Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. There are many separate institutional entities that subscribe to Presbyterianism, in different nations around the world. Besides national distinctions, Presbyterians also have divided from one another for doctrinal reasons, especially in the wake of the Enlightenment.
History of Presbyterianism
These denominations derive their name from the Greek word presbyteros, which literally means "elder." Presbyterian church governance is common to the Protestant churches that were most closely modelled after the Reformation in Switzerland. In England, Scotland and Ireland, the Reformed churches that adopted a presbyterian instead of episcopalian government, became known naturally enough, as the Presbyterian Church.
In Scotland, John Knox (1505-1572), who had studied under Calvin in Geneva, returned to Scotland and led the Parliament of Scotland to embrace the Reformation in 1560. The first Presbyterian church, the Church of Scotland, was founded as a result. In England, Presbyterianism was established in secret in 1572, toward the end of the reign of Elizabeth I of England. In 1647, by an act of the Long Parliament under the control of Puritans, Presbyterianism was established for the Church of England. The re-establishment of the monarchy in 1660 brought the re-establishment of episcopalian government in England (and in Scotland for a short time); but the Presbyterian church continued in non-conformity, outside of the established church. In Ireland, Presbyterianism was established by Scottish immigrants and missionaries to Ulster. The Presbytery of Ulster was formed separately from the established church, in 1642. Presbyterians, as well as Catholics in Ulster and the rest of Ireland suffered under the discriminatory Penal Laws until they were revoked in the early 19th century. All three, very diverse branches of Presbyterianism, as well as independents, and some Dutch, German, and French Reformed denominations, combined in America to form what would eventually become the Presbyterian Church USA (1705). The Presbyterian church in England and Wales is the United Reformed Church, whilst the tradition also influenced the Methodist church, established in 1736.
Because of an emphasis on equal education for all people, Presbyterians have 'planted' and encouraged schools across the US as the country grew and the missionaries were sent out to the people.
Characteristics of Presbyterians
Main article: Presbyterian church governance
Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by both doctrine and institutional organization, or as they prefer to call it 'church order'. The origins of the Presbyterian churches were in Calvinism, which is no longer taught by some of the contemporary branches. Many of the branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups. These splits have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which historically serves as the main constitutional document of Presbyterian churches. Those groups that adhere to the document most strictly are typified by baptism of the infant children of members, the exclusive use of Psalms (modified for metrical singing), singing unaccompanied by instruments, a common communion cup, only men are eligible for ordination to any church office, and a fully Calvinist doctrine of salvation. Because of this diversity of belief, more conservative Presbyterians are likely to attend the smaller denominations that have chosen to split from a larger body. While these conservative Presbyterians are not in the majority, their numbers are significant.
Presbyterian church order is based on two congregationally elected bodies, the Elders and the Deacons. Elders are typically in charge of relations with the larger denomination, doctrine, membership in the particular congregation, and relations between the pastor and the congregation. Ministers are called by individual churches and in a three-way agreement. A call is issued for the clergy to serve a particular congregation in conjunction with the Presbytery or higher governing body. The people that formerly handled the financial affairs of the church were the Trustees. The Trustees no longer exist in most Presbyterian churches because their jobs are being handled by the session, made up of Elders. Each congregation elects representatives to a local assembly, often called a presbytery. A presbytery elects representatives to a broader regional synod, and the synods elect representatives to the General Assembly. This congregation / presbytery / synod / general assembly schema is based on the larger Presbyterian churches, like the Church of Scotland; some of the smaller bodies, like the Presbyterian Church in America skip one of the steps between congregation and General Assembly, and usually the step skipped is the Synod.
Presbyterians place great importance upon education and continuous study of the scriptures, theological writings, and understanding and interpretation of church doctrine embodied in several statements of faith and catechisms formally adopted by various branches of the church. References to the adoption of Calvin's theology of predestination and the typical member's predisposition to conduct themselves "decently and in order" have earned them the moniker of the "frozen chosen". However, most Presbyterians generally exhibit their faith in action more than words, including generosity, hospitality, and the constant pursuit of social justice and reform.
Varieties of Presbyterians in North America
Even before the Presbyterians left Scotland there were divisions in the larger Presbyterian family. In North America, because of past doctrinal differences, Presbyterian churches often overlap, with congregations of many different Presbyterian groups in any one city. The largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States is the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA). Other Presbyterian bodies in the United States include the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC), the Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC (http://www.epc.org)), the Reformed Presbyterian Church, the Bible Presbyterian Church (BPC), the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP Synod), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States (RPCUS). In Canada, the largest Presbyterian Church is the Presbyterian Church in Canada, seventy percent of which merged with the Methodist Church, Canada, and the Congregational Union of Canada to form the United Church of Canada.
Famous American Presbyterians
- Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State (2005- )
- Fred Rogers, also known as the famous Mister Rogers, was an ordained Presbyterian Minister up until his death.
- Woodrow Wilson, 28th President
- William Jennings Bryan of the famous Scopes "Monkey Trial" in Tennessee 1925
- Norman Thomas runs for President as the Socialist Party candidate in 1928
- Dwight D. Eisenhower, 34th President
- John Glenn, Astronaut, Senator
- Ronald Reagan, President
- Andrew Jackson, 7th U.S. President
- James Knox Polk, 11th U.S. President (converted from Presbyterianism to Methodism)
- James Buchanan, 15th U.S. President
- Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th U.S. President
- Benjamin Harrison, 23rd U.S. President
- John Witherspoon, only clergyman to sign the Declaration of Independence
- Aaron Burr, U.S. Vice-President under Jefferson
- Daniel D. Tompkins, U.S. Vice-President under Monroe
- John C. Calhoun, U.S. Vice-President under Adams and Jackson
- John C. Breckinridge, U.S. Vice-President under Buchanan
- William A. Wheeler, U.S. Vice-President under Hayes
- Henry A. Wallace, U.S. Vice-President under F.D. Roosevelt
- John Foster Dulles, U.S. Secretary of State in the 1950s
- Christine Todd Whitman, former governor of New Jersey
- Dick Armey, U.S. Representative; conservative Republican from Texas
- Rev. Aaron Burr, co-founder of Princeton University
- Jimmy Stewart, actor
- Brian DePalma, film director; raised as a Presbyterian
- Mark Twain, American author
- Frederick Buechner, author of fantasy novels and non-fiction religious books
- Katherine Harris, Florida Secretary of State during the 2000 election crisis and current congresswoman (R)
- You can rearrange the letters of PRESBYTERIAN to spell out the phrase BEST IN PRAYER.