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Encyclopedia > President Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson

Order 17th President
President from April 15, 1865March 3, 1869
Vice President none
Preceded by Abraham Lincoln
Succeeded by Ulysses S. Grant
Born December 29, 1808
Raleigh, North Carolina
Died July 31, 1875
near Elizabethton, Tennessee
Political party Democratic (elected on National Union ticket)
Spouse Eliza McCardle Johnson
{{{footnotes}}}

Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808July 31, 1875) was the sixteenth Vice President (1865) and the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (457x607, 35 KB) U.S. President Andrew Johnson. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Downtown Raleigh Skyline Raleigh is the capital of North Carolina, a state of the United States of America. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining, as the final day of July. ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Elizabethton is a city located in Carter County, Tennessee. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Elizabeth McCardle Johnson, wife of President Andrew Johnson. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining, as the final day of July. ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who, in the words of Adlai Stevenson, is a heartbeat from the presidency. ... The President of the United States (fully, President of the United States of America; unofficially abbreviated POTUS) is the American head of state and the chief executive of the federal government. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ...


Johnson presided over the Reconstruction of the United States following the American Civil War, and his conciliatory policies towards the defeated rebels and his vetoes of civil rights bills embroiled him in a bitter dispute with the Congressional Republicans, leading the House of Representatives to impeach him in 1868; he was the first President to be impeached. He was subsequently acquitted by a single vote in the Senate. In the history of the United States, reconstruction was the period after the American Civil War when the states of the breakaway Confederacy were reintegrated into the United States of America. ... The American Civil War (1861–1865) was fought in North America within the United States of America, between twenty-four mostly northern states of the Union and the Confederate States of America, a coalition of eleven southern states that declared their independence and claimed the right of secession from the... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The chamber of the United States House of Representatives is located in the south wing of the Capitol building, in Washington, D.C.. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ...

Contents


Early life

Johnson was born on December 29, 1808, in Raleigh, North Carolina, to Jacob Johnson and Mary McDonough. When Johnson was four his father died. At the age of 10 he was apprenticed to a tailor, but ran away to Greeneville, Tennessee in 1826, where he continued his employment as a tailor. He never attended any type of school; his wife has historically been credited with teaching him to read and write. December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Downtown Raleigh Skyline Raleigh is the capital of North Carolina, a state of the United States of America. ... Greeneville is a town located in Greene County, Tennessee. ...


Early political career

Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson

Johnson served as an alderman in Greeneville from 1828 to 1830 and mayor of Greeneville from 1830 to 1833. He was a member of the State House of Representatives from 1835 to 1837 and 1839 to 1841. He was elected to the State Senate in 1841, and elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-eighth and to the four succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1843 to March 3, 1853). He was chairman of the Committee on Public Expenditures (Thirty-first and Thirty-second Congresses). PD image from http://www. ... PD image from http://www. ... An alderman is a member of a municipal legislative body in a town or city with many jurisdictions. ... Greeneville is a town located in Greene County, Tennessee. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Political ascension

Johnson did not seek renomination, having become a candidate for the governorship of Tennessee. He was Governor of Tennessee from 1853 to 1857, and was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate and served from October 8, 1857 to March 4, 1862, when he resigned. He was chairman of the Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent Expense (Thirty-sixth Congress). At the time of secession of the Confederacy, Johnson was the only Senator from the seceded states to continue participation in Congress. Johnson was then appointed by President Abe Lincoln as Military Governor of Tennessee in 1862. State nickname: Volunteer State Official languages English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Governor Phil Bredesen (D) Senators Bill Frist (R) Lamar Alexander (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 2. ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans February 4, 1861 until captured...


Presidency

He was elected Vice President of the United States on the National Union ticket headed by Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1864 and was inaugurated March 4, 1865. A rather embarassing incident occured on this day. Johnson had been suffering from typhoid fever and drank whiskey before the ceremony. He gave a rambling, incoherent speech and had to be led away. Lincoln forgave him for this transgression. He became President of the United States on April 15, 1865, upon the death of Lincoln. He was the first Vice President to succeed to the U.S. Presidency upon the assassination of a President and the third to succeed upon the death of a President. The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who, in the words of Adlai Stevenson, is a heartbeat from the presidency. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Cabinet

OFFICE NAME TERM
President Andrew Johnson 1865–1869
Vice President None  
Secretary of State William H. Seward 1865–1869
Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch 1865–1869
Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton 1865–1868
  John M. Schofield 1868–1869
Attorney General James Speed 1865–1866
  Henry Stanberry 1866–1868
  William M. Evarts 1868–1869
Postmaster General William Dennison 1865–1866
  Alexander Randall 1866–1869
Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles 1865–1869
Secretary of the Interior John P. Usher 1865
  James Harlan 1865–1866
  Orville H. Browning 1866–1869


The President of the United States (fully, President of the United States of America; unofficially abbreviated POTUS) is the American head of state and the chief executive of the federal government. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who, in the words of Adlai Stevenson, is a heartbeat from the presidency. ... The Seal of the United States Department of State The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... William H. Seward William Henry Seward (May 16, 1801 – October 10, 1872) was United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. ... John W. Snow, the current Secretary of the Treasury. ... Hugh McCulloch (December 7, 1808 - May 24, 1895) was an American statesman who served two non-consecutive terms as U.S. Treasury Secretary. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Edwin M. Stanton Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 – December 24, 1869), was an American lawyer, politician and Secretary of War through most of the American Civil War and in the Reconstruction era. ... For John Schofield, the recipient of a Victoria Cross see John Schofield (VC). ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... James Speed (March 11, 1812–June 25, 1887) was a American lawyer, politician and professor. ... Henry Stanberry (February 20, 1803–June 26, 1881) was an American lawyer and Presidential Cabinet member. ... Photograph of U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts William Maxwell Evarts (February 6, 1818–February 28, 1901) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Alexander Williams Randall (1819-1872) was a lawyer, judge and politician from Wisconsin. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802–February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, including the entire duration of the American Civil War: his dedication to naval blockades was one of the key reasons for the Norths victory over the South. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... John Palmer Usher (1816 - 1889) was a U.S. administrator. ... James Harlan (August 26, 1820 - October 5, 1899) was a member of the United States Senate and a U.S. Cabinet Secretary. ... Orville Hickman Browning (1806-1881) was a Republican Senator from Illinois. ...


Impeachment

Congress and Johnson argued in an increasingly public way about Reconstruction: the manner in which the Southern secessionist states would be readmitted to the Union. Johnson favored a very quick restoration of all rights and privileges of other states. However, "Congressional Reconstruction", enforced by repeated acts passed over Johnson's veto, provided for provisional state governments run by the military and ensuring the local passage of civil rights laws and otherwise imposing the will of the United States Congress — which was run by the North. Johnson's public criticisms of Congress provoked much talk of impeachment over the months. In the history of the United States, reconstruction was the period after the American Civil War when the states of the breakaway Confederacy were reintegrated into the United States of America. ... The word veto comes from Latin and literally means I forbid. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...

Harper's Weekly illustration of Johnson's impeachment trial in the United States Senate.
Harper's Weekly illustration of Johnson's impeachment trial in the United States Senate.

On February 21, 1868, Johnson notified Congress that he had removed Edwin Stanton as Secretary of War, and was replacing him in the interim with Adjutant-General Lorenzo Thomas. This violated the Tenure of Office Act, a law enacted by Congress on March 2, 1867, over Johnson's veto, specifically designed to protect Stanton. Johnson had vetoed the Act, claiming it was unconstitutional. The Act said, "...every person holding any civil office, to which he has been appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate ... shall be entitled to hold such office until a successor shall have been in like manner appointed and duly qualified," thus removing the President's previous unlimited power to remove any of his Cabinet members at will. (Years later in Myers v. United States (1926), the Supreme Court ruled that such laws were indeed unconstitutional.) Download high resolution version (1208x801, 243 KB)The Senate as a Court of Impeachment for the Trial of Andrew Johnson Theodore R. Davis, artist, illustration in Harpers Weekly, April 11, 1868. ... Download high resolution version (1208x801, 243 KB)The Senate as a Court of Impeachment for the Trial of Andrew Johnson Theodore R. Davis, artist, illustration in Harpers Weekly, April 11, 1868. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 - December 24, 1869), born in Steubenville, Ohio, was an American political figure, prominent in the American Civil War and in the Reconstruction era. ... lpijjihihhjkhhhhyhuhuighuighughbuhhhughughugiguguigiugggggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggggggggguiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiggggggggggggggggggggguiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggggggggggggiuuuuuuuuuuuuugggggggggggggggggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggiuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuugggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg. ... The Tenure of Office Act, passed in 1867 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson, denied the President of the United States the power to remove from office anyone who had been appointed or approved by Congress, unless the removal was also approved by Congress. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Myers v. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States of America. ...


The Senate and House entered into hot debate. Thomas attempted to move into the War office, for which Stanton had Thomas arrested. Three days after Stanton's removal, the House passed a resolution to impeach Johnson for "high crimes and misdemeanors", specifically, for intentionally violating the Tenure of Office Act and thus violating the law of the land, which he had sworn an oath to enforce.

The 1868 Impeachment Resolution
The 1868 Impeachment Resolution

On March 5, 1868 a court of impeachment was constituted in the Senate to hear charges against the President. William M. Evarts served as his counsel. Eleven articles were set out in the resolution and the trial before the Senate lasted almost three months. Johnson's defense was based on a clause in the Tenure of Office Act stating that the then-current Secretaries would hold their posts throughout the term of the President who appointed them. Since Lincoln had appointed Stanton, it was claimed, the applicability of the Act had already run its course. Download high resolution version (902x1170, 523 KB)http://teachpol. ... Download high resolution version (902x1170, 523 KB)http://teachpol. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Photograph of U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts William Maxwell Evarts (February 6, 1818–February 28, 1901) was an American lawyer and statesman. ...


There were three votes in the Senate: one on May 16, 1868 for the 11th article of impeachment (which included many of the charges contained in the other articles), and two on May 26 for the second and third articles, after which the trial adjourned sine die. On all three occasions, thirty-five Senators voted "Guilty" and nineteen "Not Guilty". As the U.S. Constitution requires a two-thirds majority for conviction in impeachment trials, Johnson was acquitted. May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... Adjournment sine die (from the Latin, without day) occurs when an organized bodys existence terminates. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


A single changed vote would have sufficed to return a "Guilty" verdict. The decisive vote had been that of a young Radical Republican named Edmund G. Ross. Despite monumental pressure from fellow Radicals prior to the first vote, and dire warnings that a vote for acquittal would end his political career, Ross stood up at the appropriate moment and quietly announced "not guilty," effectively ending the impeachment trial. The Radical Republicans were an influential group of American politicians in the Republican party (GOP) during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras. ... Edmund Gibson Ross (December 7, 1826 - May 8, 1907) was a politician who represented the state of Kansas and the (then) U.S. Territory of New Mexico. ...


The impeachment of Johnson is widely regarded as one of the most shameful episodes in the history of the Federal Government. Had it been successful it would most likely have permanently damaged the Presidency and established a precedent that a president may be impeached not for "high crimes and misdemeanors" but for mere political differences.


Johnson was the first President to be impeached, and the only one until Bill Clinton on December 19, 1998. Both presidents were acquitted. The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presiding. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


States Admitted to the Union

The Johnson Administration negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia on 9 April 1867 for $7,200,000. State nickname: Cornhusker State Official languages English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Governor Dave Heineman (R) Senators Chuck Hagel (R) Ben Nelson (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16th 200,520 km² 0. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Alaska purchase from Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. ...


Post-Presidency

President Andrew Johnson
President Andrew Johnson

Johnson was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the United States Senate in 1868 and to the House of Representatives in 1872. He eventually succeeded and was elected as a Democrat to the Senate and served from March 4, 1875, until his death near Elizabethton, Tennessee, on July 31, 1875. He is the only President to serve in the Senate after his presidency. Interment was in the Andrew Johnson National Cemetery, Greeneville, Tennessee. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1106x1386, 245 KB)President of the United States of America Andrew Johnson source File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1106x1386, 245 KB)President of the United States of America Andrew Johnson source File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Elizabethton is a city located in Carter County, Tennessee. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining, as the final day of July. ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Greeneville is a town located in Greene County, Tennessee. ...


See also

Presidential electoral votes by state. ... At the end of the Civil War, the United States was still bitterly divided. ...

References

Harpers Weekly Inauguration Number 1897 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine published by Harper & Brothers from 1857 until 1916. ... An obituary is a notice of the death of a person, usually published in a newspaper, written or commissioned by the newspaper (rather than written by relatives), and usually including a short biography. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

External links

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Preceded by:
Thomas Dickens Arnold
U.S. Congressman for the 1st District of Tennessee
1843–1853
Succeeded by:
Brookins Campbell
Preceded by:
William B. Campbell
Governor of Tennessee
1853–1857
Succeeded by:
Isham G. Harris
Preceded by:
James C. Jones
U.S. Senator from Tennessee
October 8, 1857March 4, 1862
Succeeded by:
David T. Patterson (a)
Preceded by:
Isham G. Harris
Governor of Tennessee
1862 – 1865
Succeeded by:
E. H. East
Preceded by:
Hannibal Hamlin
Republican Party(b) vice presidential candidate
1864 (won)
Succeeded by:
Schuyler Colfax
Preceded by:
Hannibal Hamlin
Vice President of the United States
March 4, 1865April 15, 1865
Succeeded by:
Schuyler Colfax (b)
Preceded by:
Abraham Lincoln
President of the United States
April 15, 1865March 3, 1869
Succeeded by:
Ulysses S. Grant
Preceded by:
William Gannaway Brownlow
U.S. Senator from Tennessee
March 4, 1875July 31, 1875 (died in office)
Succeeded by:
David McKendree Key
(a) Due to Tennessee's secession, the Senate seat was vacant for four years before Patterson succeeded Johnson.
(b) After Johnson became president in 1865, the Vice Presidency was vacant until Schuyler Colfax was inaugurated on March 4, 1869.
(c) Lincoln and Johnson ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Johnson, Andrew. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (792 words)
From 1830 onward Johnson was almost continuously in public office, being alderman (1828–30) and mayor (1830–33) of Greeneville, state representative (1835–37, 1839–41), state senator (1841–43), Congressman (1843–53), governor of Tennessee (1853–57), and U.S. Senator (1857–62).
When Johnson insisted upon his intention to force out of office his Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, whom he rightly suspected of conspiring with the congressional leaders, the radical Republicans sought to remove the President.
Johnson’s name figured in the balloting at the Democratic convention of 1868, but he did not actively seek the nomination.
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