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Encyclopedia > Prescription drug

A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. The term is used to distinguish it from over-the-counter drugs which can be obtained without a prescription. Different jurisdictions have different definitions of what constitutes a prescription drug. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 674 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1223 × 1088 pixel, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Two bottles of the antidepressant Zoloft (sertraline HCl), with 50mg and 25mg pills. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 674 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1223 × 1088 pixel, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Two bottles of the antidepressant Zoloft (sertraline HCl), with 50mg and 25mg pills. ... Sertraline hydrochloride (Zoloft®, Lustral®, Apo-Sertral®, Asentra®, Gladem®, Serlift®, Stimuloton®) is an orally administered antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) type. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant, is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Anxiety is an unpleasant complex combination of emotions that includes fear, apprehension and worry, and is often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, nausea, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ...


Dispensation of prescription drugs often includes a package insert (in Europe, a Patient Information Leaflet or PIL) that gives detailed information about the drug. A package insert or patient package insert (PPI) (in Europe, Patient Information Leaflet) is a document provided along with a prescription medication to provide additional information about that drug. ...

Contents

Regulation in United States

In the United States, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act defines what requires a prescription. Prescription drugs are generally authorized by veterinarians, dentists, optometrists, physicians and nurse practitioners, though physician assistants do an increasing amount of drug prescribing under a physician's supervision. It is generally required that an MD, DO, DPM, NP, DVM, DDS, DMD, OD, or PA write the prescription; basic-level registered nurses (as opposed to advanced practice nurses such as a nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, nurse anesthetist, and nurse midwife), emergency medical technicians, psychologists (but not psychiatrists, who are physicians), and social workers as examples, do not have the authority to prescribe drugs. The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. ... A nurse practitioner is a registered nurse who has completed specific advanced nursing education (generally a masters degree) and training in the diagnosis and management of common medical conditions. ... In the United States, a Physician Assistant (PA) is a health care professional licensed to practice medicine with the supervision of a licensed physician (either an M.D. or D.O.) [1] PAs are not to be confused with medical assistants, who perform administrative and clinical tasks in hospitals and... Advanced Practice Nurses (APN), also known as Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs), are Registered Nurses with advanced education, knowledge, skills, and scope of practice. ... A nurse practitioner is a registered nurse who has completed specific advanced nursing education (generally a masters degree) and training in the diagnosis and management of common medical conditions. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A nurse anesthetist (AE) is a registered nurse and advanced practice nurse who has acquired additional education and training to administer anesthesia. ... In the United States, a nurse midwife is an advanced practice nurse who has specialized in the practice of obstetrical and gynecological care of relatively healthy women. ...


Unlike most other countries, the United States does not have governmental control of prescription drug prices, and US drug prices are usually viewed as very expensive in comparison to those countries who do. For those with health insurance, many health insurance programs (generally paid partially or in full by the patient's employer) have prescription payment plans where the patient pays only a small copayment and the pharmacy is reimbursed for the remaining cost by the insurance company using the premiums collected from all of the insured individuals and their employers. The uninsured typically must pay whatever higher drug price their local pharmacy charges. Some indigent people can get assistance through publicly funded drug assistance programs such as Medicaid or private support through drug company prescription assistance programs. A copayment, or copay, is a flat dollar amount paid for a medical service by an insured. ... Medicaid is the US health insurance program for individuals and families with low incomes and resources. ...


The safety and effectiveness of prescription drugs in the US is regulated by the federal Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987. The Food and Drug Administration is charged with implementing this law. The FDA, being an arm of the federal government, however, often decides to approve a drug or not based on political motivations. The Prescription Drug Marketing Act (PDMA) of 1987 (P.L. 100-293, 102 Stat. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


As a general rule, over the counter drugs are used to treat conditions not necessarily requiring care from a health care provider and will have been proven to meet higher safety standards for self-medication by patients. Often a lower dosage of a drug will be approved for OTC use, while higher dosages will remain the province of a prescription; a notable case is ibuprofen, which has been widely available as an OTC pain killer since the mid-1980s but is still available in doses up to four times the OTC dose for use in cases of severe orthopedic pain. Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Nurofen and since under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Dorival, Herron Blue, Panafen, Motrin, Nuprin and Ipren or Ibumetin (Sweden), Ibuprom (Poland), IbuHEXAL, Moment (Italy... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ...


Herbal preparations, vitamins, minerals, and food supplements are not regulated by the FDA, so the individual consumer must be aware of the potentially-negative effects of using these preparations and also the potential interactions with prescription drugs they may be taking. Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ...


In the United States, the term "prescription drug" is most commonly used, but they are also called legend drugs or Rx-only drugs, after the requirements of Federal and state laws that all such drugs bear a "legend" prohibiting sale without a prescription; though more complex legends have been used, on most original drug packaging today the legend simply says "Rx only". In the United Kingdom, they are referred to as Prescription Only Medicine or POM. Look up Rx in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Regulation in United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, a patient visits a general practitioner who is able to prescribe medicines. If given an NHS prescription, this can be taken to a pharmacy to be dispensed. District nurses and health visitors have had limited prescribing rights since the mid-nineties where prescription for dressings and simple medicines would have had to have been signed by a doctor. Extended prescribing was introduced in late 1999, where appropriately trained nurses could prescribe from a limited list of POMs. From 2006, some nurses and pharmacists will be permitted to prescribe all medicines in the British National Formulary, except controlled drugs directly. Each item on the prescription is liable to a prescription charge in England and Scotland of £6.85 (as of April 2007), although many patients are exempt from this charge. This includes those over 60, under 16 (or under 19 if in full-time education), patients with certain medical conditions and those on certain benefits. However in Wales prescription charges are free for all.


An HC2 certificate can be applied for — although not automatically granted — by those on a low income or in receipt of incapacity benefit. Claimants of "Jobseekers" and "Income support" automatically receive free prescriptions and dentistry.


Those requiring regular prescriptions may make a saving by purchasing a pre-payment certificate which covers the cost of all prescriptions required for four months or a year. This charge is paid entirely to the NHS through the pharmacy, while the pharmacy claims the cost of the medicine dispensed. Each "item" can cover any prescribed item in a very large or very small quantity according to the doctor's prescription. This means that the patients perceived "value" of the charge varies enormously - the actual cost of the medicine given out will routinely vary from a few pence to hundreds of pounds.


The majority of items dispensed on NHS prescription are exempt from charges. This is because of the large number of medicines needed by, for example, the elderly or those with medical exemptions. NHS prescriptions can also be written for certain items by dentists and nurses. Some patients also receive private prescriptions, typically either from a doctor seen privately or for medicine not permitted on the NHS. For these, the patient will pay the pharmacy directly for the cost of the medicine and the pharmacy's markup.


The devolved legislature in Wales has decided to phase out prescription charges altogether; this process is expected to be completed during 2007. In January 2006, similar proposals were made by the health committee of the Scottish Parliament; however, these were rejected by Health Minister Andy Kerr on the grounds that "Executive policy remains that it is right that patients who can afford to should continue to contribute towards NHS dispensing costs". This article is about the country. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Andy Kerr (born 17 March 1962, East Kilbride, South Lanarkshire) is a Labour Member of the Scottish Parliament for East Kilbride constituency, a seat which he has held since 1999. ...


See also

The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... A package insert or patient package insert (PPI) (in Europe, Patient Information Leaflet) is a document provided along with a prescription medication to provide additional information about that drug. ... A pill-splitter holding a tablet of Seroquel. ...

Further reading

Wikinews has related news:
Partnership for a Drug-Free America study finds 1 in 5 teens abused prescription drugs
  • The Optimal Level of Regulation in the Pharmaceutical Industry (Yale Economic Review)
  • Jerry Avorn, Powerful Medicines: The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Prescription Drugs, Random House (2004), hardcover, 448 pages, ISBN 0-375-41483-5
  • Prescription drugs find place in teen culture in USA Today, June 12, 2006

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
PA-04-110: PRESCRIPTION DRUG ABUSE (6200 words)
To reduce prescription drug abuse, research is needed on prevention approaches, service delivery, and behavioral and pharmaco- therapies targeted to particular populations (e.g., the elderly, women, adolescents, health professionals, and those with comorbid substance abuse and mental health disorders and/or medical disorders).
Older adults may be more vulnerable to prescription drug abuse because of age- related physiological changes that may influence the metabolism and response to prescription drugs, greater likelihood of having undiagnosed psychiatric and medical comorbidities, and difficulties in compliance with complex multiple drug regimens that may increase the likelihood of drug interactions.
Treatment studies are needed to develop and evaluate behavioral therapies and combined behavioral and pharmaco-therapies for prescription drug abuse, with particular attention to populations at highest risk (adolescents, women, patients with comorbid psychiatric and/or physical illness, the elderly, and those with a history of polydrug abuse).
Prescription drug - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (600 words)
A prescription drug (or POM Prescription Only Medicine, in UK) is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained.
Prescription drugs are generally authorized by doctors, though nurse practitioners do an increasing amount of drug prescribing.
Each item on the prescription is liable to a prescription charge of £6.65 (as of April 2006), although many patients are exempt from this charge.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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