FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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Encyclopedia > Prescientific system

Prescientific systems are approaches to scientific fields such as medicine or astronomy that evolved before the natural sciences established their modern standards of methodological work and theoretical understanding. Support for the system was largely anecdotal, and objective testing procedures were often lacking. This article is about the field of medical practice and health care. ... Radio telescopes are among many different tools used by astronomers Astronomy (Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος, astronomia = astron + nomos, literally, law of the stars) is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ...


"Prescientific" is a term that can be used to judge the historical significance of a phenomena, whether it be a body of alleged knowledge, methodology, belief or practice. As such its usefulness as a term is limited to discussing the history of a phenomena, and does not accurately describe the phenomena's present day status.

Contents


Historical paths

A prescientific phenomena can follow at least one of three paths leading to extremely different conclusions:

  1. It can be scientifically validated and accepted, becoming a part of scientifically accepted fact. In medicine, such phenomena often start as traditional medicine, or "alternative" medicine, and end up becoming evidence based medicine (EBM).
  2. It can be disproven and rejected after much experimentation shows negative results. Such phenomena are relegated to the history books as historic artifacts.
  3. It can, in spite of a lack of scientific validation - and even in spite of clear rejection - be preserved and believed, thus becoming a current pseudoscientific phenomena. In medicine, such phenomena are often labeled quackery by the medical community and skeptics.

The term traditional medicine is used with two main meanings. ... Alternative medicine describes practices used in place of conventional medical treatments. ... Evidence-based medicine is a medical movement based upon the application of the scientific method to medical practice, including long-established existing medical traditions not yet subjected to adequate scientific scrutiny. ... Phrenology is regarded today as a classic example of pseudoscience. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Scientific skepticism or rational skepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) sometimes referred to as skeptical inquiry, is a scientific, or practical, epistemological position (or paradigm) in which one questions the veracity of claims unless they can be empirically tested. ...

Prescientific systems and ideas include

Acupuncture (from Lat. ... In Hinduism and in some related Asian cultures, a chakra is thought to be a nexus of metaphysical and/or biophysical energy residing in the human body. ... Chiropractic is a complementary and alternative health care profession which focuses on diagnosing, treating, and preventing mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, their effects on the nervous system, and on general health. ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... It has been suggested that Classical homeopathy be merged into this article or section. ... Lunaception is a form of birth control that depends upon the woman practicing it to align her menstrual cycle with the phases of the moon. ... Natural Hygiene is a branch of alternative medicine that claims that the human body can and will heal itself if the causes of disease are removed. ... In philosophy and religion, the word noetic, from the Greek νοῦς (nous) is usually translated as mind, understanding, intellect, or reason. Most dictionaries define the term noetic as a synonym of mental or intellectual. ... See also: Osteopathic medicine Osteopathy is a system of healthcare that applies a unique philosophy to diagnosis and treatment. ... The term traditional medicine is used with two main meanings. ... The vertebral column seen from the side The current chiropractic definition of a vertebral subluxation is a complex of functional and/or structural and/or pathological articular changes that compromise neural integrity and may influence organ system function and general health. ...

References

    See also

    Alternative medicine describes practices used in place of conventional medical treatments. ... Plato and Aristotle, by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Phrenology is regarded today as a classic example of pseudoscience. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Science in the broadest sense refers to any knowledge or system of knowledge, attained by verifiable means. ... It has been suggested that Magical thinking be merged into this article or section. ...

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