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President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. Etymologically, a "president" is one who presides, who sits in leadership (from Latin pre- "before" + sedere "to sit"; giving the term praeses). Originally, the term referred to the presiding officer of a ceremony or meeting (i.e. chairman); but today it most commonly refers to an official with executive powers. In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... A ministry is a department of a government, led by a minister. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... This is a list of state leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... This is a list of the offices of heads of state, heads of government, cabinet, and legislature, by country. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ... Look up company in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Etymologies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Praeses is a Latin word meaning Being at the head of. Used for: 1 The title of some provincial governors in the Roman Empire. ... A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ...


Among other things, president today is a common title for the head of state of most republics, whether popularly elected, chosen by the legislature or a special electoral college. It is also often adopted by dictators. For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the political process. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of president

As an English word, the term was originally used to refer to the presiding officer of a committee or governing body in Great Britain. Early examples are from the universities of Oxford and Cambridge (from 1464); the founding President of the Royal Society William Brouncker in 1660. The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... The President of the Royal Society (PRS) is the elected head of the Royal Society of London. ... Lord William Brouncker (born 1620 in Castlelyons, County Cork, Ireland and died on 5 April 1684 in Westminster, London, UK) was an English mathematician. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ...


Later this usage was applied to political leaders, including the leaders of some of the Thirteen Colonies (originally Virginia in 1608); in full, the "President of the Council"..[1] The first President of a country was George Washington, the President of the United States. In America the title was 'upgraded' from its earlier use for the President of the Continental Congress, the "officer in charge of the Continental Congress" since 1774. In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The President of the Continental Congress was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress. ... The Continental Congress resulted from the American Revolution and was the de facto first national government of the United States. ...


As other countries followed the American Revolution, and deposed their monarchies, president was commonly adopted as the title for the new republican heads of state. The first European president was the president of France, a post created in the Second Republic of 1848. (The First Republic had begun with no separate executive, then established five directors, and finally echoed the ancient Roman Republic by appointing three consuls at its head.) John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... The French Second Republic (often simply Second Republic) was the republican regime of France from February 25, 1848 to December 2, 1852. ... The French people proclaimed Frances First Republic on 21 September 1792 as a result of the French Revolution and of the abolition of the French monarchy. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... This article is about the Roman rank. ...


The first president of an internationally recognized African state was the President of Liberia in 1848. The following is a list of Presidents of the Republic of Liberia, made up of the 24 heads of state in the history of Liberia. ...


Today, most republics have a President as their head of state. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Presidents in democratic countries and international organizations

Presidential systems

In states with a presidential system of government, the President exercises the functions of Head of State and Head of Government, i.e. he directs the Executive arm of Government. A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ...


Presidents in this system are either directly elected by popular vote or indirectly elected by an electoral college.


In the United States of America, the President is indirectly elected by the U.S. Electoral College made up of electors chosen by voters in the presidential election. In most U.S. states, each elector is committed to voting for a specified candidate determined by the popular vote in each state, so that the people, in voting for each elector, is in effect voting for the candidate. However, in several close U.S. elections (notably 1876, 1888, 2000), the candidate with the most popular votes still lost the electoral count. For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Many South American, Central American, and African nations follow the presidential model.


Parliamentary systems

Other states have adopted a parliamentary system of government, in which the president is head of state but largely ceremonial. In these cases the separate head of government (often a prime minister), who is usually indirectly elected by the parliamentary majority, holds the executive power and forms the government. States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


Countries with such systems include most European and Commonwealth republics including Finland, Germany, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Hungary, Macedonia, Turkey and Singapore, as well as Portugal (which has a slightly different system). Sri Lanka has a hybrid system (which includes a parliament and a prime minister as well as an extremely powerful president). The president of Nauru is, however, elected by the parliament according to the Westminster system and acts as both the head of state and head of government. This is also the case for the presidents of Botswana and South Africa (since 1984). The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ...


Under such a system, the president as head of state generally takes a similar role to a constitutional monarch, with the government governing in his or her name, producing phrases such as "His/Her Excellency's Government" in formal state documentation. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not...


A president may also possess some reserve powers, which can be exercised by the president without formal advice (that is, binding instruction) from the government. In some constitutional systems the president chairs (at least some) cabinet meetings and often has access to all cabinet memoranda. Especially in fields where protocol is important, such as diplomacy, the head of state tends to be a major player. The president can therefore exercise a degree of informal influence not often publicly realised. In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government. ... In international politics, protocol is the etiquette of diplomacy and affairs of state. ...


An example of this influence is the following: between 1870 and 1940, and again from 1945 to 1958, France operated a classic parliamentary system of government, with power in a cabinet chosen by the National Assembly, and a largely, though not totally, symbolic president; in 1877, President Mac-Mahon showed that his office was constitutionally significant when he dismissed the then prime minister before calling new elections, in the hope of achieving a royalist majority to restore the monarchy (the plan failed). The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... Patrice MacMahon, duc de Magenta President of France, 1873-1879 Marie Edmé Patrice Maurice MacMahon, duc de Magenta, Marshal of France (July 13, 1808 - October 16, 1893) was a Frenchman of Irish descent. ...


Presidential titles for non heads of state

Some countries with parliamentary systems use a term meaning/translating as 'president' (in some languages indistinguishable from chairman) for the head of parliamentary government, often as President of the Government, President of the Council of Ministers or President of the Executive Council. President of the Government is a term used in official statements several Prime Ministers: Serbia, Prime Minister of Serbia Spain, Prime Minister of Spain Croatia See also President of the Government in parliamentary systems Categories: Government stubs ... The official title President of the Council of Ministers is used to describe the head of government of Serbia and Montenegro, as well as Poland. ... A President of the Executive Council is the presiding officer of an Executive Council, in Commonwealth constitutional practice. ...


However, such an official is explicitly not the president of the country. Rather, he or she is called a president in an older sense of the word to denote the fact that he or she heads the cabinet. A separate head of state generally exists in their country that instead serves as the president or monarch of the country. The word president is derived from the Latin prae- before + sedere to sit. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


Thus, such officials are really premiers, and to avoid confusion are often described simply as 'prime minister' when being mentioned internationally. A premier is an executive official of government. ...


There are several examples for this kind of presidency:

In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ... The official title President of the Council of Ministers is used to describe the head of government of Serbia and Montenegro, as well as Poland. ... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The official title President of the Council of Ministers is used to describe the head of government of the states of Italy, Poland and Serbia and Montenegro, and formerly in Portugal and France, during the Third and Fourth Republics. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article is about the prior state. ... The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the head of government or prime minister of the 1922-1937 Irish Free State, and the leader of the Executive Council (cabinet). ... King George V, the first monarch to reign in the Irish Free State. ... The Governor-General (Irish: Seanascal) was the representative of the King in the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. ... The President of the Government of Spain (realy in Spanish: Presidente del Gobierno), sometimes known in English as the Prime Minister of Spain, is the Spanish head of government. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Poland. ... The official title President of the Council of Ministers is used to describe the head of government of Serbia and Montenegro, as well as Poland. ...

Semi-presidential systems

A third system is the semi-presidential system, also known as the French system, in which like the Parliamentary system there is both a president and a prime minister, but unlike the parliamentary system, the president may have significant day-to-day power. When his party controls the majority of seats in the National Assembly the president can operate closely with the parliament and prime minister, and work towards a common agenda. When the National Assembly is controlled by opponents of the President however, the president can find himself marginalized with the opposition party prime minister exercising most of the power. Though the prime minister remains an appointee of the president, the president must obey the rules of parliament, and select a leader from the house's majority holding party. Thus, sometimes the president and prime minister can be allies, sometimes rivals; the latter situation is known as cohabitation. The French semi-presidential system, which can be considered a hybrid between the first two, was developed at the beginning of the Fifth Republic by Charles de Gaulle. It is used in France, Finland, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sri Lanka and several post-colonial countries which have emulated the French model. States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the person. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Collective Presidency

Only a tiny minority of modern republics do not have a single head of state; examples include:

The Swiss Federal Council (German: , French: , Italian: , Romansh: ) is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the government as well as the head of state of Switzerland. ... The President of the Confederation (Italian: , French: , German: ) is the presiding member of the Swiss Federal Council, Switzerlands seven-member executive. ... The Bundeshaus (Swiss parliament building) The Federal Assembly (in German, Bundesversammlung; in French, Assemblée fédérale; in Italian language, Assemblea federale), is Switzerlands federal parliament. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... First among equals redirects here. ... A Letter of Credence is a formal letter sent by one head of state to another formally accrediting a named individual (usually but not always a diplomat) to be their ambassador in the country of the head of state receiving the letter of credence. ... The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predsjedništvo Bosne i Hercegovine/Предсједништво Босне и Херцеговине) is the head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... More than 95% of population of Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to one of its three constitutive nations: Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs. ... Every 6 months, the Great and General Council of San Marino elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. ... The Grand and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale) is the parliament of San Marino. ... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ... The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Президиум Верховного Совета СССР in Russian, or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a Soviet governmental body. ... Occident redirects here. ...

Presidents in dictatorships

In dictatorships, the title is frequently taken by self-appointed and/or military-backed leaders. Such is the case in many African states; Idi Amin in Uganda, for example. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ...


President for Life is a title assumed by some dictators to ensure that their authority or legitimacy is never questioned. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ...


Lucius Cornelius Sulla appointed himself in 82 BC to an entirely new office, dictator rei publicae constituendae causa, which was functionally identical to the dictatorate rei gerendae causa except that it lacked any set time limit, although Sulla held this office for over two years before he voluntarily abdicated and retired from public life. The second well-known incident of a leader extending his term indefinitely was Roman dictator Julius Caesar, who made himself "Perpetual Dictator" (commonly mistranslated as 'Dictator-for-life') in 45 BC. His actions would later be mimicked by the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte who was appointed "First Consul for life" in 1802. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC - 82 BC - 81 BC 80 BC 79... For the Estonian political party, see Union for the Republic - Res Publica. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français...


Ironically, most leaders who proclaim themselves President for Life do not in fact successfully serve a life term. Even so presidents like Alexandre Sabès dit Pétion, Rafael Carrera, Josip Broz Tito and François Duvalier died in office. Alexandre Sabès Pétion (April 2, 1770 – March 29, 1818) was President of the southern Republic of Haiti from 1806 until his death. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tito redirects here. ... Dr. François Duvalier, known as Papa Doc (April 14, 1907 – April 21, 1971[1]), was the President of Haiti from 1957 and later dictator (President for Life) from 1964 until his death. ...


The last living person to be officially proclaimed president for life was the late Saparmurat Niyazov of Turkmenistan. Saparmyrat Ataýewiç Nyýazow (February 19, 1940, Gypjak, Turkmen SSR, Soviet Union – 21 December 2006), also commonly known by the romanization Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov of the Russian spelling Сапармурат Атаевич Ниязов of his Turkmen name, served as the head of state of Turkmenistan from 1985 until his death in 2006. ...


Several presidents have ruled until their death, but they have not officially proclaimed themselves as President for Life. For instance, Nicolae Ceauşescu of Romania, who ruled until his execution (see Romanian revolution). Archbishop President Makarios became president of Cyprus late in his life (in 1960) and ruled until his death in 1977, having successfully won re-election several times. Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989, when a revolution and coup removed him from power. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... Makarios III (Greek: Μακάριος Γ`; born Mihalis Christodoulou Mouskos (Greek: Μιχαήλ Χριστοδούλου Μούσκος), August 13, 1913 – August 3, 1977) was the archbishop and primate of the autocephalous Cypriot Orthodox Church (1950-1977) and first President of the Republic of Cyprus (1960-1977). ... The President of Cyprus is the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Cyprus. ... This article is about the political process. ...


Presidential symbols

As the country's head of state, in most countries the president is entitled to certain symidents, have a prestigious residence; often a lavish mansion or palace, sometimes more than one (e.g. summer and winter residence, country retreat) - for a list see Official residence. // An official residence is the residence at which heads of state, heads of government, gubernatorial or other senior figures officially reside. ...


Furthermore in some nations the Presidency enjoys certain symbols of office, such as an official uniform, decorations, a presidential seal, coat of arms, flag and other visible accessories; military honours such as gun salutes, Ruffles and flourishes, and a presidential guard. A common presidential symbol is the presidential sashes worn by Latin American presidents as a symbol of the presidency's continuity, and presenting the sash to the new president. As other countries followed the American Revolution, and deposed their monarchies, president was commonly adopted as the title for the new republican heads of state. The first European president was the president of France, a post created in the Second Republic of 1848. (The First Republic had begun with no separate executive, then established five directors, and finally echoed the ancient Roman Republic by appointing three consuls at its head.) A salute is a gesture or other action used to indicate respect. ... Ruffles and flourishes are preceding fanfare for ceremonial music for distinguished people. ... A presidential sash is a cloth sash worn by the presidents of many nations in the world. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... The French Second Republic (often simply Second Republic) was the republican regime of France from February 25, 1848 to December 2, 1852. ... The French people proclaimed Frances First Republic on 21 September 1792 as a result of the French Revolution and of the abolition of the French monarchy. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... This article is about the Roman rank. ...


Presidential ranks

Below a President, there can be a number of vice-presidents. This rank does not hold the same power, but power can be transferred in special circumstances. Normally Vice-Presidents do hold power and special responsibilities below that of the President.


Sub-national presidents

President can also be the title of the chief executive at a lower administrative level, such as the parish presidents of the parishes of the U.S. state of Louisiana, the presiding member of city council for villages in the U.S. state of Illinois, or the municipal presidents of Mexico's municipalities. Perhaps the best known sub-national presidents are the borough presidents of the Five Boroughs of New York City. Parish Hall of St. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. State. ... A presidente municipal (Spanish for municipal president) is the chief of government of municipios in Mexico. ... A municipio (Spanish for municipality) is a second-level political and administrative division in Mexico. ... Borough President is an elective office in New York City. ... The Five Boroughs redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Non-governmental presidents

President is also used as a title in some non-governmental organizations.


Judiciary

France

In French legal terminology, the president of a court consisting of multiple judges is the foremost judge; he chairs the meeting of the court and directs the debates (and this thus addressed as "Mr President", Monsieur le Président, or appropriate feminine forms). In general, a court comprises several chambers, each with its own president; thus the most senior of these is called the "first president" (as in: "the First President of the Court of Cassation is the most senior judge in France"). Similarly in English legal practice the most senior judge in each division uses this title (e.g. President of the Family Division, President of the Court of Appeal). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ...


Scotland

The Lord President of the Court of Session is head of the judiciary in Scotland, and presiding judge (and Senator) of the College of Justice and Court of Session, as well as being Lord Justice General of Scotland and head of the High Court of Justiciary, the offices having been combined in 1836. The Lord President of the Court of Session is head of the judiciary in Scotland and presiding judge of the College of Justice and Court of Session. ... This article is about the country. ... The College of Justice is a term used to describe the supreme courts of Scotland and its associated bodies. ... The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. ... Seal of the High Court of Justiciary © Crown Copyright The High Court of Justiciary is Scotlands supreme criminal court. ...


Other

The head of a university or non-profit corporation, particularly in the United States of America, is often known as president. In university systems with multiple independent campuses, the relationship between the roles of president and chancellor can become quite complicated. President is also a title in many corporations. In some cases the president acts as chief operating officer under the direction of the chief executive officer. For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... University President is the title of the highest ranking officer within a university, within university systems that prefer that appellation over other variations such as Chancellor or rector. ... A Chancellor is the head of a university. ... A Chief Operating Officer (COO) is a corporate officer responsible for managing the day-to-day activities of the corporation. ... Chief Executive redirects here. ...


In British constitutional practice, the chairman of an Executive Council, acting in such a capacity, is known as a President of the Executive Council. Usually this person is the Governor but is not always so. An Executive Council in Commonwealth constitutional practice based on the Westminster system exercizes executive power and is the top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or Administrator (all governors). Until the advent of responsible government, Executive Councils existed primarily to advise the governor of... A President of the Executive Council is the presiding officer of an Executive Council, in Commonwealth constitutional practice. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ...


Many other organisations, clubs, and committees, both political and non-political are led by Presidents as well. Examples can vary from the President of a political party, to the president of a chamber of commerce, to the President of a students' union and even the president of a high school chess club. A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Chambers of commerce are business advocacy groups which are usually not associated with government. ... A students union, student government, student senate, students association, or guild of students is a student organization present in many colleges and universities. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ...


In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the head of the church is known as the President. Together with his two counselors, they are known as the First Presidency. This pattern is repeated throughout the church in quorums and in other bodies, each of which is led by a president. The Methodist Church in the UK (and also other provinces) is led by the President of the Methodist Council, and assumes the role of leading minister and spokesperson. For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... In the Latter Day Saint movement, the President of the Church is generally considered to be the highest office of the church. ... In the Latter Day Saint movement, the First Presidency (or the Quorum of the Presidency of the Church) was the highest governing body in the Latter Day Saint church established by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... A Quorum is a body (group) of those ordained the same office of the priesthood. ... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. ...


Presidential chronologies of United Nations member countries

UN redirects here. ... The President of the European Commission is the nominally highest ranking unelected official within the European Union. ... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... An approximately chronological list of leaders of the Soviet Union (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union). ... List of Heads of State (Presidents, Directors and Dictators, etc. ... The following table contains a list of the individuals who have served as president of Bolivia. ... List of Heads of State of Botswana (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- Sources http://www. ... List of Heads of State of Burkina Faso (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- See Also:- Burkina Faso Heads of Government of Burkina Faso Colonial Heads of Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) Lists of Incumbents Categories: Burkina Faso | Lists of office-holders ... List of Rulers and Heads of State of Burundi (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Kingdom of Burundi Republic of Burundi Affiliations:- See also:- Burundi Heads of Government of Burundi Colonial Heads of Burundi Colonial Heads of Burundi (Urundi) Colonial Heads of Burundi (Ruanda-Urundi) Lists of... List of Heads of State of Cameroon (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- See also:- Cameroon Politics of Cameroon Heads of Government of Cameroon Colonial Heads of Cameroon British Cameroon Heads of Government of British Cameroon Colonial Heads of French Cameroon Heads of Government of French... List of Heads of State of Cape Verde Affiliations:- See also:- Cape Verde Heads of Government of Cape Verde Colonial Heads of Cape Verde List of political parties in Cape Verde lists of incumbents Categories: Cape Verde | Lists of office-holders ... List of Heads of State of Central African Republic and Central African Empire (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- See also:- Central African Republic Central African Empire Heads of Government of the Central African Republic (and Central African Empire) Colonial Heads of Central Africa Lists of... List of Heads of State of Chad (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- See also:- Chad Heads of Government of Chad Colonial Heads of Chad lists of incumbents Categories: Lists of office-holders ... Flag of the President of Chile The President of Chile is both the chief of state and the head of government. ... Holders of the post of President of Comoros. ... The current head of state in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaïre, is the interim president, Joseph Kabila. ... List of Heads of State of the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- See also Congo Republic of the Congo Heads of government of the Republic of the Congo Lists of office-holders This article is a stub. ... Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office. ... The President of Cyprus is the countrys head of state. ... Flag of the President of the Czech Republic This is a list of presidents of the Czech Republic. ... List of Heads of State of Djibouti Affiliations:- See also:- Djibouti Heads of Government of Djibouti French Territory of Afars and Issas (FTAI) French Somaliland Colonial Heads of Djibouti (French Somaliland) Lists of Incumbents Categories: Lists of office-holders ... Juan José Flores 1830-1834 Vicente Rocafuerte 1834-1839 Juan José Flores 1839-1845 José Joaquín de Olmedo 1845 Vicente Ramón Roca 1845-1849 Manuel de Ascásubi 1849-1850 Diego Noboa 1850-1851 José María Urbina 1851-1856 Francisco Robles 1856-1859 Gabriel García 1859... This page lists the rulers and heads of state of Egypt since 1805. ... List of Heads of State of Equatorial Guinea (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- See also:- Equatorial Guinea Heads of Government of Equatorial Guinea Colonial Heads of Equatorial Guinea (Fernando Póo/Spanish Guinea) Lists of Incumbents Categories: Lists of office-holders | Equatorial Guinea ... List of Heads of State of Eritrea (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Political Affiliations See also Eritrea Heads of Government of Eritrea Provincial Heads of Eritrea Lists of incumbents Categories: Lists of office-holders | Eritrea ... Fiji became a republic in 1987, when Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom formally abdicated as Queen of Fiji, following two military coups led by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka. ... The President of Finland (Suomen Tasavallan Presidentti, Republiken Finlands President) is the Head of State in Finland. ... List of Heads of State of Gabon (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Sources http://www. ... List of Heads of State of The Gambia (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- Sources http://www. ... The Federal President (German: Bundespräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... Prior to independence Ghana was the British Gold Coast colony. ... This is a list of the Presidents of Greece. ... List of Heads of State of Guinea (Dates in italics indicated de facto continuation of office) For Colonial Heads prior to independence, see: Colonial Heads of Guinea See also Guinea Heads of Government of Guinea Colonial Heads of Guinea lists of incumbents Categories: Guinea | Lists of office-holders ... List of Heads of State of Guinea-Bissau (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) See also Guinea-Bissau Heads of Government of Guinea-Bissau Colonial Heads of Portuguese Guinea Colonial Heads of Bissau Colonial Heads of Cacheu lists of incumbents List of national leaders Categories: Lists of... This page lists presidents and other heads of state of Haiti. ... This page lists presidents of Honduras. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... List of Presidents of Iceland Sveinn Björnsson (1944-1952) Ásgeir Ásgeirsson (1952-1968) Kristján Eldjárn (1968-1980) Vigdís Finnbogadóttir (1980-1996) Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson (1996-present) See also: Politics of Iceland, list of Prime Ministers of Iceland, list of Icelandic rulers, lists of incumbents... The President of India is the ceremonial head of state of India and the supreme commander of the Indian armed forces. ... The President of Ireland (Irish: Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland. ... List of the Heads of State of Kenya See also Kenya Heads of Government of Kenya Colonial Heads of Kenya lists of incumbents Categories: Kenya | Lists of office-holders ... The following is a list of Presidents of the Republic of Liberia, made up of the 24 heads of state in the history of Liberia. ... Early Lithuania The Grand Duchy of Lithuania Title: Kunigaikštis or Didysis Kunigaikštis (The Great Duke in Lithuanian) Mindaugas, 1238-1263 also crowned as a King Treniota, 1263-1264 Vaišvilkas (Vaišelga, Vaishyalga, Vaišalgas), 1264-1267 Švarnas (Svarnas, Shvarno), 1267-1269 Traidenis, 1269-1281 Daumantas, 1281-1285 Butigeidis, 1285-1291 Butvydas, 1291... This page contains a list of presidents of Madagascar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... List of Heads of State of Mali Affiliations:- ADM = Adema Alliance pour la Démocratie en Mali-Parti Pan-Africain pour la Liberté, la Solidarité et la Justice (Alliance for Democracy in Mali-Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity and Justice) -centrist CCD = Coalition for Change and Democracy PARENA = Party... This page contains a list of Presidents and Heads of State of Mauritania. ... The President of Montenegro is the head of state of the Republic of Montenegro. ... List of Heads of State of Mozambique The official residence is the Palácio da Ponta Vermelha. ... List of Presidents of Nicaragua list may not be complete José Núñez 1839 Evaristo Rocha 1839 Patricio Rivas 1839 Joaquín del Cosío 1839 Hilario Ulloa 1839 Tomás Valladares 1839-1840 Patricio Rivas 1840-1841 Pablo Buitrago 1841-1843 Juan de Dios Orozco 1843 Manuel Pérez... This page contains a list of presidents of Niger. ... The President of Pakistan is Pakistans Head of State. ... This page lists presidents of Panama since 1903. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... This is a list of Presidents of Romania: Note: The official function of President of Romania did not exist until March 1974. ... List of Heads of State of São Tomé and Príncipe Affiliations:- See also:- São Tomé and Príncipe Heads of Government of São Tomé and Príncipe Presidents of the Regional Government of Príncipe Colonial Heads of São Tomé and Príncipe Lists of... List of Heads of Government of Sierra Leone (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations See also Sierra Leone List of Presidents of Sierra Leone Politics of Sierra Leone lists of incumbents Categories: Sierra Leone ... Flag of the President of Slovenia Presidents of Slovenia: Milan Kučan (1990-2002) Janez DrnovÅ¡ek (2002-2007) Categories: Lists of office-holders ... This is a list of presidents of Somaliland. ... The President of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ... The following is a list of Sri Lankan presidents. ... This page contains a list of presidents and other heads of state of Sudan. ... The President of Tajikistan is the Head of State and highest position within the Government of Tajikistan. ... List of Presidents of Venezuela José Antonio Páez (1830-1835) José María Vargas (1835-1837) Carlos Soublette (1837-1839) José Antonio Páez (1839-1843) Carlos Soublette (1843-1847) José Tadeo Monagas (1847-1851) José Gregorio Monagas (1851-1855) José Tadeo Monagas (1855-1858) Julián Castro (1858...

Sources and additional reading

  • The powers, functions and functioning of presidents were reviewed by six international experts for Australia's Republic Advisory Committee in 1993. Reports by among others Professor Klaus Von Beyme (on Germany), A. G. Noorani (on India), Jim Duffy (on Ireland) and Sir Ellis Clarke (on Trinidad and Tobago) outline the role of various presidencies. The full report is called An Australian Republic: The Options - The Appendices (ISBN 0-644-32589-5)

The Republic Advisory Committee was a committee established by the then Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating in May 1993 to examine the constitutional and legal issues that would arise were Australia to become a republic. ... Jim Duffy (born 12 April 1966) is an Irish historian, political commentator and author. ... Sir Ellis Emmanuel Innocent Clarke, TC, GCMG (born December 28, 1917) was the second and last Governor-General of Trinidad and Tobago and the first President of Trinidad and Tobago. ...

See also

Basic topics in political science include: // Nature of political science Main article: Political science Branches of political science Bold textBold text== History of political science == Main article: History of political science Basic political science concepts Political science scholars Leaders in political science Political science lists Main article: List of... The following is a list of chief executive officers (CEOs) by company. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... An Alcalde-Presidente is an Alcalde (Spanish for municipal Mayor) who also functions as President(e) of a higher administrative level. ... A minister-president (Ministerpräsident) is the head of government of a German federal state; the office corresponds to the governorship of a state in the United States. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This is a list of state leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... World empire redirects here. ... Presidents Day (or Presidents Day), is the common name for the federal holiday officially designated as Linclon Birthday, and both variants are among the official names of a number of coinciding state holidays. ... The title Mr. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... The term Sultana is used for a few Muslim women rulers in history. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ...

References

  1. ^ OED, s. v.
OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

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