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Encyclopedia > Presbyterianism
Part of a series on
Calvinism
(see also Portal)
John Calvin

Background
Christianity
St. Augustine
The Reformation
Five Solas
Synod of Dort
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers basic beliefs and emphasis in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. ... xxx cciiiox The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618/19, by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy in the Dutch churches initiated by the rise of Arminianism. ...

Distinctives
Five Points (TULIP)
Covenant Theology
Regulative principle
The Five points of Calvinism, sometimes called the doctrines of grace and remembered in the English-speaking world with the mnemonic TULIP, are a summary of the judgments (or canons) rendered by the Synod of Dordt reflecting the Calvinist understanding of the nature of divine grace and predestination as it... Covenant Theology is not to be confused with the Covenanters For Covenantal Theology in the Roman Catholic perspective, see Covenantal Theology (Roman Catholic). ... The regulative principle of worship is a Christian theological doctrine teaching that the public worship of God should include those and only those elements that are instituted, commanded, or appointed by command or example in the Bible; that God institutes in Scripture everything he requires for worship in the Church...

Documents
Calvin's Institutes
Confessions of faith
Geneva Bible
Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvins seminal work on Protestant theology. ... The Reformed churches express their consensus of faith in various creeds. ... The Geneva Bible was a Protestant translation of the Bible into English. ...

Influences
Theodore Beza
John Knox
Huldrych Zwingli
Jonathan Edwards
Princeton theologians
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703- March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher and theologian. ... The Princeton theology is a tradition of conservative, Christian, Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Seminary, in Princeton, New Jersey. ...

Churches
Reformed
Presbyterian
Congregationalist
Reformed Baptist
-1... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct Christian denomination, but instead is a description of the churchs theological leaning. ...

Peoples
Afrikaner Calvinists
Huguenots
Pilgrims
Puritans
Scots
Afrikaner Calvinism is, according to theory, a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking people of South Africa. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Scotland, in common with the rest of the United Kingdom, is traditionally a Christian nation with around 70% claiming to be Christian. ...

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Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. Hallmarks include Calvinist theology and the presbyterian form of church governance. A form of Calvinism, Presbyterianism evolved primarily in Scotland before the Act of Union in 1707. Most of the few Presbyteries found in England can trace a Scottish connection. Although some modern adherents still hold to the theology of Calvin and his immediate successors, there is a wide range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Presbyterian governance of a church is typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... This article is about the country. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ...


Modern Presbyterianism traces its institutional roots back to the Scottish Reformation. Local congregations are governed by Presbyteries made up of representatives of the congregation, a conciliar approach which is found at other levels of decision-making (Kirk Session and General Assembly). Theoretically, there are no bishops in Presbyterianism; however, some groups in Eastern Europe, and in ecumenical groups, do have bishops. The office of elder is another distinctive mark of Presbyterianism: these are specially commissioned non-clergy who take part in local pastoral care and decision-making at all levels. John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... A presbytery can be the residence of one or more presbyters, priests, or religious elders; an area of a church or cathedral reserved for priests; the collective college of priests in a diocese, archdiocese, or prelature; the local unit in the polity of a Presbyterian church, consisting of presbyters (i. ... Presbyterian governance of a church is typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... General assembly could be: The United Nations General Assembly General Assembly (presbyterian church), a supreme governing body, such as the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland See also List of Christian denominations#Presbyterian and Reformed Churches The General Assembly of Unitarian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... A religious elder (in Greek, πρεσβυτερος [presbyteros]) is valued for his or her wisdom, in part for their age, on the grounds that the older one is then the more one is likely to know. ...


The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the European Reformation of the 16th century, with the example of John Calvin's Geneva being particularly influential. Most Reformed churches who trace their history back to Britain are either Presbyterian or Congregationalist in government. Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, a high regard for the authority of the Bible, and an emphasis on the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ...


In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians have played an important role in the Ecumenical Movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions, especially in the World Alliance of Reformed Churches. Some Presbyterian Churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans, Anglicans, and Methodists. However, others are more conservative, holding rigid interpretations of traditional doctrines and shunning, for the most part, relations with non-Reformed bodies. The word ecumenism is derived from the Greek oikoumene, which means the inhabited world. The term is usually used with regard to movements toward religious unity. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... The World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) is a fellowship of more than 200 churches with roots in the 16th-century Reformation. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ...

Contents

History of Presbyterianism

An Irish version of the Presbyterian burning bush logo, first used in 1583.

Presbyterian denominations derive their name from the Greek word presbuteros (πρεσβύτερος), which means "elder." (Presbyterian church in Acts 14:23, 20:17, Titus 1:5). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Burning bush at St. ...


Among the early church fathers, it was noted that the offices of elder and bishop were identical, and weren't differentiated until later, and that plurality of elders was the norm for church government. St. Jerome (347-420) "In Epistle Titus", vol. iv, said, "Elder is identical with bishop, and before parties multiplied under diabolical influence, Churches were governed by a council of elders." This observation was also made by Chrysostom (349-407) in "Homilia i, in Phil. i, 1" and Theodoret (393-457) in "Interpret ad. Phil. iii", 445. For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... For other uses see: Jerome (disambiguation) Jerome (about 340 - September 30, 420), (full name Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus) is best known as the translator of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin. ... John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... Theodoret (393 – c. ...


Presbyterianism was first described in detail by Martin Bucer of Strasbourg, who believed that the early Christian church implemented presbyterian polity.[1] The first modern implementation was by the Geneva church under the leadership of John Calvin in 1541.[1] Martin Bucer Martin Bucer (or Butzer, Latin Martinus Buccer, Martinus Bucerus ) (November 11, 1491 – February 28, 1551) was a German Protestant reformer. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Presbyterian governance of a church is typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ...


Presbyterianism by Region[2]

Scotland

John Knox (1505-1572), a Scot who had spent time studying under Calvin in Geneva, returned to Scotland and led the Parliament of Scotland to embrace the Reformation in 1560 (see Scottish Reformation Parliament). The Church of Scotland was eventually reformed along Presbyterian lines, to become the national, established Church of Scotland. This article is about the country. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... The Scottish Reformation Parliament is the name given to the Scottish Parliament commencing in 1560 that passed the major pieces of legislation leading to the Scottish Reformation, most importantly Confession of Faith Ratification Act 1560 and Papal Jurisdiction Act 1560. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ...


The Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the Acts of Union 1707 between Scotland and England guaranteed the Church of Scotland's form of government. However, legislation by the United Kingdom parliament allowing patronage led to splits in the Church, notably the Disruption of 1843 which led to the formation of the Free Church of Scotland. Further splits took place, especially over theological issues, but most Presbyterians in Scotland were reunited by 1929 union of the established Church of Scotland and the United Free Church of Scotland. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... ... In one sense the Free Church of Scotland dated its existence from the Disruption of 1843, in another it claimed to be the rightful representative of the national Church of Scotland as it was reformed in 1560. ... The Free Church of Scotland (1843-1900) was a Scottish denomination formed by the withdrawal of a large section of the established Church of Scotland in a schism known as the Disruption of 1843. ... The United Free Church of Scotland (or ‘U.F. Church’) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination formed in 1900 by the union of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (or U.P.) and the Free Church of Scotland, which in turn united with the Church of Scotland in 1929. ...


England

In England, Presbyterianism was established in secret in 1572. Thomas Cartwright is thought to be the first Presbyterian in England. Cartwright's controversial lectures at Cambridge University condemning the episcopal hierarchy of the Elizabethan Church led to his deprivation of his post by Archbishop John Whitgift and his emigration abroad. In 1647, by an act of the Long Parliament under the control of Puritans, the Church of England permitted Presbyterianism. The re-establishment of the monarchy in 1660 brought the return of Episcopal church government in England (and in Scotland for a short time); but the Presbyterian church in England continued in non-conformity, outside of the established church. By the 19th century many English Presbyterian congregations had become Unitarian in doctrine. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Thomas Cartwright (c. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... John Whitgift (c. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ... Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ...


A number of new Presbyterian Churches were founded by Scottish immigrants to England in the 19th century and later. Following the 'Disruption' in 1843 many of those linked to the Church of Scotland eventually joined what became the Presbyterian Church of England in 1876. Some, that is Crown Court (Covent Garden, London), St Andrew's (Stepney, London)) and Swallow Street (London), did not join the English denomination, which is why there are Church of Scotland congregations in England such as those at Crown Court, and St Columba's, Pont Street (Knightsbridge) in London. This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A Scottish Presbyterian congregation was first established in London during the reign of King James I of England and VI of Scots, following the Union of the Crowns in 1603. ... St Columbas Church is one of the two London congregations of the Church of Scotland. ...


In 1972, the Presbyterian Church of England (PCofE) united with the Congregational Church in England and Wales to form the United Reformed Church (URC). Among the congregations the PCofE brought to the URC were Tunley (Lancashire) , Aston Tirrold (Oxfordshire) and John Knox Presbyterian Church, Stepney, London (now part of Stepney Meeting House URC) - these are among the sole survivors today of the English Presbyterian churches of the 17th century. The URC also has a presence in Scotland, mostly of former Congregationalist Churches. Two former Presbyterian congregations, St Columba's, Cambridge (founded in 1879), and St Columba's, Oxford (founded as a chaplaincy by the PCofE and the Church of Scotland in 1908 and as a congregation of the PCofE in 1929), continue as congregations of the URC and university chaplaincies of the Church of Scotland. Logo of The United Reformed Church The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian denomination (church) in the United Kingdom. ... Aston Tirrold is a village and civil parish in the South Oxfordshire district of Oxfordshire, about four miles south-east of Didcot. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ...


In recent years a number of smaller denominations adopting Presbyterian forms of church government have organised in England, including the International Presbyterian Church planted by evangelical theologian Francis Schaeffer of L'Abri Fellowship in the 1970s, and the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales founded in the North of England in the late 1980s. Francis A. Schaeffer (30 January 1912 – 15 May 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ... LAbri (from the French word meaning shelter) is an evangelical Christian organization founded by Francis Schaeffer and his wife Edith in Huemoz, Switzerland on June 5, 1955. ... Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales is a reformed Church in the United Kingdom. ...


Wales

In Wales Presbyterianism is represented by the Presbyterian Church of Wales, which was originally composed largely of Calvinistic Methodists. This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... The Presbyterian church of Wales (Welsh: Eglwys Bresbyteraidd Cymru), also known as The Calvinistic Methodist Church (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Fethodistaidd Galfinaidd), is a denomination of Protestant Christianity. ... Calvinistic Methodists are a body of Christians forming the Presbyterian Church of Wales and claiming to be the only denomination of the Presbyterian order in Wales which is of purely Welsh origin. ...


Ireland

Presbyterianism was introduced by Scottish plantation settlers to Ulster having been strongly encouraged to emigrate by James VI of Scotland, later James I of England. An estimated 100,000 Scottish Presbyterians moved to the northern counties of Ireland between 1607 and the Battle of the Boyne in 1690.[citation needed] This is often presented today as an act of English imperialism.[citation needed] The Presbytery of Ulster was formed separately from the established church, in 1642. Presbyterians, along with Roman Catholics in Ulster and the rest of Ireland, suffered under the discriminatory Penal Laws until they were revoked in the early 19th century. Presbyterianism is represented in Ireland by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In the most general sense, penal is the body of laws that are enforced by the State in its own name and impose penalties for their violation, as opposed to civil law that seeks to redress private wrongs. ... Modern logo of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (or PCI) has a membership of 300,000 people in 650 congregations across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, though the bulk of the membership is in Northern Ireland. ...


North America

See also: Reformed Churches in North America
Evolution of Presbyterianism in the United States. Courtesy of the Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia, PA.

Even before Presbyterianism spread abroad from Scotland there were divisions in the larger Presbyterian family, some of which later rejoined only to separate again. In what some interpret as rueful self-reproach, some Presbyterians refer to the divided Presbyterian churches as the "Split P's". North American redirects here. ... // [edit] Presbyterian denominations in North America Presbyterian Church (USA) - around 3,650,000 members - Liberal, Presbyterian partially: United Church of Canada - around 2,800,000 members - Liberal, Presbyterian & Congregational & Methodist Presbyterian Church in America - around 312,000 members - Evangelical, Conservative, Presbyterian, Calvinistic Presbyterian Church in Canada - around 225,000 members... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x648, 88 KB) Courtesy of the Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia, PA. Description: Graphical tree describing Presbyterian denominational history in the United States Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x648, 88 KB) Courtesy of the Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia, PA. Description: Graphical tree describing Presbyterian denominational history in the United States Source: http://www. ...


In North America, because of past--or current--doctrinal differences, Presbyterian churches often overlap, with congregations of many different Presbyterian groups in any one place. The largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States is the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PC(USA)). Other Presbyterian bodies in the United States include the Presbyterian Church in America, the Orthodox Presbyterian Church, the Evangelical Presbyterian Church, the Reformed Presbyterian Church, the Bible Presbyterian Church, the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP Synod), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States (RPCUS). All the latter bodies, with perhaps the exception of the Cumberland Presbyterians, are theologically conservative and profess some degree of evangelicalism. Emblem of the PC(USA) The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) or PC(USA) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. ... The Presbyterian Church in America (PCA) is a Protestant denomination, the second largest Presbyterian church body in the United States after the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). The PCA professes a strong commitment to evangelism, missionary work, and Christian education. ... Along with Westminster Theological Seminary, the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC) was founded by conservative Presbyterians who revolted against the modernist theology within the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (PCUSA) during the 1930s. ... The Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC) is an American church body holding to presbyterian governance and Reformed theology, expressed in an orthodox, conservative vein. ... The Blue Banner logo of the RPCNA The Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America (RPCNA), a Christian church, is a small Presbyterian denomination with churches throughout the United States and some parts of Canada. ... The Bible Presbyterian Church was formed in 1939-1940, predominantly through the efforts of conservative Presbyterian clergyman Carl McIntire. ... The seal of the ARPC The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church is a small denomination, formed from the merger of the Associate (Seceder) and the Reformed Presbyterian (Covenanter) churches in Philadelphia in 1782. ... Replica of the log house in Dickson County, Tenn. ... The Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States is a branch of Presbyterianism with seventy-four churches in the United States. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ...


The territory within about a 50-mile (80 km) radius of Charlotte, North Carolina is historically the greatest concentration of Presbyterianism in the Southern U.S., while an almost-identical geographic area around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania contains probably the largest number of Presbyterians in the entire nation. With their members' traditional stress on higher education, the largest Presbyterian congregations can often be found in affluent, prestigious "uptown" suburbs of American cities. Charlotte redirects here. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ...


The PC(USA), beginning with its predecessor bodies, has, in common with other so-called "mainline" Protestant denominations, experienced a significant decline in members in recent years; some estimates have placed that loss at nearly half in the last forty years [1].


In Canada, the largest Presbyterian denomination--and indeed the largest Protestant denomination--was the Presbyterian Church in Canada, formed in 1875 with the merger of four regional groups. In 1925, the United Church of Canada was formed with the Methodist Church, Canada, and the Congregational Union of Canada. A sizable minority of Canadian Presbyterians, primarily in southern Ontario but also throughout the entire nation, withdrew, and reconstituted themselves as a non-concurring continuing Presbyterian body. They regained use of the original name in 1939. The Presbyterian Church in Canada is the name of a Christian church, of Protestant, of presbyterian, and reformed theology and polity, serving in Canada under this name since 1875. ... The United Church of Canada (French: lÉglise Unie du Canada) is Canadas second largest church (after the Roman Catholic Church), and its largest Protestant denomination. ... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ...


Latin America

Presbyterianism arrived in Latin America in the 19th century. The biggest Presbyterian church is Igreja Presbiteriana do Brasil, which has around five hundred thousand members. In total, there are more than one million Presbyterian members in all of Latin America. Some Latin Americans in North America are active in the Presbyterian Cursillo Movement. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Cursillos in Christianity (in Spanish: Cursillos de Cristiandad, from curso = course, and the diminutive ending -illo, small course of Christianity) is a ministry of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Africa

Presbyterianism arrived in Africa in the 19th century through the work of Scottish missionaries. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Asia

In South Korea, a congregation in Seoul, Myungsung Presbyterian Church, claims to be the largest Presbyterian Church in the world. Presbyterians are the largest Protestant denomination in that country, and there are many Korean Presbyterians in the United States, either with their own church sites or sharing space in pre-existing churches. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Myung Sung Prebyterian Church is currently the largest Presbyterian church in the world. ...


In the mainly Christian Indian state of Mizoram, the Presbyterian denomination is the largest denomination; it was brought to the region with missionaries from Wales in 1894. , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... This article is about the country. ...


But prior to Mizoram, the Welsh Presbyterians (missionaries) started venturing into the north-east of India through the Khasi Hills (presently located within the state of Meghalaya in India) and established Presbyterian churches all over the Khasi Hills from 1840's onwards. Hence there is a strong presence of Prebyterians in Shillong (the present capital of Meghalaya) and the areas adjoining to it .The Welsh missionaries built their first church in Cherrapunji (aka Sohra) in 1846 which is also in Meghalaya and is renowned for being the wettest place on earth.(karikor) The Khasi Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... , Shillong (Khasi Shillong) is the capital of Meghalaya, one of the smaller states in India. ... Meghalaya Cherrapunji is a town in Meghalaya, India which is credited as being one of the worlds wettest places. ... Sohra, also known as Chur(r)ra (a British Raj corruption), is one of the hima (Khasi tribal chieftainships constituting petty Khasi Hills States) in the present East Khasi Hills district of the (formerly Assamese) Indian state of Meghalaya. ...


In Taiwan, the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan has been an important supporter of the use of Taiwanese languages (as opposed to Mandarin Chinese, which has become dominant since the Nationalists fled to the island) as a consequence of its advocacy of vernacular scriptures and worship services.[2] This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ...


Oceania

In New Zealand Presbyterian is the dominant denomination in Otago and Southland due largely to the rich Scottish and to a lesser extent Ulster-Scots heritage in the region. The area around Christchurch, Canterbury, is dominated philosophically by the Anglican (Episcopalian) denomination. For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ...


Originally there were two branches of Presbyterianism in New Zealand, the northern Presbyterian church which existed in the North Island and the parts of the South Island north of the Waitaki River, and the Synod of Otago and Southland, founded by Free Church settlers in southern South Island. The two churches merged in 1901, forming what is now the Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand. The Waitaki River is a large river in the South Island of New Zealand, some 110 km long. ... The Synod of Otago and Southland is a synod of the Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand (PCANZ). ... The Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand (PCANZ) is the main Presbyterian church in the country of New Zealand. ...


In Australia Presbyterianism is the fourth largest denomination of Christianity with nearly 720,000 Australians claiming to be Presbyterian in the 2001 Commonwealth Census. Presbyterian churches were founded in each colony, some with links to the Church of Scotland and others to the Free Church, including a number founded by John Dunmore Lang. Some of these bodies merged in the 1860s. In 1901 the churches linked to the Church of Scotland in each state joined together forming the Presbyterian Church of Australia but retaining their state assemblies. John Dunmore Lang (25 August 1799 - 8 August 1878), Australian clergyman, writer, politician and activist, was the first prominent advocate of an independent Australian nation and of Australian republicanism. ... The Presbyterian Church of Australia is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Australia. ... General assembly could be: The United Nations General Assembly General Assembly (presbyterian church), a supreme governing body, such as the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland See also List of Christian denominations#Presbyterian and Reformed Churches The General Assembly of Unitarian...


In 1977, two thirds of the Presbyterian Church of Australia, along with the Congregational Union of Australia and the Methodist Church of Australasia, combined to form the Uniting Church in Australia. The majority of the other third did not join due to disagreement with the Uniting Church's liberal views, though a portion remained due to cultural attachment. The Congregational Union of Australia was a congregational denomination in Australia. ... The Methodist Church of Australiasia was a Methodist denomination based in Australia. ... Logo of the UCA The Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) was formed on June 22, 1977 when the Methodist Church of Australasia, Presbyterian Church of Australia and Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union document. ...


The Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu is the largest denomination in the country with approximately one-third of the population of Vanuatu members of the church. The PCV (Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu) is headed by a moderator with offices in Port Vila. The PCV is particularly strong in in the provinces of Tafea, Shefa, and Malampa. The Province of Sanma is mainly Presbyterian with a strong Roman Catholic minority in theFrancophone areas of the province. There are some Presbyterian people, but no organised Presbyterian churches in Penama and Torba both of which are traditionally Anglican. Vanuatu is the only country in the South Pacific with a significant Presbyterian heritage and membership. The PCV is a founding member of the Vanuatu Christian Council (VCC). The PCV runs many primary schools and Onesua secondary school. Although the church has lost several members due to the encroachment of American fundamentalist sects, the church is still strong especially in the rural villages. The PCV was taken to Vanuatu by missionaries from Scotland. Port Vila (population 29,356, coordinates ) is the capital city of Vanuatu. ... Tafea is a province of Vanuatu. ... Shefa is an arabic word (شفا) means healing or recovery. ... Malampa is a province of Vanuatu, occupying the islands of Malakula, Vao, Atchim, Ambrym and fourteen others (of which at least four are inhabited). ... Map Sanma is a province of the southern Pacific nation of Vanuatu, occupying the nations largest island, Espiritu Santo, which is located approximately 2,500 km northeast of Sydney, Australia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Penama is a province of Vanuatu, occupying the islands of Ambae, Maewo, and Pentecost. ... Torba is the northernmost province of Vanuatu, including the Banks Islands and the Torres Islands. ...

See also: List of Presbyterian denominations in Australia

Evangelical Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Church of Australia Presbyterian Church of Eastern Australia Presbyterian Reformed Church Reformed Presbyterian Church of Australia Westminster Presbyterian Church Australian Free Church Southern Presbyterian Church Categories: Presbyterianism | Christian denominations ...

Characteristics of Presbyterianism

Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization (or "church order") and worship; often using a book of order, or 'Book of Forms' to regulate common practice and order. The origins of the Presbyterian churches were in Calvinism, which is no longer emphasized in some contemporary branches. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups. Some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which historically serves as an important confessional document - second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible - in Presbyterian churches. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ...


Presbyterians place great importance upon education and continuous study of the scriptures, theological writings, and understanding and interpretation of church doctrine embodied in several statements of faith and catechisms formally adopted by various branches of the church [often referred to as 'subordinate standards'; see Doctrine (below)]. It is generally considered that the point of such learning is to enable one to put one's faith into practice; most Presbyterians generally exhibit their faith in action as well as words, by generosity, hospitality, and the constant pursuit of social justice and reform, as well as proclaiming the gospel of Christ.


In the North America, Presbyterians sometimes also lightheartedly refer to themselves as the "frozen chosen". Depending on the intentions of the speaker, it can either be taken that "frozen" indicates their reputation for order and decorum and "chosen" indicates their belief in Calvinism, or that "frozen" indicates their formality of worship and "chosen" their ersatz exclusivity. A slightly older expression is 'stiff necked Presbyterians', referring to a characteristic of careful conservative rigidity that some find stabilizing, while others deem it needlessly inflexible. These are simplified, tongue-in cheek ways of describing Presbyterian practices with respect to the more animated practices of some other Protestant denominations[3]. Ersatz is a German word literally meaning substitute or replacement. ...


Church governance

Presbyterian government is by councils (known as courts) of elders. Teaching and ruling elders are ordained and convene in the lowest council known as a session or consistory responsible for the discipline, nurture, and mission of the local congregation. Teaching elders (pastors) have responsibility for teaching, worship, and performing sacraments. Pastors are called by individual congregations. A congregation issues a call for the pastor's service, but this call must be ratified by the local presbytery. Presbyterian governance of a church is typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... A congregation is an assembly of people for a given purpose. ...


Ruling elders are usually laymen (and laywomen in some denominations) who are elected by the congregation and ordained to serve with the teaching elders, assuming responsibility for nurture and leadership of the congregation. Often, especially in larger congregations, the elders delegate the practicalities of buildings, finance, and temporal ministry to the needy in the congregation to a distinct group of officers (sometimes called deacons, which are ordained in some denominations). This group may variously be known as a 'Deacon Board', 'Board of Deacons' 'Diaconate', or 'Deacons' Court'.


Above the sessions exist presbyteries, which have area responsibilities. These are composed of teaching elders and ruling elders from each of the constituent congregations. The presbytery sends representatives to a broader regional or national assembly, generally known as the General Assembly, although an intermediate level of a synod sometimes exists. This congregation / presbytery / synod / general assembly schema is based on the historical structure of the larger Presbyterian churches, such as the Church of Scotland or the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA); some bodies, such as the Presbyterian Church in America and the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, skip one of the steps between congregation and General Assembly, and usually the step skipped is the Synod. The Church of Scotland has now abolished the Synod. Presbyterian polity is a method of church governance typified by the rule of Assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Presbyterian polity is a method of church governance typified by the rule of Assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Presbyterian polity is a method of church governance typified by the rule of Assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Presbyterian Church in America (PCA) is a Protestant denomination, the second largest Presbyterian church body in the United States after the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). The PCA professes a strong commitment to evangelism, missionary work, and Christian education. ... Modern logo of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (or PCI) has a membership of 300,000 people in 650 congregations across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, though the bulk of the membership is in Northern Ireland. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ...


Presbyterian governance is practised by Presbyterian denominations and also by many other Reformed churches.-1...


Doctrine

Presbyterian Cross

Presbyterianism is historically a confessional tradition, which means that the doctrines taught in the church are compared to a doctrinal standard. However, there has arisen a spectrum of approaches to "confessionalism." The manner of subscription, or the degree to which the official standards establish the actual doctrine of the church, turns out to be a practical matter. That is, the decisions rendered in ordination and in the courts of the church largely determine what the church means, representing the whole, by its adherence to the doctrinal standard. Image File history File links USVA_headstone_emb-04. ... Image File history File links USVA_headstone_emb-04. ...


Some Presbyterian traditions adopt only the Westminster Confession of Faith, as the doctrinal standard to which teaching elders are required to subscribe, in contrast to the Larger and Shorter catechisms, which are approved for use in instruction. Many Presbyterian denominations, especially in North America, have adopted all of the Westminster Standards as their standard of doctrine which is subordinate to the Bible. These documents are Calvinistic in their doctrinal orientation, although some versions of the Confession and the catechisms are more overtly Calvinist than some other, later American revisions. The Presbyterian Church in Canada retains the Westminster Confession of Faith in its original form, while admitting the historical period in which it was written should be understood when it is read. The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ... The Westminster Larger Catechism along with the Westminster Shorter Catechism is the catechism of Presbyterians througout the World. ... The Westminster Shorter Catechism (also known simply as the Shorter Catechism, hereinafter referred to as the WSC) was written in the 1640s by English and Scottish divines. ... The Westminster Standards are Westminster Confession of Faith, the Westminster Shorter Catechism, and the Westminster Larger Catechism, referred to collectively. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ...


The Westminster Confession is 'The principal subordinate standard of the Church of Scotland' (Articles Declaratory of the Constitution of the Church of Scotland II), but 'with due regard to liberty of opinion in points which do not enter into the substance of the Faith' (V). This formulation represents many years of struggle over the extent to which the confession reflects the Word of God and the struggle of conscience of those who came to believe it did not fully do so (e.g., William Robertson Smith). Some Presbyterian Churches, such as the Free Church of Scotland, have no such 'conscience clause'. For more detail, see the article of the Church of Scotland. The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... William Robertson Smith (8 November 1846–31 March 1894) was a Scottish philologist, physicist, archaeologist, and Biblical critic best known for his work on the Encyclopædia Britannica and his book Religion of the Semites, which is considered a foundational text in the comparative study of religion. ... The contemporary Free Church of Scotland is that part of the original Free Church of Scotland that remained outside of the union with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland in 1900. ... François Chifflart (1825-1901), The Conscience (after Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ...


The Presbyterian Church USA has adopted the Book of Confessions, which reflects the inclusion of other Reformed confessions in addition to the Westminster documents. These other documents include ancient creedal statements, (the Nicene Creed, the Apostles' Creed), 16th century Reformed confessions (the Scots Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, the Second Helvetic Confession, all of which were written before Calvinism had developed as a particular strand of Reformed doctrine), and 20th century documents (The Theological Declaration of Barmen and the Confession of 1967). This article needs cleanup. ... The Book of Confessions is the book of doctrinal statements of the Presbyterian Church (USA) and is designated Part 1 of the PCUSA Constitution. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The Scots Confession was written in 1560 by six leaders of the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, coincidentally all named John. The Confession was the first Book of Faith for the Protestant Scottish Kirk. ... The Heidelberg Catechism is a document taking the form of a series of questions and answers, for use in teaching Reformed Christian doctrine. ... Helvetic Confessions, the name of two documents expressing the common belief of the Reformed churches of Switzerland. ... The Barmen declaration or The Theological Declaration of Barmen 1934 is a statement of the Confessing Church, re-affirming the focus of the church on Nazism rather than on Christ. ... The Confession of 1967 is a confessional standard or guide of the Presbyterian Church USA. It was written in 1967 as a modern statement of the faith of the then Northern Presbyterian Church (i. ...


The Presbyterian Church in Canada developed the confessional document Living Faith [1984] and retains it as a subordinate standard of the denomination. It is confessional in format, yet like the Westiminster Confession, draws attention back to the original text of the bible.


Presbyterians in Ireland who rejected Calvinism and the Westminster Confessions formed the Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland. The Non-subscribers derive their name and their liberal and tolerant identity from early eighteenth century Presbyterian ministers refusing to subscribe, or sign, the Westminster Confession, a standard Reformed statement of faith, at their ordination, forming in 1725 their Presbytery of Antrim. ...


Worship

Main article: Presbyterian worship

Presbyterian denominations who trace their heritage to the British Isles usually organise their church services inspired by the principles in the Directory of Public Worship, developed by the Westminster Assembly in the 1640s. This directory documented Reformed worship practices and theology adopted and developed over the preceding century by British Puritans, initially guided by John Calvin and John Knox. It was enacted as law by the Scottish Parliament, and became one of the foundational documents of Presbyterian church legislation elsewhere. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Directory for Public Worship was a Manual of Directions for worship approved by an Ordinance of Parliament in 1644 to replace the Book of Common Prayer (and which was denounced by a counter-proclamation from King Charles I). ... Westminster Assembly The Westminster Assembly of Divines 1643 was appointed by the Long Parliament to restructure the Church of England. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ...


Historically, the driving principle in the development of the standards of Presbyterian worship is the Regulative principle of worship, which specifies that (in worship), what is not commanded is forbidden.[3] The regulative principle of worship is a Christian theological doctrine teaching that the public worship of God should include those and only those elements that are instituted, commanded, or appointed by command or example in the Bible; that God institutes in Scripture everything he requires for worship in the Church...


Presbyterians traditionally have held the Worship position that there are only two sacraments: A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ...

Over succeeding centuries, many Presbyterian churches modified these prescriptions by introducing non-biblical hymns, instrumental accompaniment and ceremonial vestments to worship. This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... Aspersion is the act of sprinkling with water, especially holy water. ... Affusion is a method of Christian baptism where water is poured on the head of the person being baptized. ... Look up immersion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Lords Supper is a variation of the name and the service of The Last Supper or Eucharist. ... Communion has several meanings within Christianity. ... Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Methodists, Lutheran and Anglican Churches. ...


Presbyterian Church architecture

Presbyterians believe that churches are buildings to come to worship God. The decor in some instances may be austere so as not to detract from worship; however, many Presbyterian churches in North America, Scotland and France can be rather ornate in appearance, like St Giles Cathedral in Scotland, Fourth Avenue Presbyterian in Chicago, Madison Avenue Presbyterian in New York City, Shadyside Presbyterian Church in Pittsburgh, and many others. The differing factor from a Presbyterian church and a Roman Catholic church may be the placement of saints and very ornate statues and altars that the Roman church may still retain. In a Presbyterian (Reformed Church) one will not usually find a Crucifix hanging behind the Chancel. However, one may find stained glass windows that depict the crucifixion, behind a chancel. For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... Interior decoration or décor is the art of decorating a room so that it is attractive, easy to use, and functions well with the existing architecture. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Main features

For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia, Kom Ombo, ambulance Ambo (band). ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Baptismal font in Magdeburg Cathedral, Germany A baptismal font is an article of church furniture used for the baptism of children and adults. ... In a modern church an aisle is a row down the middle of the church with a set of pews on each side. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... Lectern in Seattle First Methodist Church. ... A banner is a flag or other piece of cloth bearing a symbol, logo, slogan or other message. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ...

Examples

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Presbyterianism, n." OED Online. Draft revision March 2007. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on February 8, 2008 http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50187752.
  2. ^ A detailed breakdown of Presbyterian and Reformed churches by region and country is available at Reformed Online.
  3. ^ Westminster Confession of Faith, Chapter XXI, paragraph I

OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ...

References

  • Stewart J Brown. The National Churches of England, Ireland, and Scotland, 1801-46 (2001)
  • William Henry Foote. Sketches of North Carolina, Historical and Biographical... (1846) - full-text history of early North Carolina and its Presbyterian churches
  • Andrew Lang. John Knox and the Reformation (1905)
  • William Klempa, ed. The Burning Bush and a Few Acres of Snow: The Presbyterian Contribution to Canadian Life and Culture (1994)
  • Marsden, George M. The Evangelical Mind and the New School Presbyterian Experience (1970)
  • Mark A Noll. Princeton And The Republic, 1768-1822 (2004)
  • Frank Joseph Smith, The History of the Presbyterian Church in America, Reformation Education Foundation, Manassas, VA 1985
  • William Warren Sweet, Religion on the American Frontier, 1783—1840, vol. 2, The Presbyterians (1936), primary sources
  • Ernest Trice Thompson. Presbyterians in the South vol 1: to 1860; Vol 2: 1861-1890; Vol 3: 1890-1972. (1963-1973)
  • Leonard J. Trinterud, The Forming of an American Tradition: A Re-examination of Colonial Presbyterianism (1949)
  • Encyclopedia of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (1884)
  • Articles Declaratory of the Constitution of the Church of Scotland

See also

Confession of Faith: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... -1... Reformation redirects here. ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... Scotland, in common with the rest of the United Kingdom, is traditionally a Christian nation with around 70% claiming to be Christian. ... The World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) is a fellowship of more than 200 churches with roots in the 16th-century Reformation. ... Scots-Irish Americans are descendants of the Scots-Irish immigrants who came to North America in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... Part of Puritans Pit. ...

Controversies: The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ... The Westminster Larger Catechism along with the Westminster Shorter Catechism is the catechism of Presbyterians througout the World. ... The Westminster Shorter Catechism (also known simply as the Shorter Catechism, hereinafter referred to as the WSC) was written in the 1640s by English and Scottish divines. ... The Directory for Public Worship was a Manual of Directions for worship approved by an Ordinance of Parliament in 1644 to replace the Book of Common Prayer (and which was denounced by a counter-proclamation from King Charles I). ... The Scots Confession was written in 1560 by six leaders of the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, coincidentally all named John. The Confession was the first Book of Faith for the Protestant Scottish Kirk. ...

The Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy was a religious controversy within the Presbyterian Church in the USA. It is conventionally dated as beginning with the preaching of Harry Emerson Fosdicks sermon Shall the Fundamentalists Win? in 1922 and ending with J. Gresham Machen and a number of other conservative Presbyterian theologians... The vestments controversy arose in the English Reformation, ostensibly concerning vestments, but more fundamentally concerned with English Protestant identity, doctrine, and various church practices. ...

Churches

List of Christian denominations (or Denominations self-identified as Christian) ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... St. ...

Colleges and seminaries

  • Presbyterian universities and colleges

People

John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Presbyterianism

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... In the United States, the mainline (also sometimes called mainstream) or mainline Protestant denominations are those Protestant denominations with a mix of moderate and liberal theologies. ...

Archives


  Results from FactBites:
 
Presbyterianism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1044 words)
It was formed by the merger (1958) of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, descending from the Philadelphia presbytery of 1706, and the United Presbyterian Church of North America, which had been constituted (1858) by a union of two older churches.
In 1810 the Cumberland Presbyterian Church was established by the secession of revivalist groups in Kentucky; many of its congregations were reunited with the main body in 1906.
The Presbyterian Church in Canada was formed in 1875; some Presbyterians joined with the Methodist and Congregational churches in 1925 to form the United Church of Canada.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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