004, (C-Span). ... George E. Pataki George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is the current Governor of New York State since January 1995. ... [1] Resigned. ... This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845), was the seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), hero of the Battle of New Orleans (1815), a founder of the Democratic Party, and the eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States. ... James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795–June 15, 1849) was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 3, 1849. ... Lewis Cass Campaign poster for 12th United States Presidential campaign, 1848. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the 14th President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (April 23, 1813–June 3, 1861), American politician from Illinois, was one of the Democratic Party nominees for President in 1860 (the other being John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky). ... John C. Breckinridge John Cabell Breckinridge (January 16, 1821–May 17, 1875) was a lawyer, U.S. Representative, Senator from Kentucky, the fourteenth Vice President of the United States, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Southern Democrats are members of the U.S. Democratic Party who reside in the U.S. South. ... George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general (and briefly the general-in-chief of all the Union armies) during the American Civil War. ... Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810 - February 12, 1886) was an American politician. ... Horace Greeley (1811-1872) Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811–November 29, 1872) was an American newspaper editor, reformer and politician. ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... Portrait of Winfield S. Hancock during the Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer who served with distinction as a general in the American Civil War and ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States in 1880. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd (1885–1889) and 24th (1893–1897) President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. ... William Jennings Bryan, 1907 William Jennings Bryan, (March 19, 1860–July 26, 1925) born in Salem, Illinois, was a gifted orator and three-time United States Democratic nominee for President. ... Alton Brooks Parker (May 14, 1852 – May 10, 1926) was an American lawyer and judge and a U.S. presidential candidate in the 1904 elections. ... William Jennings Bryan, 1907 William Jennings Bryan, (March 19, 1860–July 26, 1925) born in Salem, Illinois, was a gifted orator and three-time United States Democratic nominee for President. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). ... James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 - July 15, 1957) was a Governor of Ohio, U.S. Representative from Ohio and Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920. ... John William Davis John William Davis (April 13, 1873 — March 24, 1955) was an American politician and lawyer. ... Al Smith waves to crowds, 1928 Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, a leading Catholic, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... For other people named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Adlai Stevenson Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician and statesman, noted for his skill in debate and oratory. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson. ... George McGovern Dr. George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential candidate, losing the 1972 presidential election to incumbent Richard Nixon. ... For the submarine, see USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23). ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and former presidential candidate, born in Brookline, Massachusetts, to Greek-immigrant parents. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. ... [1] Resigned. ... This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... John C. Calhoun John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a prominent United States politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States. ... Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. ... For the federal judge, please see George M. Dallas (judge). ... William Orlando Butler (April 19, 1791 - August 6, 1880) was a U.S. political figure from Kentucky. ... William Rufus de Vane King (April 7, 1786–April 18, 1853) was a U.S. Representative from North Carolina, a Senator from Alabama, and the thirteenth Vice President of the United States. ... John C. Breckinridge John Cabell Breckinridge (January 16, 1821–May 17, 1875) was a lawyer, U.S. Representative, Senator from Kentucky, the fourteenth Vice President of the United States, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Herschel Vespasian Johnson (September 18, 1812 - August 16, 1880) was an American politician. ... Joseph Lane (1801-1881) was an American general during the Mexican War. ... Southern Democrats are members of the U.S. Democratic Party who reside in the U.S. South. ... George Hunt Pendleton (July 19, 1825–November 24, 1889) was a Representative and a Senator from Ohio. ... Francis Preston Blair, Jr. ... Benjamin Gratz Brown (May 28, 1826 - December 13, 1885) was a Liberal Republican Senator, Governor of Missouri, and the Vice presidential candidate in the election of 1872. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885) was a Representative and a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States. ... William Hayden English (August 27, 1822–February 7, 1896) was an American politician. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885) was a Representative and a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States. ... Allen Granberry Thurman (November 13, 1813_December 12, 1895) was a Democratic Representative and Senator from Ohio. ... Adlai Ewing Stevenson I (October 23, 1835 – June 14, 1914) was a Congressman from Illinois and the twenty-third Vice President of the United States. ... Arthur Sewall (November 25, 1835 _ September 5, 1900 was a U.S. Democratic politician from Maine most notable as William Jennings Bryans first running mate in 1896. ... Adlai Ewing Stevenson I (October 23, 1835 – June 14, 1914) was a Congressman from Illinois and the twenty-third Vice President of the United States. ... Henry Gassaway Davis (16 November 1823 - March 11, 1916) was a U.S. Democratic politician from West Virginia. ... John Worth Kern (December 20, 1849 - August 17, 1917) was a U.S. Democratic politician from Indiana. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... Charles Wayland Bryan (February 10, 1867 - March 4, 1945), was the younger brother of perennial U.S. Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan. ... Joseph Taylor Robinson Joseph Taylor Robinson (August 26, 1872 - July 14, 1937) was a Democratic United States Senator, Senate Majority Leader, member of the United States House of Representatives, Governor of Arkansas, and U.S. Vice Presidential candidate. ... John Nance Cactus Jack Garner (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941-45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933-40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945-46). ... For other people named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Alben W. Barkley Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Representative and a Senator from Kentucky and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... John Jackson Sparkman (December 20, 1899 - November 16, 1985) was a United States politician from Alabama. ... Estes Kefauver Carey Estes Kefauver (July 26, 1903 – August 10, 1963) was an American politician from Tennessee. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson. ... Edmund Sixtus Ed Muskie (Marciszewski) (March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was a Polish-American politician from Maine. ... Thomas Eagleton Thomas Francis Eagleton, LL.B., (born September 4, 1929) is a former U.S. Senator from Missouri. ... Robert Sargent Shriver, Jr. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party. ... Geraldine Ferraro Geraldine Anne Ferraro (born August 26, 1935) is best known as the first and, so far, only woman to be a candidate for Vice President of the United States on a major party ticket (although women on third-party tickets continue to run for the position). ... Lloyd Bentsen Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ... Joseph Isadore Lieberman, (born February 24, 1942) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Connecticut, most well-known as Al Gores running mate on the Democratic ticket in 2000. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The President of the United States (often abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Hyde Park is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Warm Springs is a city located in Meriwether County, Georgia. ...


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Franklin D. Roosevelt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (9610 words)
Franklin Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, at Hyde Park, in the Hudson River valley in upstate New York.
Roosevelt's mother Sara Ann Delano (1854–1941) was of French Protestant (Huguenot) descent, her ancestor Phillippe de la Noye having arrived in Massachusetts in 1621.
Roosevelt was a lifelong free trader and anti-imperialist, and ending European colonialism was one of his objectives.
32nd President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (690 words)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born January 30, 1882, at Hyde Park, New York, into one of the more famous families in America at that time.
Roosevelt was the first President to appear on television, the first to appoint a woman to the cabinet (Frances Perkins as Secretary of Labor), and the only President to serve more than eight years.
Roosevelt nonetheless was renominated and won, this time with Harry S Truman as his running mate.
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