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Encyclopedia > Prehistory
Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. 4500-4000 years ago. Archaeology is often an important field when it comes to understanding prehistory.

Prehistory (Latin, præ = before Greek, ιστορία = history) is a term often used to describe the period before written history. Paul Tournal originally coined the term Pré-historique in describing the finds he had made in the caves of southern France. It came into use in French in the 1830s to describe the time before writing, and was introduced into English by Daniel Wilson in 1851. Image File history File linksMetadata Stonehenge. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Stonehenge. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... Ancient history is from the period of time when writing and historical records first appear, roughly 5,500 years before the Common Era. ... This region consists of the southern part of France. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Information By Sci kicks Amazingâ„¢ There are also several other people known by the name Dan Wilson For another Daniel Wilson, see Daniel Wilson, Bishop of Calcutta Sir Daniel Wilson Sir Daniel Wilson (5 January 1816 – 6 August 1892) was a British-born Canadian archaeologist, ethnologist and author. ...


Prehistory can be said to date back to the beginning of the universe itself, although the term is most often used to describe periods when there was life on Earth; dinosaurs can be described as prehistoric animals and cavemen are described as prehistoric people. Usually the context implies what geologic or prehistoric time period is discussed, f.e. "prehistoric miocene apes", about 23 - 5,5 My ago, or "Middle Palaeolithic Homo sapiens", 200000 - 30000 years ago. For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This article is about life in general. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... For other uses, see Caveman (disambiguation). ... The table and timeline of geologic periods presented here is in accordance with the dates and nomenclature proposed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. ... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age It was introduced by the Dane Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1820s in order to classify... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... In Europe and Africa the Middle Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is the period of the middle Paleolithic (early Stone Age) that lasted between around 120,000 and 40,000 years ago. ...


Because, by definition, there are no written records from prehistoric times, (or at least there are none known to still exist down to this day) the information we know about the time period is informed by the fields of paleontology, biology, palynology, geology, archaeoastronomy, anthropology, archaeology and other natural and social sciences. In societies where the introduction of writing is relatively recent, oral histories, knowledge of the past handed down from generation to generation, contain records of "prehistoric" times. Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The sun rising over Stonehenge at the 2005 Summer Solstice. ... This article is about the social science. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... // Oral history is a method of historical documentation, using interviews with living survivors of the time being investigated. ...


The term became less strictly defined in the 20th century as the boundary between history (interpretation of written and oral records) and other disciplines became less rigid. Indeed today most historians rely on evidence from many areas and do not necessarily restrict themselves to the historical period and written, oral or other symbolically encoded sources of communication; in addition, the term "history" is increasingly used in place of "prehistory" (e.g. History of Earth, history of the universe). Nevertheless, the distinction remains important to many scholars, particularly in the social sciences. The primary researchers into Human prehistory are prehistoric archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation, geographic survey, and scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples. This is a list of historians. ... Geological time put in a diagram called a geological clock, showing the relative lengths of the eons of the Earths history. ... A graphical timeline is available here: Graphical timeline of the Big Bang This timeline of the Big Bang describes the events that have occurred and will occur according to the scientific theory of the Big Bang, using the cosmological time parameter of comoving coordinates. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... See Anthropology. ...


Human prehistory differs from history not only in terms of chronology but in the way it deals with the activities of archaeological cultures rather than named nations or individuals. Restricted to material remains rather than written records (and indeed only those remains that have survived), prehistory is anonymous. Because of this, the reference terms used by prehistorians such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern, arbitrary labels, the precise definition of which is often subject to discussion and argument. For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


The date marking the end of prehistory, that is the date when written historical records become a useful academic resource, varies from region to region. In Egypt it is generally accepted that prehistory ended around 3200 BCE whereas in New Guinea the end of the prehistoric era is set much more recently, 1900. This is a list of languages by first written accounts which consists of the approximate dates for the first written accounts that are known for various languages. ...

Contents

Stone Age

Paleolithic

Main articles: Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, and Early human migrations
Map of early human migrations, according to mitochondrial population genetics. Numbers are millennia before the present (accuracy disputed).

"Paleolithic" means "Old Stone Age." This was the earliest period of the Stone Age. The Lower Paleolithic predates Homo sapiens, beginning with Homo habilis and the earliest use of stone tools some 2.5 million years ago. Homo sapiens originated some 200,000 years ago, ushering in the Middle Paleolithic. // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Image File history File links Map of human races migration, according to the mithocondrial dna. ... Image File history File links Map of human races migration, according to the mithocondrial dna. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. ... Binomial name Leakey et al, 1964 Homo habilis (pronounced ) (handy man, skillful person) is a species of the genus Homo, which lived from approximately 2. ... The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ...


Sometime during the Middle Paleolithic, humans also developed language, music, early art, as well as systematic burial of the dead. In the history of music, prehistoric music (previously called primitive music) is all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ... In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ...


Humans spread from East Africa to the Near East some 80 millennia ago, and further to southern Asia and Australasia some 60 millennia ago, northwestwards into Europe and eastwards into Central Asia some 40 millennia ago, and further east to the Americas from ca. 15 millennia ago. The Upper Paleolithic is taken to begin some 40 millennia ago, with the appearance of "high" culture. Expansion to North America and Oceania took place at the climax of the most recent Ice Age, when today's temperate regions were extremely inhospitable. By the end of the Ice Age some 12,000 BP, humans had colonised nearly all the ice-free parts of the globe. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ...


Throughout the Paleolithic, humans generally lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers. Hunter-gatherer societies have tended to be very small and egalitarian, though hunter-gatherer societies with abundant resources or advanced food-storage techniques have sometimes developed a sedentary lifestyle, complex social structures such as chiefdoms, and social stratification; and long-distance contacts may be possible, as in the case of Indigenous Australian "highways." For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... Australian Aborigines are the indigenous peoples of Australia. ...


Mesolithic

Main article: Mesolithic

The "Mesolithic," or "Middle Stone Age" (from the Greek "mesos," "middle," and "lithos," "stone") was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A dugout is a boat which is basically a hollowed tree trunk. ... This article is about modern humans. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ...


The Mesolithic period began at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, some 10,000 BP, and ended with the introduction of agriculture, the date of which varied by geographic region. In some areas, such as the Near East, agriculture was already underway by the end of the Pleistocene, and there the Mesolithic is short and poorly defined. In areas with limited glacial impact, the term "Epipaleolithic" is sometimes preferred. The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ...


Regions that experienced greater environmental effects as the last ice age ended have a much more evident Mesolithic era, lasting millennia. In Northern Europe, societies were able to live well on rich food supplies from the marshlands fostered by the warmer climate. Such conditions produced distinctive human behaviours which are preserved in the material record, such as the Maglemosian and Azilian cultures. These conditions also delayed the coming of the Neolithic until as late as 4000 BCE (6,000 BP) in northern Europe. This article or section should be merged with Wisconsinan glaciation The Wisconsin (in North America), Weichsel (in Scandinavia), Devensian (in the British Isles) or Würm glaciation (in the Alps) is the most recent period of the Ice Age, and ended some 10,000 Before Present (BP). ... Maglemosian is the name given to a culture of the early Mesolithic period in Northern Europe. ... The Azilian is a name given by archaeologists to an industry of the terminal Palaeolithic and early Mesolithic in northern Spain and south western France. ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ...


Remains from this period are few and far between, often limited to middens. In forested areas, the first signs of deforestation have been found, although this would only begin in earnest during the Neolithic, when more space was needed for agriculture. A midden, also known as kitchen middens, is a dump for domestic waste. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


The Mesolithic is characterized in most areas by small composite flint tools — microliths and microburins. Fishing tackle, stone adzes and wooden objects, e.g. canoes and bows, have been found at some sites. These technologies first occur in Africa, associated with the Azilian cultures, before spreading to Europe through the Ibero-Maurusian culture of Spain and Portugal, and the Kebaran culture of Palestine. Independent discovery is not always ruled out. This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... A microlith is a small stone tool, typically knapped of flint or chert, usually about three centimetres long or less. ... A microburin is the residual product of the creation of a microlith during flint tool manufacture in the European Mesolithic. ... Fishing tackle refers to the equipment and gear used when engaing in the pursuit of fish for sport and commercial value. ... Adze The tool known as the adze [pronounced adds] serves for smoothing rough-cut wood in hand woodworking. ... This article is about the boat. ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Azilian is a name given by archaeologists to an industry of the terminal Palaeolithic and early Mesolithic in northern Spain and south western France. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Kebarans were the first anatomically modern humans to live in the eastern Mediterranean area (c. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


Neolithic

Main article: Neolithic Period

"Neolithic" means "New Stone Age." This was a period of primitive technological and social development, toward the end of the "Stone Age." Beginning in the 10th millennium BCE (12,000 BP), the Neolithic period saw the development of early villages, agriculture, animal domestication and tools. The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... Technology (Gr. ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... This article is about the instrument. ...

Ox-drawn plow, Egypt, ca. 1200 BCE.

A major change, described by prehistorian Vere Gordon Childe as the "Agricultural Revolution," occurred about the 10th millennium BCE with the adoption of agriculture. The Sumerians first began farming ca. 9500 BCE. By 7000 BCE, agriculture had spread to India; by 6000 BCE, to Egypt; by 5000 BCE, to China. About 2700 BCE, agriculture had come to Mesoamerica. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1337, 268 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Controversy over racial characteristics of Ancient Egyptians ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1337, 268 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Controversy over racial characteristics of Ancient Egyptians ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ... Vere Gordon Childe (April 14, 1892, Sydney, New South Wales–October 19, 1957, Mt. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... This article is about the culture area. ...


Although attention has tended to concentrate on the Middle East's Fertile Crescent, archaeology in the Americas, East Asia and Southeast Asia indicates that agricultural systems, using different crops and animals, may in some cases have developed there nearly as early. the development of organised irrigation, and the use of a specialised workforce, by the Sumerians, began about 5500 BCE. Stone was supplanted by bronze and iron in implements of agriculture and warfare. Agricultural settlements had until then been almost completely dependent on stone tools. In Eurasia, copper and bronze tools, decorations and weapons began to be commonplace about 3000 BCE. After bronze, the Eastern Mediterranean region, Middle East and China saw the introduction of iron tools and weapons. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ...

The technological and social state of the world, circa 1000 BCE.

The Americas may not have had metal tools until the Chavín horizon (900 BCE). The Moche did have metal armor, knives and tableware. Even the metal-poor Inca had metal-tipped plows, at least after the conquest of Chimor. However, little archaeological research has so far been done in Peru, and nearly all the khipus (recording devices, in the form of knots, used by the Incas) were burned in the Spanish conquest of Peru. As late as 2004, entire cities were still being unearthed. Some digs suggest that steel may have been produced there before it was developed in Europe. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4500x2234, 463 KB) // The world, c. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4500x2234, 463 KB) // The world, c. ... The Chavín were an early civilization that existed in present-day Peru. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures Chimu Piece - Imperial Epoch, 1300 A.D. to 1532 A.D.Larco Museum Collection Chimor (also Kingdom of Chimor) was the political grouping of the Chimú culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru, beginning around 850 AD and ending around 1470 AD. Chimor was the... Khipu, or quipa, or quipu were recording devices used during the Inca Empire and its predecessor societies in the Andean region. ... There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


The cradles of early civilizations were river valleys, such as the Euphrates and Tigris valleys in Mesopotamia, the Nile valley in Egypt, the Indus valley in the Indian subcontinent, and the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys in China. Some nomadic peoples, such as the Indigenous Australians and the Bushmen of southern Africa, did not practice agriculture until relatively recent times. Central New York City. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: 长江; Traditional Chinese: 長江; pinyin: Cháng Jiāng; Wade-Giles: Chang Chiang... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... |group = Bushmen |image = |poptime = 82,000 |popplace = Botswana (55,000), Namibia (27,000) |rels = San Religion |langs = various Khoisan languages |related = Khoikhoi, Xhosa, Zulu, Griqua }} The Bushmen, San, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of the Kalahari Desert, which spans areas of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. ...


Before 1800, many populations did not belong to states. Scientists disagree as to whether the term "tribe" should be applied to the kinds of societies that these people lived in. Many tribal societies, in Europe and elsewhere, transformed into states when they were threatened, or otherwise impinged on, by existing states. Examples are the Marcomanni, Poland and Lithuania. Some "tribes," such as the Kassites and the Manchus, conquered states and were absorbed by them. For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... http://www. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ...


Agriculture made possible complex societies — civilizations. States and markets emerged. Technologies enhanced people's ability to control nature and to develop transport and communication. For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... This article is about the physical universe. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ...


Bronze Age

Main article: Bronze Age

The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) included techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally-occurring outcroppings of copper ores, and then smelting those ores to cast bronze. These naturally-occurring ores typically included arsenic as a common impurity. Copper/tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before 3,000 BC. The Bronze Age forms part of the three-age system for prehistoric societies. In this system, it follows the Neolithic in some areas of the world. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


The Bronze Age is the earliest period of which we have direct written accounts, since the invention of writing co-incides with its early beginnings. Write redirects here. ...


Iron Age

Main articles: Iron Age and Classical Antiquity

In archaeology, the Iron Age was the stage in the development ferrous metallurgy. The adoption of iron coincided with other changes in some past societies often including differing agricultural practices, religious beliefs and artistic styles, which makes the archaeological Iron Age coincide with the "Axial Age" in the history of philosophy. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... According to the Axial Age theory, the philosophy behind the worlds major religions sprang from a six-hundred year span of time in the first millennium BCE. German philosopher Karl Jaspers coined the term the Axial Age (Achsenzeit in the German language original) to describe the period from 800...


Timeline of Human Prehistory

All dates are approximate and conjectural, obtained through Anthropology, Archaeology, Genetics, Geology, or Linguistics. They are all subject to revision due to new discoveries or improved calculations. BP stands for "Before Present." This article is about the social science. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ...

Paleolithic
Mesolithic
  • c. 32,0000 BP - Aurignacian culture begins in Europe.
  • c. 30,000 BP / 28,000 BCE - A herd of Reindeer is slaughtered and butchered by humans in the Vezere Valley in what today is France. [3]
  • c. 28,500 BCE - New Guinea is populated by colonists from Asia or Australia. [4]
  • c. 28,000 BP - 20,000 BP - Graveltian period in Europe. Harpoons, needles and saws invented.
  • c. 26,000 BP / c. 24,000 BCE - Women around the world use fibers to make baby-carriers, clothes, bags, baskets and nets.
  • c. 25,000 BP / 23,000 BCE - A hamlet consisting of huts built of rocks and of mammoth bones is founded in what is now Dolni Vestonice in Moravia in the Czech Republic. This is the oldest human permanent settlement that has yet been found by archaeologists. [5]
  • c. 20,000 BP or 18,000 BCE - Chatelperronian Culture in France. [6]
  • c. 16,000 BP / 14,000 BCE - Wisent sculpted in clay deep inside the cave now known as Le Tuc d'Audoubert in the French Pyrinees near what is now the border of Spain. [7]
Neolithic
  • c. 8000 BCE - In northern Mesopotamia, now northern Iraq, cultivation of barley and wheat begins. At first they are used for beer, gruel, and soup, eventually for bread. [8]. Around this time, a round stone tower, about 30 feet high and 30 feet in diameter (100 meters high by 100 meters in diameter) is built in Jericho. [9]
Chalcolithic
  • c. 3700 BCE - Cuneiform writing appears and records begin to be kept. Prehistory ends, History begins.
Bronze Age
Iron Age

// The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools (or industry) associated primarily with Homo neanderthalensis and dating to the Middle Paleolithic, the middle part of the Old Stone Age. ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Eruption column rising, Mount Redoubt, Alaska According to the Toba catastrophe theory, modern human evolution was affected by a recent, large volcanic event. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... Caribou redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the genus Mammuthus. ... . Dolní Věstonice is small village in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... Ch telperronian was the earliest industry of the Upper Palaeolithic in central and south western France. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) A wisent (Å»ubr) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (pronounced ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... (9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – other millennia) Events The south area of Çatalhöyük. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Gruel is a type of preparation consisting of some type of cereal boiled in water or milk. ... For other uses, see Soup (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...

See also

The sun rising over Stonehenge at the 2005 Summer Solstice. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... This article is about the social science. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... Paleoanthropology, which combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology, is the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominid evidence such as petrifacted bones and footprints. ... The term Archaic Homo sapiens refers generally to the earliest members of the species Homo sapiens, which consisted of the Neanderthals of Europe and the Middle East, the Neanderthal-like hominids of Africa and Asia, and the immediate ancestors of all these hominids. ... In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ... Prehistoric life is a term used to refer to diverse organisms that inhabited Earth from the origin of life about 3. ... In the history of music, prehistoric music (previously called primitive music) is all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... The table gives a rough picture of the relationships between the various principal cultures of Prehistory outside the Americas, Antarctica, Australia and Oceania. ... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... Three temperature records, the GRIP one clearly showing the Younger Dryas event at around 11 kyr BP The Younger Dryas stadial, named after the alpine / tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, and also referred to as the Big Freeze [1], was a brief (approximately 1300 ± 70 years [1]) cold climate period following...

Notes

  1. ^ Shea, J. J. 2003. Neanderthals, competition and the origin of modern human behaviour in the Levant. Evolutionary Anthropology 12: 173-187.
  2. ^ "Mount Toba Eruption - Ancient Humans Unscathed, Study Claims". Retrieved on 2008-04-20. 
  3. ^ Gene S. Stuart, "Ice Age Hunters: Artists in Hidden Cages." In Mysteries of the Ancient World, a publication of the National Geographic Society, 1979. Pages 11-18.
  4. ^ James Trager, The People's Chronology, 1994, ISBN 0805031340
  5. ^ Gene Stuart, Ibid., page 19.
  6. ^ Encyclopedia Americana, 2003 edition, volume 6, page 334.
  7. ^ Gene S. Stuart, Ibid., pp 8-10.
  8. ^ Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology of the World, 1991. ISBN 0062700367
  9. ^ "Roots of the City: Jericho and Catal Huyuk," by Luis de la Haba, page 37 of Mysteries of the Ancient World, a National Geographic Publication, 1979.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Prehistory - Academic Kids (633 words)
Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history including all previous history before humans which is prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history).
Although people disagree as to when prehistory began, it is commonly cited as having begun about 100,000 to 200,000 years ago with the appearance of the first modern Homo sapiens.
In Egypt it is generally accepted that prehistory ended around 3500 BC whereas in New Guinea the end of the prehistoric era is set much more recently, AD 1900.
prehistory: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (760 words)
The study of prehistory is concerned with the activities of a society or culture, not of the individual, and is limited to the material evidence that has survived.
Prehistory can be said to date back to the beginning of the universe itself, although the term is most often used to describe periods when there was life on Earth; dinosaurs can be described as prehistoric animals and cavemen are described as prehistoric people.
Nevertheless, the primary scholars of Human prehistory are prehistoric archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation, geographic survey, and scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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